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不堪重负  “过度旅游”使热门城市面临危机 Overtourism: 20 cities that could be the next to suffer

中国日报网 2019-06-28 13:47

旅游业可以促进经济发展,但过度发展却会加重生态和社会负担。当前,世界各地的主要旅游城市都或多或少地面临被游客包围的窘境,甚至引发了当地政府和居民对游客的排斥。最近发布的一份报告对旅游城市作出分类,来看看哪些城市正面临着这种危机。

 

Bondi Beach, Sydney, Australia. [Photo/IC]

Amsterdam, Venice, Barcelona, Paris – the poster children for overtourism are well-known. Now, 20 more cities are on alert lest they turn into the future face of the problem, according to a new report from the World Travel & Tourism Council and commercial real estate firm JLL.

阿姆斯特丹、威尼斯、巴塞罗那、巴黎——这些城市都是众所周知的过度旅游城市典型。如今,世界旅游及旅行理事会和商业地产公司仲量联行的一份新报告称,还有20多个城市需要提高警惕,否则将在今后面临同样的问题。

The report, called “Destination 2030”, examines the tourism “readiness” of 50 destinations around the world and groups cities into five types. The “emerging performers” category includes destinations where infrastructure and tourism momentum are growing along with the pressures associated with more tourists. Those cities were Bangkok, Cape Town, Ho Chi Minh City, Istanbul, Jakarta, Mexico City and New Delhi.

这份名为《2030年旅游目的地》的报告考察了全球50个旅游目的地的“接待能力”,并将这些城市分为五种类型。“新兴成员”类型指的是基础设施和旅游势头在发展,同时伴随游客压力的城市,包括曼谷、开普敦、胡志明市、伊斯坦布尔、雅加达、墨西哥城和新德里。

Another 13 cities – called “mature performers” – were described as having an established tourism infrastructure, strong leisure or business travel, and good positioning to manage current growth levels.

另外13个被称为“成熟成员”的城市拥有完善的旅游基础设施、表现强劲的休闲或商务旅游业,以及控制当前增长水平的良好定位。

“But there is a risk of future strains related to visit volume, infrastructure or activity that is testing readiness for additional growth,” the report says.

报告称:“但这些城市未来可能会出现游客量、基础设施或活动等方面的压力,检验当地旅游业在业务增长情况下的接待能力。”

It lists Auckland, Berlin, Dublin, Las Vegas, Lisbon, London, Los Angeles, Madrid, Miami, New York, Seoul, Seville, and Sydney in this category.

报告将奥克兰、柏林、都柏林、拉斯维加斯、里斯本、伦敦、洛杉矶、马德里、迈阿密、纽约、首尔、塞维利亚和悉尼归入“成熟成员”类别。

 

People take part in 2018 Tenby Boxing Day Swim in Wales, UK. [Photo/IC]

“Over the past few years … several destinations, and cities in particular, have been criticized in the media for the under-management of travel and tourism and the stresses that visitor numbers have put on urban systems and residents,” the report says.

报告指出:“过去几年来……一些旅游目的地,特别是某些城市,因对旅游业管理不善,以及游客过多给城市系统和居民带来压力而受到媒体批评。”

Some of the names most synonymous with crowds fell into the “managing momentum” type: Amsterdam, Barcelona, Paris, Prague, Rome, San Francisco, Stockholm, Toronto and Vancouver.

那些一提到名字就让人马上想到熙熙攘攘人群的城市被归为“管理增长点”类型,包括阿姆斯特丹、巴塞罗那、巴黎、布拉格、罗马、旧金山、斯德哥尔摩、多伦多和温哥华。

synonymous [sɪ'nɒnɪməs]:adj.同义的;同义词的

 

Those are described as having established tourism infrastructure and urban readiness but heavy leisure travel volume “with potential to cause strain on the city”.

报告称,这些城市已经拥有成熟的旅游基础设施和游客接待能力,但大量的休闲游客“有可能给城市带来压力”。

“Those cities are the ones that are going to start focusing less on attracting a whole lot of new visitors,” says Lauro Ferroni, LL’s global head of hotels and hospitality research.

仲量联行的全球酒店及好客度研究主管劳罗-菲洛尼说:“这些城市不会再费力吸引大量新游客。”

Instead, they have to shift their focus to dispersing crowds throughout their city and encouraging visitors to come at off-peak times.

相反,它们应该将精力投入到分散人群,并鼓励游客在淡季来访。

off-peak ['ɔfpik]:adj.非高峰期的

 

Emperor Qinshihuang's Mausoleum Site Museum attracts crowds of tourists. [Photo/cnwest.com]

Cities listed in two other categories were experiencing somewhat less pressure. “Dawning developers”, with an emerging tourism infrastructure, were experiencing gradual tourism growth and lower visitor concentration. Those cities – Bogota, Buenos Aires, Cairo, Chengdu, Kuala Lumpur, Lima, Manila, Moscow, Mumbai, Rio de Janeiro and Riyadh – still have potential to grow, according to the report.

其他两类城市面临的压力没有那么大。旅游基础设施正在建设中的“朝阳开发者”类型城市旅游业逐渐增长,游客集中度较低。报告称,这些城市包括波哥大、布宜诺斯艾利斯、开罗、成都、吉隆坡、利马、马尼拉、莫斯科、孟买、里约热内卢和利雅德,仍有增长潜力。

The “dawning” and “emerging” cities generally have a less advanced approach to tourism policy, without official positions on regulating home-sharing or specific mentions of tourism in economic plans.

“朝阳开发者”和“新兴成员”类型的城市旅游政策通常不那么先进,没有在管理共享民宿问题上的官方立场,也没有在经济计划中具体提到旅游业。

“Those are areas we would encourage them to focus on as they become increasingly popular,” Ferroni says.

菲洛尼说:“随着这些城市越来越受欢迎,需要鼓励其关注旅游业。”

 

Benidorm, a popular seaside resort and symbol for mass tourism on the Eastern coast of Spain. [Photo/IC]

The “balanced dynamics” category includes cities with an established infrastructure for visitors, a larger-than-average share of business travelers and room to grow comfortably. They are Beijing, Chicago, Dubai, Hong Kong, Munich, Osaka, Shanghai, Singapore, Tokyo and Washington.

“均衡发展”类别的城市拥有成熟的旅游基础设施、商务旅行者比例高于平均水平、也有充裕的增长空间。这些城市包括北京、芝加哥、迪拜、香港、慕尼黑、大阪、上海、新加坡市、东京和华盛顿。

The World Tourism Organisation, an agency of the United Nations, said that last year, there were 1.4 billion international tourist arrivals around the world. That total represented a 6 percent increase over the previous year, and arrivals were expected to grow another 3 percent to 4 percent this year.

联合国下属机构世界旅游组织称,2018年全球国际游客多达14亿人次,比2017年增加了6%,预计2019年国际游客人次将再增长3%至4%。

Last year, a European Union report identified 105 destinations in some state of overtourism. And Responsible Travel, a UK-based travel company, put together an overtourism map that includes 98 destinations across 63 countries.

去年,欧盟的一份报告指出,有105个旅游目的地处于某种过度旅游状态。总部位于英国的旅游公司责任旅游整理了一份过度旅游地图,包括63个国家的98个目的地。

Justin Francis, CEO and co-founder of Responsible Travel, says overtourism has only recently become an issue as travel numbers continue to rise.

该公司创始人之一、首席执行官贾斯汀-弗朗西斯说,由于游客人数持续增加,过度旅游最近才成为一个问题。

“Very few destinations even have tourism planning, let alone have figured out how to solve the problem,” he says. “I think it’s a crisis.”

他说:“很少有旅游目的地有旅游规划,更不用说找到解决问题的办法了。我认为这是一场危机。”

let alone:更不必说,听任

 

英文来源:华盛顿邮报

翻译&编辑:yaning

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