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人口计生法完成修改 “三孩”生育政策正式入法

中国日报网 2021-08-23 13:05

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8月20日,十三届全国人大常委会第三十次会议审议通过了关于修改人口与计划生育法的决定,这一决定自公布之日起施行。

WEI XUEMING/FOR CHINA DAILY

 

The revised Population and Family Planning Law allows couples in China to have three children.
修改后的人口计生法规定一对夫妻可以生育三个子女。


The amended law also stipulates that social maintenance fees imposed on families who have violated family planning law, as well as other rules incompatible with the new third-child policy, will be canceled.
此次修法明确,原来向违反计划生育政策的家庭征收社会抚养费以及其他与实施三孩生育政策不适应的规定都被删除。

【知识点】

党的十八大以来,党中央根据我国人口发展变化形势,先后作出一系列重大决策部署。

2013年,十八届三中全会决定启动实施“单独二孩”政策(夫妻中有一方为独生子女的可生育两个孩子,two-child policy for couples of which one partner is an only child)。

2015年,十八届五中全会决定实施“全面二孩政策”(the universal two-child policy),积极开展应对人口老龄化(aging population)行动,促进人口均衡发展(improve the balanced development of population)。

 

为解决群众生育、养育、教育的后顾之忧,修改后的人口计生法作出了以下有针对性的规定。


The country will roll out more supportive measures in terms of finance, taxation, insurance, education, housing and employment, to ease the burden on families in terms of childbearing, childcare and education.
国家采取财政、税收、保险、教育、住房、就业等支持措施,减轻家庭生育、养育、教育负担。


The revised law stipulates a push for establishing affordable, government-subsidized nursery care service systems, and setting up child care facilities in public spaces and workplaces.
推动建立普惠托育服务体系,支持在公共场所或企事业单位设立托育服务机构。


It also requires local governments to set up sufficient public facilities to cater for infants and young children when building or revamping communities. Public areas and institutions employing a large number of female workers should also set up nursery services.
规定县级以上地方各级人民政府应当在城乡社区建设改造中,建设与常住人口规模相适应的婴幼儿活动场所及配套服务设施。公共场所和女职工比较多的用人单位应当配置母婴设施。


The law also includes a provision addressing parental leave, making it clear that support will be given to regions exercising the practice.
此次修法还增加“国家支持有条件的地方设立父母育儿假”的规定。

【词汇讲解】

这里的parental leave指父母双方在孩子出生后均可以享受的假期,即“育儿假”,而母亲在生产后按规定享受的一段假期是maternity/maternal leave(产假),如果是“带薪产假”则为paid maternity leave。Maternity和maternal这两个词都与mother这个词相关,而拉丁语中的“妈妈”一词为mater,正是maternity和maternal的词根。我们都知道英语中表达亲戚关系的词都是uncle、aunt这样,而不是像中文那样“叔叔”、“舅舅”、“姑姑”、“阿姨”分的很清楚,如果在表达的时候想要区分,可以在前面加上maternal或者paternal,比如:my maternal aunt就是“我姨”,而my paternal aunt则是“我姑”。


It adds that medical facilities nationwide should launch awareness campaigns on promoting reproductive health and providing services in this respect.
此次修法规定医疗卫生机构应当开展优生优育知识宣传教育并提供相关服务。

 

对于“三孩”政策实施后,女性可能面临的职场歧视,此次修法也做出了规定:

The revised law states that a women's right to employment will be guaranteed and employment services will be provided for those whose job prospects are affected due to pregnancies.
修法规定,国家保障妇女就业合法权益,为因生育影响就业的妇女提供就业服务。

 

在保障计划生育家庭的合法权益方面,此次修法也做出了规定。

China will continue to implement its current reward and assistance system and preferential policies for one-child families. The elderly in such families will be given preferential treatment in terms of welfare benefits and elderly care services, according to the amendment.
我国将继续对独生子女家庭执行现有的奖励扶助措施,并在老年人福利、养老服务等方面给予必要的优先和照顾。


Couples whose only child has died or is disabled should receive comprehensive care provided by local governments.
获得《独生子女父母光荣证》的夫妻,独生子女发生意外伤残、死亡的,按照规定获得全方位帮扶。

 


【相关词汇】

独生子女 the only child

生育津贴 childbirth subsidy

生育保险 maternity insurance

劳动年龄人口 working-age population

生育率 fertility rate

出生率 birth rate

人口老龄化 population aging

延迟退休 raise the retirement age


参考来源:新华网、中国日报

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