BBC Learning English 英语教学

随身英语

 

Is the UK abandoning its cities? 英国人 “逃离” 大城市的原因

 

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如今,世界各地的大城市数不胜数。这个繁忙而密集的人口中心象征人类几千年来的文明。其实,城市的数量不仅仅与日俱增,人口数量也不断增加,“巨型城市” 不断涌现。在这一背景下,伦敦市内的总人口每年呈递减的趋势。这是为什么?哪些人正在离开城市,而哪些人仍然被它的机会和活力所吸引?本集节目讨论英国人离开大城市背后的原因。

Vocabulary: cities and population 词汇: 城市和人口

We owe a lot to cities. These densely populated hubs of transit, industry and commerce brought together great swathes of the population. More than just living together for safety, cities allowed people to cooperate more easily and, as a result, develop more complex societies, science, and culture – things we continue to benefit from today. In 2016 the UN revealed that over 50% of the world's population live in urban settlements. Of these cities, 31 are classified as megacities. A megacity is one where its inhabitants number more than 10 million. And globally this trend is expected to increase.

London is no exception. Unsurprisingly, as England's capital city, London has a population of over 10 million – up by 1.1 million since 2008, according to one BBC article. This is a result of a higher birth rate than mortality rate, and an increase in international immigration. However, despite these rises, half a million more people have migrated away from this metropolis than have flocked to it. Why might this be?

It's the result of age. Where members of all other age groups tend to depart more than they arrive, young people between the ages of 20 and 30 are drawn to the range and number of jobs that the city offers and the education opportunities that can be found there. This explains why London has one of the youngest average populations in the UK, just 37, according to the BBC.

And the rest of the country? From 2002 to 2015 municipalities such as Liverpool, Birmingham and Manchester saw a population growth of 181%, 163% and 149% respectively, according to figures from the Office for National Statistics. Young professionals looking for high-paying jobs are attracted to the opportunities provided by growth in sectors such as finance and law. This in turn causes the development of city amenities such as gyms, restaurants and bars, making it an even more attractive place to live.

So are people in the UK leaving cities? It depends on where you look. What does seem clear is that people's views on the advantages of urban living may change as they get older. Where once was opportunity, now there may be hassle. Has your relationship with a city changed over time?

词汇表

densely populated 人口密集的
hub 中心
transit 运输
commerce 商务、商业
swathe 大片、大量的
society 社会
culture 文化
urban settlement 城市定居点
megacity (人口超过一千万的)巨型城市
inhabitant 居民
capital 首都
population 人口
birth rate 出生率
mortality rate 死亡率
immigration 移民
migrate (大批)移居,迁移
metropolis 大都市
flock 蜂拥而至
municipality 市政当局

测验与练习

1. 阅读课文并回答问题。

1. Why have cities been useful to human development?

2. True or false? Worldwide, more people live in cities than out of them.

3. Why are young adults attracted to London?

4. How many more people have moved away from London than moved to it?

5. Which word in the text means 'places that make living in towns or cities more comfortable or pleasant'?

2. 请在不参考课文的情况下完成下列练习。选择一个意思合适的单词填入句子的空格处。

1. As the situation stands, a great ______ of the population has been caught in the epidemic.

population             swathe            immigration        capital

2. Modern medicine has helped to lower the ______ to never before seen levels.

birth rate               mortality rate   capital                culture

3. The 50% off sale saw people ______ to the designer outlet store.

flock                      immigrate        emigrate            commute

4. The eastern district of the city is a ______ for culture, art and music.

hub                        capital             swathe              society

5. As resources became scarce, people and animals would ______ to other areas.

immigrant              emigrant          migrate              migrant

答案

1. 阅读课文并回答问题。

1. Why have cities been useful to human development?
Cities have allowed people to cooperate more easily and, as a result, develop more complex societies, science, and culture.

2. True or false? Worldwide, more people live in cities than out of them.
True. In 2016 the UN revealed that over 50% of the world's population live in urban settlements.

3. Why are young adults attracted to London?
Young people between the ages of 20 and 30 are drawn to the range and number of jobs that the city offers and the education opportunities that can be found there.

4. How many more people have moved away from London than moved to it?
Half a million more people have migrated away from London than have moved to it.

5. Which word in the text means 'place that makes living in towns or cities more comfortable or pleasant'?
Amenity. (This in turn causes the development of city amenities such as gyms, restaurants and bars, making it an even more attractive a place to live.)

2. 请在不参考课文的情况下完成下列练习。选择一个意思合适的单词填入句子的空格处。

1. As the situation stands, a great swathe of the population has been caught in the epidemic.

2. Modern medicine has helped to lower the mortality rate to never before seen levels.

3. The low cost sale saw people flock to the designer outlet store.

4. The eastern district of the city is a hub for culture, art and music.

5. As resources became scarce, people and animals would migrate to other areas.

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