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新中国人权事业发展70年白皮书(双语全文)

新华网 2019-09-24 16:07

国务院新闻办公室9月22日发表《为人民谋幸福:新中国人权事业发展70年》白皮书。全文如下:

 

为人民谋幸福:新中国人权事业发展70年
Seeking Happiness for People: 70 Years of Progress on Human Rights in China


(2019年9月)
中华人民共和国
国务院新闻办公室

The State Council Information Office of
the People’s Republic of China
September 2019

 

 

目录
Contents

前言
Preamble

一、辉煌壮丽的人权发展历程
I. A Splendid History of China’s Human Rights Protection


二、以人民为中心的人权理念
II. People-centered Approach in Human Rights Protection


三、持续提升人民生活水平
III. Continuing to Improve People’s Living Standards


四、切实保障人民各项权利
IV. Effectively Ensuring That People Enjoy Their Rights


五、重视保障特定群体权利
V. Protecting the Rights of Special Groups


六、不断加强人权法治保障
VI. Strengthening the Rule of Law for Human Rights


七、全面参与全球人权治理
VII. Full Participation in Global Governance of Human Rights


八、推动世界人权事业发展
VIII. Advancing the International Cause of Human Rights


结束语
Conclusion

 

 

前言
Preamble


2019年10月1日,是中华人民共和国成立70周年纪念日。无论是对中国还是对世界,这个日子都有着特别的意义。因为有了新中国70年,中国人民的生活才更加幸福美满;因为有了新中国70年,我们的世界才更加繁荣发展;因为有了新中国70年,人类社会才更加丰富多彩。
October 1, 2019 is the 70th anniversary of the founding of the People’s Republic of China (PRC), a day of special significance not only for China but for the entire world. As a result of the developments that have taken place in the PRC over the 70 years, the people of China are living a happier life, the world is more prosperous, and human society is more diverse and colorful.


70年前,在中国共产党的领导下,中国人民实现了翻身解放和当家作主。新中国70年,是中华民族迎来从站起来、富起来到强起来的70年;新中国70年,是中国人民各项基本权利日益得到尊重和保障的70年;新中国70年,是中国不断为世界人权事业发展作出贡献的70年。
Seventy years ago, under the leadership of the Communist Party of China (CPC) the people of China were emancipated and became masters of their country. Over the subsequent seven decades, the Chinese nation has stood up and grown prosperous and is becoming strong; all basic rights of the people are better respected and protected; and China has made regular contribution to the international cause of human rights.


人民幸福生活是最大的人权。中国共产党从诞生那一天起,就把为人民谋幸福、为民族谋复兴、为人类谋发展作为奋斗目标。新中国成立以来,特别是中共十八大以来,在习近平新时代中国特色社会主义思想指引下,中国不断总结人类社会发展经验,在建设中国特色社会主义的伟大实践中,坚持把人权的普遍性原则与自身实际相结合,奉行以人民为中心的人权理念,始终把生存权、发展权作为首要的基本人权,协调增进全体人民的各项权利,努力促进人的全面发展。历史和现实都证明,中国成功地走出了一条符合国情的人权发展道路,丰富了人类文明多样性。
Living a happy life is the primary human right. Since the day of its foundation, the CPC has set its goal to work for the wellbeing of the people of China, for national rejuvenation and for human progress. Since the founding of the PRC, and especially since the 18th CPC National Congress in 2012, China has been guided by Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era. The nation has constantly reviewed the experience gained in human social development, integrated the principle of universality of human rights with national conditions in practicing socialism with Chinese characteristics, and espoused a people-centered view of human rights. China regards the rights to subsistence and development as its primary and basic human rights. It endeavors to improve the rights of all its people in a coordinated manner and works for their rounded development. Both history and present circumstances attest that China has opened a new path of human rights protection based on its national conditions, and increased the diversity of human civilizations.


作为国际社会重要一员,新中国高举和平、发展、合作、共赢的旗帜,坚持维护世界和平、促进共同发展,坚持以合作促发展,以发展促人权,全面参与全球人权治理,努力推动世界人权事业发展进步。
As a key member of the international community, China raises high the banner of peace, development, cooperation, and mutual benefits, stanchly safeguarding world peace, promoting common development, and advancing development through cooperation while promoting human rights through development. It fully participates in global human rights governance, and works strenuously to advance the international cause of human rights.

 


一、辉煌壮丽的人权发展历程
I. A Splendid History of China’s Human Rights Protection


中华人民共和国是中国共产党领导的社会主义国家。为中国人民谋幸福,为中华民族谋复兴,是中国共产党人的初心和使命;以人民为中心,是中国共产党执政的最高价值。中国共产党的领导,是中国人民能够享有人权并不断享有更加充分人权的根本保证,是全体中国人民的利益所在、幸福所在,是中国人权事业的命脉所在、根本所在。
The PRC is a socialist country led by the CPC. The original aspiration and the mission of the Party is to seek happiness for the people of China and rejuvenation for the Chinese nation, and putting the people at the center of all its work is the supreme pursuit of the Party in its governance. The Party’s leadership is the fundamental guarantee for the people of China to have access to human rights, and to fully enjoy more human rights. This leadership is therefore in the interests of all people of China, critical for their pursuit of a happy life, and provides the foundations for the cause of human rights in China.


新中国人权事业的发展,与当代中国发展进程相统一,是中国特色社会主义发展的必然结果。自1949年以来,新中国人权事业发展大体经历了三个时期。
The progress in human rights in China parallels the country’s overall progress in recent times, and results from the development of socialism with Chinese characteristics. The cause of human rights in China has gone through three phases since 1949:


第一个时期:1949年新中国成立,确立了社会主义基本制度,完成了中国历史上最为广泛而深刻的社会变革,为中国人权事业发展奠定了根本政治前提和制度基础。
The first phase: Founded in 1949, the PRC established a basic socialist system and achieved the most extensive and profound social transformation in China’s history, laying down the basic political prerequisite and establishing the institutions for developing human rights in China.


从1840年到1949年,由于西方列强的一次次入侵,加之统治阶级的腐朽和社会制度的落后,中国逐步沦为半殖民地半封建社会。战乱频仍、社会动荡、经济凋敝、民不聊生,是当时中国的真实写照。在旧中国,广大人民长期处于帝国主义、封建主义和官僚资本主义的压迫下,毫无人权可言。
Between 1840 and 1949, due to repeated invasions by foreign powers, a corrupt ruling class, and a backward social system, China was gradually reduced to a semi-colonial and semi-feudal society. Frequent wars, instability, a shattered economy, and a destitute populace – this is an accurate portrayal of China at that time. The people suffered under the oppression of imperialism, feudalism, and bureaucrat-capitalism, and had no access to human rights at all.


新中国的成立,实现和捍卫了真正完全的民族解放和国家独立,为中国人民的生命、自由和人身安全提供了根本保障,为中国人民各项权利得到有效保障和不断发展创造了根本条件。
With the founding of the PRC, China achieved and then defended true, complete national liberation and independence, which provided the fundamental guarantee for the subsistence, freedom, and personal security of the people, and created fundamental conditions to effectively protect and continuously improve all of their rights.


新中国建立和巩固了人民民主的政治制度,保障人民当家作主的权利。在新中国成立前夕,通过了具有临时宪法作用的《中国人民政治协商会议共同纲领》,规定人民享有选举权和被选举权以及广泛的政治权利和自由;妇女在政治、经济、文化教育、社会生活各方面均有与男子平等的权利。1954年,第一届全国人民代表大会第一次会议通过的《中华人民共和国宪法》,确立了人民民主原则和社会主义原则,确立了人民代表大会制度,在制度上保障了国家一切权力属于人民,并设立专章规定了公民的基本权利和义务。
The PRC established and consolidated the political system of people’s democracy, which guarantees the people’s rights to be masters of their country. The Common Program of the Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference, which was adopted on the eve of the founding of the PRC and served as the provisional Constitution of China, stipulates: people have the right to vote and to stand in election in addition to a wide range of political rights and freedoms; and women have the same rights as men in all respects, including politics, economy, culture, education and social life. The 1954 Constitution of the PRC, which was adopted at the First Session of the First National People’s Congress (NPC), set up the principles of people’s democracy and socialism, established the system of people’s congresses, and provided institutional guarantees for ensuring all power in the PRC belongs to the people. It included a chapter specifying the basic rights and obligations of citizens.


新中国开展各项民主改革和社会事业建设,为促进经济社会发展和保障人权创造了条件。土地改革运动废除了地主阶级封建剥削的土地所有制,中国农民真正从经济上翻身做了主人,被束缚的农村生产力获得解放,广大农民的经济地位和生活状况大大改善。从1950年起,对国营厂矿交通企业的生产和管理制度进行民主改革,建立工厂管理委员会和职工代表大会,使工人真正成为企业的主人。1950年,颁布实施婚姻法,废除包办强迫、男尊女卑、漠视子女利益的封建婚姻制度,实行婚姻自由、一夫一妻、男女权利平等、保护妇女和子女合法利益的新婚姻制度。促进教育、医疗卫生事业发展,建立劳动保险和社会救济制度,初步形成以单位为组织形式的社会保障体系。
The various democratic reforms and social programs carried out by the PRC during this period created conditions for economic and social development and protection of human rights. The land reform in the early 1950s abolished the feudal system of land ownership that allowed for exploitation by the landlord class. As a result, Chinese peasants were economically liberated and became masters of their country. Suppressed rural productive forces were unleashed and peasants’ economic status and living standards were greatly improved. The democratic reform of the production and management of state-owned factories, mines, and transportation operators that started in 1950 set up factory management committees and workers’ congresses in these entities, and hence made workers true masters of their enterprises. The Marriage Law promulgated in 1950 abolished the feudal marriage system that sanctioned arranged or forced marriages, enabled men’s superiority over women, and neglected children’s interests. It established a new marriage system featuring monogamy, freedom of marriage, gender equality, and protection of the legitimate interests of women and children. In addition, China promoted education and healthcare, established labor insurance and social relief systems, and created a nascent social security system with public employers being the building blocks.


新中国建设独立完整的国民经济体系,推动经济发展,为保障人权奠定经济基础。新中国迅速医治战争创伤,仅用三年时间,就使国民经济和人民生活恢复到历史最高水平。在此基础上,不失时机地对农业、手工业和资本主义工商业进行社会主义改造,建立了社会主义的基本经济制度,为人民平等参与经济发展和分享劳动成果提供了基本的社会制度保证。
The PRC established a complete, comprehensive economic system to boost economic growth, which laid the economic foundations for human rights protection. The newborn People’s Republic quickly recovered from the devastation of past wars. In only three years its economy and the people’s standard of living rose to the highest level in history. On this basis China started socialist transformation of agriculture, handcrafts and capitalist industry and commerce, and established a basic economic system of socialism. This provided the basic institutional guarantee for the people to participate in economic development and share the fruits of their work on an equal footing.


新中国彻底否定了民族压迫和民族歧视,发展民族平等、互助、团结关系。民族区域自治制度的成功实行,有效保障了少数民族在祖国大家庭中的平等权利和少数民族管理本民族、本地区事务的自治权利。
The PRC soundly rejects ethnic oppression and discrimination, and forges an interethnic relationship characterized by equality, mutual help and unity. The success of the system of regional ethnic autonomy effectively guarantees the equal rights of all ethnic minority groups in China as well as their right of autonomy in handling affairs of their own groups and regions.


第二个时期:1978年实行改革开放,成功开辟了中国特色社会主义道路,极大地解放和发展了社会生产力,人民生存权、发展权和各项基本权利不断得到更好保障,中国人权事业得到大发展。
The second phase: The reform and opening up launched in 1978 opened the path of socialism with Chinese characteristics, and has emancipated and developed the productive forces to a great extent. As a result the people’s rights to subsistence and development and other basic rights are better protected, and the cause of human rights in China has made huge progress.


改革开放是中国共产党在新的时代条件下带领全国各族人民进行的新的伟大革命。中国共产党带领人民深刻总结我国社会主义建设正反两方面经验,坚持走社会主义道路,坚持以经济建设为中心,坚持四项基本原则,坚持改革开放,建设中国特色社会主义。中国共产党把发展作为执政兴国的第一要务和解决中国所有问题的关键,大力发展社会生产力,努力以发展促进人权保障,极大地调动了亿万人民的积极性。
Reform and opening up was a great new revolution undertaken by the people of China and led by the CPC under the new conditions of that era. Under the leadership of the CPC, the people review experiences and lessons drawn from socialist construction, adhere to the path of socialism, keep economic development as our central task, uphold the Four Cardinal Principles and reform and opening up, and build socialism with Chinese characteristics. The CPC pursues development as its top priority in governance and rejuvenation of the nation and the key to solving all China’s problems. It vigorously builds up productive forces and strives to better protect human rights through development, and has thereby aroused great enthusiasm among the people.


在改革开放中,中国共产党将尊重和保障人权作为执政主张,不断赋予中国人权发展新的内涵。1997年,中共十五大明确提出,“保证人民依法享有广泛的权利和自由,尊重和保障人权”。2002年,“尊重和保障人权”作为社会主义政治文明建设的重要目标写入中共十六大报告。2007年,中共十七大报告进一步指出要“尊重和保障人权,依法保证全体社会成员平等参与、平等发展的权利”。同年,“尊重和保障人权”首次载入《中国共产党章程》。
In the course of reform and opening up, the CPC has made respecting and protecting human rights a goal of its governance, and added new elements to advancing the cause. In 1997, the 15th CPC National Congress committed to: “…ensuring that the people enjoy extensive rights and freedom endowed by law, and respecting and guaranteeing human rights.” In 2002, “Human rights are respected and guaranteed” was written into the report to the 16th CPC National Congress as an important goal of socialist political progress. In 2007, the report to the 17th CPC National Congress further pointed out: “We must respect and guarantee human rights, and ensure the equal right to participation and development for all members of society in accordance with the law.” And in the same year, this principle was written for the first time into the CPC Constitution.


在改革开放中,中国坚持依宪治国,为促进人权事业全面发展提供根本法保障。1982年,第五届全国人大五次会议通过了现行宪法。宪法明确规定了中国社会主义民主的主要内容和基本形态,全面系统规定了全体人民享有广泛的公民权利、政治权利和经济、社会、文化权利。此后,全国人大五次通过宪法修正案,从基本经济制度、分配制度、保护公民私有财产、建立健全社会保障制度等方面,不断加强对人权的保护。特别是2004年3月,第十届全国人大二次会议将“尊重和保障人权”写入宪法,有力保障和推进了中国人权事业发展。
In the course of reform and opening up, China adheres to governance based on the Constitution, which provides the fundamental legal guarantee for comprehensive progress in human rights. In 1982, the Fifth Session of the Fifth NPC adopted the current Constitution of the PRC, which clearly defines the substance and basic form of socialist democracy. It provides that all citizens are entitled to civil rights, political rights, and economic, social and cultural rights. In the following years, the NPC adopted five amendments to the Constitution to better protect human rights. These covered the basic economic system, distribution system, protection of citizens’ private property, and social security system. In particular, the amendment adopted at the Second Session of the 10th NPC added the line “The State respects and preserves human rights” into the Constitution, a move that has strongly guaranteed and advanced human rights in China.


在改革开放中,中国努力将促进人权事业发展纳入国家发展战略和规划。1991年,中国发布第一部人权白皮书——《中国的人权状况》。制定并实施国家人权行动计划,确定尊重和保障人权的阶段性目标、任务。国家还制定了经济、文化、社会和环境等方面的专项行动计划,以及保障少数民族、妇女、儿童、老年人、残疾人等特定群体权利的专项规划,努力促进全体人民共同享有充分权利。
In the course of reform and opening up, China has incorporated the protection of human rights into national development strategies and plans. In 1991, the Chinese government published its first white paper on human rights – Human Rights in China. It formulated and implemented the National Human Rights Action Plan, which set phased goals and tasks for respecting and safeguarding human rights. China has also made targeted action plans relating to the economy, culture, society, the environment and other fields, as well as plans to protect the rights of specific groups, such as ethnic minorities, women, children, the elderly, and people with disabilities, to ensure that all the people of China can fully enjoy their rights.


在改革开放中,中国进一步建立并完善了适合本国国情的人权保障制度,初步形成了中国特色人权保障体系。国家建立了最低生活保障制度、最低工资保障制度、劳动保障监察制度和劳动人事争议处理制度、就业救助制度、中小学义务教育制度等;通过民法通则和侵权责任法等建立了人格权保护体系,推进户籍制度改革,并不断完善选举制度、基层群众自治制度、政务信息公开制度、诉讼制度、知识产权保护制度等。
In the course of reform and opening up, China has established and improved institutions for protecting human rights that are suited to its national conditions. A human rights protection system with Chinese characteristics has taken shape. The Chinese government has put into place a number of systems and mechanisms, including those dealing with subsistence allowances, the minimum wage, labor security supervision, labor dispute settlement, employment assistance, and compulsory education (primary and middle schools). With the promulgation of the General Principles of the Civil Law and Tort Liability Law, China has established a system of protection for the right to dignity. In addition, it has advanced household registration reform, and made consistent improvements to the election system, the community-level self-governance system, the system for transparency of government affairs, the litigation system and the system for intellectual property protection.


第三个时期:2012年中共十八大召开,中国特色社会主义进入新时代,在习近平新时代中国特色社会主义思想指引下,坚持以人民为中心的发展思想,大力保障和改善民生,加强人权法治保障,中国人权事业得到全面发展。
The third phase: The 18th CPC National Congress in 2012 marks the advent of a new era for socialism with Chinese characteristics. Guided by Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era, China espouses the people-centered development philosophy, works hard to ensure and improve people’s wellbeing, and continues to strengthen legal protection for human rights. As a result, the cause of human rights in China has made headway on all fronts.


新时代中国特色社会主义将“人权得到切实尊重和保障”作为全面建成小康社会的重要目标,从战略层面确立了人权事业的重要地位。中共十八大修改通过的《中国共产党章程》再次重申尊重和保障人权。2014年,中共十八届四中全会通过《中共中央关于全面推进依法治国若干重大问题的决定》,强调“加强人权司法保障”“增强全社会尊重和保障人权意识”。2017年,中共十九大确立习近平新时代中国特色社会主义思想为中国共产党的指导思想,明确提出“加强人权法治保障,保证人民依法享有广泛权利和自由”,为全面推进中国人权事业提供了根本遵循。
In building socialism with Chinese characteristics for a new era, full respect for and protection of human rights is an important goal of China’s endeavors to build a moderately prosperous society in all respects. This establishes the importance of human rights from a strategic perspective. The CPC Constitution amended and adopted at the 18th National Congress reaffirms the principle of respecting and protecting human rights. In 2014, the Fourth Plenary Session of the 18th CPC Central Committee adopted the “Resolution of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China on Major Issues Concerning Comprehensively Advancing the Rule of Law”, which emphasizes the need to “provide stronger judicial protection of human rights” and to “strengthen awareness throughout the whole of society about the need to respect and safeguard human rights.” In 2017, the 19th CPC National Congress established Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era as the guiding ideology of the CPC, and categorically stated that we should “strengthen legal protection for human rights to ensure that the people enjoy extensive rights and freedoms as prescribed by law.” This provides fundamental basis for us to advance the cause of human rights in China.


新时代中国特色社会主义将人民对美好生活的向往作为奋斗目标,切实增强人民获得感、幸福感、安全感。坚持以解决社会主要矛盾为人权发展立足点,聚焦人民日益增长的美好生活需要,促进各项人权的充分平衡发展。坚持以人的全面发展为人权价值取向,落实新发展理念,逐步实现全体人民共同富裕,建设富强民主文明和谐美丽的社会主义现代化强国。
In building socialism with Chinese characteristics for a new era, the people’s aspiration to live a better life is the focus of all the country’s work, and China strives to give the people a stronger sense of gain, happiness and security. It bases the cause of human rights on the endeavors to solve the principal contradiction in Chinese society, focuses on people’s ever-growing needs for a better life, and promotes full and balanced progress in all human rights. China promotes well-rounded development of the people as a principle of human rights, applies the new development philosophy, presses ahead toward common prosperity for all, and strives to build a great modern socialist country that is prosperous, strong, democratic, culturally advanced, harmonious and beautiful.


新时代中国特色社会主义着眼于实现“两个一百年”奋斗目标和中华民族伟大复兴的中国梦,提出经济建设、政治建设、文化建设、社会建设、生态文明建设“五位一体”总体布局,使每个人的经济、政治、文化、社会、环境权利能够得到充分保障;提出全面建成小康社会、全面深化改革、全面依法治国、全面从严治党“四个全面”战略布局,为全面推进中国人权事业提供了有力保障。中国将尊重和保障人权贯穿于推进国家治理体系和治理能力现代化的全过程,加强人权法治保障,积极改革完善各项人权保障制度,以制度现代化与法治精神的高度统一维护公民的各项权利。
In building socialism with Chinese characteristics for a new era, China focuses on achieving the Two Centenary Goals and realizing the Chinese Dream of national rejuvenation. For this purpose it put forward the Five-point Strategy (promoting economic, political, cultural, social, and environmental progress in a coordinated way), so every citizen’s rights can be fully protected in each of these spheres. For this new era it has also introduced the Four-pronged Strategy: to complete a moderately prosperous society in all respects, further reform, advance the rule of law, and strengthen Party discipline, which provides a strong guarantee for advancing the cause of human rights in China on all fronts. China respects and guarantees human rights throughout the process of modernizing its national governance system and capacity. It has strengthened legal protection for human rights and reformed and refined the systems to protect human rights, and it safeguards citizens’ rights through the combination of modern institutions and the rule of law.


二、以人民为中心的人权理念
II. People-centered Approach in Human Rights Protection


经过新中国70年的人权发展实践,中国把人权的普遍性原则与本国具体实际相结合,已经形成了较为系统的以人民为中心的人权理念,其基本点包括:
In developing human rights over the past 70 years, China has combined universal principles with the prevailing realities of the country, forming a system of human rights with a people-centered approach. The basic elements are:


——人权是历史的、发展的。人权是一定历史条件下的产物,也会随着历史条件的发展而发展。各国发展阶段、经济发展水平、文化传统、社会结构不同,所面临的人权发展任务和应采取的人权保障方式也会有所不同。应当尊重人权发展道路的多样性。只有将人权的普遍性原则同各国实际相结合,才能有效地促进人权的实现。世界各国在人权保障上没有最好,只有更好;世界上没有放之四海而皆准的人权发展道路和保障模式,人权事业发展必须也只能按照本国国情和人民需要加以推进。
Human rights are a historical and developmental concept. Born under certain historical circumstances, the concept evolves as times change. Different nations have different tasks and take different approaches to ensure human rights, because they differ in terms of stage of development, economy, culture and society. Diversity in developing human rights should be respected. They can only be effectively ensured by combining universal principles with the prevailing realities of different countries. Every country has room for improvement in protecting human rights. There is no universally applicable model, and human rights can only advance in the context of national conditions and people’s needs.


——生存权、发展权是首要的基本人权。贫穷是实现人权的最大障碍。没有物质资料的生产和供给,人类其他一切权利的实现都是非常困难或不可能的。生存权利的有效保障、生活质量的不断提高,是享有和发展其他人权的前提和基础。近代中国长期遭受外来侵略,国家贫穷落后,人民困苦不堪,毫无权利可言。中国人民深知免于贫困、免于饥饿为生存之本。多年来,中国始终把解决人民的生存权、实现人民的发展权作为第一要务,不断解放和发展生产力,致力于消除贫困,提高发展水平,为保障人民各项权利的实现创造了基础条件。
The rights to subsistence and development are the primary rights. Poverty is the greatest obstacle to providing human rights. It would be well-nigh impossible for humanity to ensure any right without the production and supply of goods and materials. The effective guarantee of the right to subsistence and the steady improvement of living standards are the preconditions and foundations for fulfilling and developing all other human rights. From the mid-19th century, China suffered repeated foreign aggressions and fell into poverty and backwardness. Living in misery, the people enjoyed utterly no right of any kind. The Chinese know very well what survival requires – no poverty and no hunger. Prioritizing people’s rights to subsistence and development, China has committed to liberating and developing productive forces, eliminating poverty, and enhancing its level of development. All this has laid the foundation for fulfilling the various rights of the people.


——人权是个人人权与集体人权的有机统一。没有个人的发展,就没有集体的发展;同时,也只有在集体中,个人才能获得全面发展。在当代中国的人权实践中,既重视集体人权的发展,又重视个人人权的保障,努力使二者相互统一、相互协调、相互促进。个人权利只有与集体权利统一起来,才能实现人权的最大化。中国在国家富强、民族振兴和人民幸福融为一体的发展中,努力保障每一个人和全体人民的各项权利。
Human rights mean the integration of individual and collective rights. There is no collective development without individual development; individuals can only enjoy well-rounded development in a collective environment. In China, equal attention has been paid to developing collective rights and ensuring individual rights, so that the two are integrated, coordinated, and mutually-enhancing. Individual rights can only be maximized in the context of collective rights. The Chinese government strives to ensure the rights of every individual and all its citizens by seeking prosperity for the country, rejuvenation for the nation, and wellbeing for the people.


——整体推进各项权利是人权实现的重要原则。各项人权相互依赖、不可分割。中国坚持对各项权利的发展进行统筹协调、统一部署、均衡促进,切实推动经济、社会、文化权利和公民权利、政治权利的平衡发展。中共十八大以来,中国共产党和中国政府统筹推进经济建设、政治建设、文化建设、社会建设、生态文明建设“五位一体”总体布局,协调推进全面建成小康社会、全面深化改革、全面依法治国、全面从严治党“四个全面”战略布局,推进了中国人权事业的全面发展,体现了人权的整体性发展思想。
Overall progress in all rights is a major principle of realization of human rights. All human rights are interdependent and inalienable. China coordinates the planning and promotion of all rights and endeavors to achieve a balanced development of economic, social, and cultural rights and civil and political rights. Since the 18th CPC National Congress, the CPC and the Chinese government has sought to make overall economic, political, cultural, social, and environmental progress, known as the Five-point Strategy, and made comprehensive moves to complete a moderately prosperous society in all respects, further reform, advance the rule of law, and strengthen Party discipline, known as the Four-pronged Strategy. In this way, China has made comprehensive progress in human rights through an integrated approach.


——人民的获得感、幸福感、安全感是检验人权实现的重要标准。把人民对美好生活的向往落实到实现好、维护好、发展好最广大人民根本利益上,不断提高人民群众获得感、幸福感、安全感,是中国共产党执政的核心精神所在。坚持人民在人权事业中的主体地位,把人民利益摆在至高无上的位置,让人民过上好日子,使发展成果更多更公平地惠及全体人民,让每个人更好地发展自我、幸福生活,让每个人都能够免于恐惧、不受威胁,是实现人人享有更加充分人权的真谛所在。
People’s sense of gain, happiness and security is an important criterion for evaluating human rights. The core spirit of CPC governance lies in fulfilling the people’s aspiration for a better life by realizing, safeguarding and developing their fundamental interests, and in enhancing their sense of gain, happiness and security. For everyone to fully enjoy human rights, we must uphold the people-centered approach, prioritize the people’s interests before anything else, and ensure a good life for the people. We must ensure that the fruits of development offer greater benefits to all the people in a fair way, enable every person to enjoy opportunities for self-development and a good life, and prevent them from fear and threat.


——公正合理包容是国际人权治理的基本原则。国际社会应秉持和平、发展、公平、正义、民主、自由的人类共同价值,维护人的尊严和权利,推动形成更加公正合理包容的全球人权治理。中国一直是国际人权事业健康发展的倡导者、践行者和推动者,反对将人权政治化或搞人权“双重标准”,推动国际社会以公正客观非选择的方式处理人权问题。中国全面深入参与国际人权交流、对话与合作,与各国一道推动共同构建人类命运共同体,开创世界美好未来。
Fairness, being reasonable and inclusiveness are the basic principles of international human rights governance. The international community should uphold the shared values of humanity – peace, development, fairness, justice, democracy and freedom. It must safeguard human dignity and rights, and strive for fairer, more reasonable and inclusive global human rights governance. China is a supporter, practitioner and promoter of international human rights. It opposes politicizing human rights or applying double standards in matters related to human rights, and encourages the international community to address human rights issues in a fair, objective and non-selective manner. China is engaged in extensive, in-depth international exchanges, dialogue and cooperation concerning human rights, and works with the rest of the world to build a global community of shared future and a beautiful world.


——促进人的自由全面发展是人权的最高价值追求。每个人的自由发展是一切人的自由发展的条件。人权的主体是人,人权事业发展从根本上说是人的发展,要为人实现自身潜能创造条件。中国全面建成小康社会和实现中华民族伟大复兴的中国梦,就是让人民有更好的教育、更稳定的工作、更满意的收入、更可靠的社会保障、更高水平的医疗服务、更舒适的居住条件、更优美的环境,让每个人都能更有尊严地发展自我和奉献社会,共同享有人生出彩的机会,共同享有梦想成真的机会,增进人民福祉,促进人的全面发展。
The free and well-rounded development of every person is the ultimate goal of human rights. The free development of each individual is the precondition for the free development of all people. Human rights are people’s rights; human rights development means people’s development. We must create the conditions for people’s self-actualization. By building a moderately prosperous society in all respects and realizing the Chinese Dream of national rejuvenation, China aims to fulfill the people’s aspirations for a better education, more stable jobs, higher incomes, more reliable social security, better medical and health care, improved housing conditions, and a beautiful environment. It aims to enable every person to enjoy self-development and serve society with dignity, to ensure equal opportunities for all to live a rewarding life and realize their dreams, to improve their wellbeing, and to promote their well-rounded development.

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