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中国共产党的历史使命与行动价值(双语全文)

新华网 2021-08-26 14:21

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三、具有强大领导力执政力
III. Robust Leadership and Strong Governance


中国体量巨大、人口众多、国情复杂,求独立、求发展、求富强,必须有坚强有力的领导力量。中国共产党这样一个大党,在中国这样一个大国,能够把亿万人民团结和凝聚起来,一次次跨过急流险滩,一次次战胜困难危机,关键在于党高度团结统一,具有强大的领导力执政力。
China is a huge country with a large population and complex national conditions. In order to achieve independence, development, and prosperity it must have robust and decisive leadership. It is the CPC's solidarity and unity, its firm leadership, and its strong governance capability that have rallied and united hundreds of millions of the Chinese people and overcome a multitude of difficulties and crises.

 

(一)党中央坚强有力
1. A Strong Central Committee


中国共产党是按照民主集中制⑫原则组织起来的马克思主义政党。维护党中央权威和集中统一领导,是一个成熟的马克思主义执政党的重大建党原则。坚持民主集中制原则,坚持党中央权威和集中统一领导,坚持个人服从组织、少数服从多数、下级服从上级、全党服从中央,在充分发扬民主的基础上进行集中,是党在革命、建设、改革中形成的政治优势和宝贵经验。
The CPC is a mature Marxist political party organized in accordance with the principle of democratic centralism [ This is a principle that combines centralism built on the basis of democracy with democracy under centralized guidance. Democratic centralism is the Party's fundamental organizational principle and leadership system.]. Upholding the authority of the Central Committee and its centralized leadership has always been one of the Party's fundamental operational principles. Democratic centralism involves Party members deferring to Party organizations, the minority deferring to the majority, lower-level Party organizations deferring to higher-level organizations, and the whole Party deferring to the Central Committee. This and upholding the authority of the Central Committee and its centralized leadership are strengths the Party has built from valuable experience gained during revolution, reconstruction and reform.


党中央的权威和集中统一领导,保证了革命、建设、改革顺利推进,保证了党的执政地位巩固和国家长治久安。以毛泽东同志为核心的党的第一代中央领导集体,团结带领全党和全国人民,成功开辟以农村包围城市、武装夺取政权的中国革命道路,完成新民主主义革命,建立中华人民共和国,完成社会主义革命,确立社会主义基本制度,推进社会主义建设,完成了中华民族有史以来最为广泛而深刻的社会变革,为当代中国一切发展进步奠定了根本政治前提和制度基础,为新的历史时期开创中国特色社会主义提供了宝贵经验、理论准备、物质基础。党的十一届三中全会后,以邓小平同志为核心的党的第二代中央领导集体,团结带领全党和全国人民,作出把党和国家工作中心转移到经济建设上来、实行改革开放的历史性决策,深刻揭示社会主义本质,确立社会主义初级阶段基本路线,明确提出走自己的路、建设中国特色社会主义,科学回答了建设中国特色社会主义的一系列基本问题,成功开创了中国特色社会主义。党的十三届四中全会后,以江泽民同志为核心的党的第三代中央领导集体,团结带领全党和全国人民,在国内外形势十分复杂、世界社会主义出现严重曲折的严峻考验面前捍卫了中国特色社会主义,确立了社会主义市场经济体制的改革目标和基本框架,确立了社会主义初级阶段的基本经济制度和分配制度,成功把中国特色社会主义推向21世纪。党的十六大后,以胡锦涛同志为总书记的党中央,团结带领全党和全国人民,在全面建设小康社会进程中推进实践创新、理论创新、制度创新,强调坚持以人为本、全面协调可持续发展,成功在新的历史起点上坚持和发展了中国特色社会主义。党的十八大以来,以习近平同志为核心的党中央,团结带领全党和全国人民,统揽伟大斗争、伟大工程、伟大事业、伟大梦想,坚持和加强党的全面领导,统筹推进“五位一体”总体布局,协调推进“四个全面”战略布局,坚持和完善中国特色社会主义制度,推进国家治理体系和治理能力现代化,推动党和国家事业发生历史性变革、取得历史性成就,中国特色社会主义进入新时代,迎来了实现中华民族伟大复兴的光明前景。
Upholding the Central Committee's authority and its centralized leadership has led to smooth and steady progress in China, and ensures the CPC's position as the governing party and the country's long-term stability.The first generation of the CPC central collective leadership with Mao Zedong at the core united the whole Party and the people and led them on the revolutionary path, using rural areas to encircle the cities and seizing state power with military force. It was under its centralized leadership that the Party and the people completed the New Democratic Revolution, founded the People's Republic of China, succeeded in socialist revolution, established socialism as the country's basic system, and advanced socialist development. All of this led to success in the broadest and most profound social transformation in the history of the Chinese nation. It also laid down the political and institutional groundwork for all future progress and provided invaluable experience, a theoretical base, and the material conditions for Chinese socialism in the new historical period.After the Third Plenary Session of the 11th CPC Central Committee in 1978, the second generation of the Party's central collective leadership with Deng Xiaoping at the core led the Party and the people in a historic shift of focus to economic development and reform and opening up. Based on its keen understanding of the essence of socialism, the Party established its basic line for the primary stage of socialism, made it clear that China must define its own approach in building socialism, and provided answers to a series of basic questions. This marked the creation of socialism with Chinese characteristics.After the Fourth Plenary Session of the 13th CPC Central Committee in 1989, the third generation of the Party's central collective leadership with Jiang Zemin at the core led the Party and the people in defending socialism with Chinese characteristics in a complex domestic and international situation and in the face of serious setbacks experienced by socialism worldwide. It established the objectives and framework of reform for developing the socialist market economy, and put in place basic economic and distribution systems in the primary stage of socialism, advancing Chinese socialism into the 21st century.After the 16th CPC National Congress in 2002, the Central Committee with Hu Jintao as general secretary led the Party and the people in promoting innovation in theory, practice, and systems in the course of building a moderately prosperous society in all respects, with a focus on people-centered, all-round, coordinated, and sustainable development, and upholding and building socialism with Chinese characteristics, at a new historical point.


党的十八大以来,以习近平同志为核心的党中央采取一系列有力举措,全面加强党的领导,进一步坚持和维护党中央权威和集中统一领导。党中央鲜明提出,党政军民学,东西南北中,党是领导一切的,是最高政治领导力量;坚持党的领导,首先是坚持党中央权威和集中统一领导,这是党的领导的最高原则,是最根本的政治纪律和政治规矩;要增强政治意识、大局意识、核心意识、看齐意识,坚定中国特色社会主义道路自信、理论自信、制度自信、文化自信,坚决维护习近平总书记党中央的核心、全党的核心地位,维护党中央权威和集中统一领导。党的十九大将“中国特色社会主义最本质的特征是中国共产党领导,中国特色社会主义制度的最大优势是中国共产党领导,党是最高政治领导力量”确立为习近平新时代中国特色社会主义思想的重要内容,并把这一重大政治原则写入党章。十三届全国人大一次会议通过宪法修正案,在宪法序言确定党的领导地位的基础上,又在总纲中明确规定中国共产党领导是中国特色社会主义最本质的特征,强化了党总揽全局、协调各方的领导地位。
Since the 18th CPC National Congress in 2012, the Central Committee with Xi Jinping at the core has led the Party and the people in pursuing a great struggle, a great project, a great cause, and a great dream, upholding and improving the Party's overall leadership, and implementing the Five-sphere Integrated Plan and the Four-pronged Comprehensive Strategy. The Party has made greater efforts to improve Chinese socialism, modernize the system and capacity for governing the country, and uphold socialism with Chinese characteristics. All of this has prompted historic shifts and led to historic achievements in the cause of the Party and the country, ushering Chinese socialism into a new era. The prospects of national rejuvenation are ever brighter.

Since 2012, the CPC Central Committee has taken a series of effective measures to strengthen the overall leadership by the Party and uphold the authority of the Central Committee and its centralized leadership. The central leadership has emphasized that:

(1)The Party exercises leadership over all areas of endeavor across the country and is the highest force for political leadership;

(2)Upholding overall Party leadership means first and foremost upholding the authority of the Central Committee and its centralized leadership, which is the highest principle of the Party's leadership and the fundamental political discipline and rule;

(3)It is important to strengthen the consciousness of the need to maintain political commitment, think in terms of the broader picture, follow the core leadership of the CPC Central Committee, and act in accordance with its requirements; to enhance confidence in the path, theory, system and culture of Chinese socialism; and to resolutely uphold General Secretary Xi Jinping's core position in the CPC Central Committee and in the Party as a whole.The 19th CPC National Congress in 2017 emphasized: "Leadership by the CPC is the defining feature of Chinese socialism and the greatest strength of this system. The Party is the highest force for political leadership." The congress confirmed this principle as a significant element of Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era, and this major political principle has been enshrined in the CPC Constitution. In 2018 the 13th National People's Congress adopted at its first session an amendment to the Constitution of the People's Republic of China. In addition to providing for the CPC's leading position in its Preamble, the amended Constitution explicitly stipulates in its General Principles that leadership by the Party is the defining feature of socialism with Chinese characteristics.


为确保维护党中央权威和集中统一领导的要求落到实处,党进一步健全完善领导体制和工作机制。党中央制定一系列党内法规,对维护党中央权威和集中统一领导作出明确规定。坚持党的组织和党的工作全覆盖,健全党中央对重大工作的领导体制,强化党中央决策议事协调机构职能作用,完善推动党中央重大决策落实机制,严格执行请示报告制度,推动维护党中央权威和集中统一领导具体化、制度化、规范化。近年来,中央政治局常委会每年专门听取全国人大常委会、国务院、全国政协、最高人民法院、最高人民检察院党组工作汇报和中央书记处工作报告,中央政治局全体同志每年向党中央和习近平总书记书面述职一次,已经成为加强和维护党中央集中统一领导的重要制度安排。
To uphold the CPC Central Committee's authority and its centralized leadership through concrete actions, the CPC has improved its leadership system and its working mechanism. The Central Committee has issued a series of regulations to this end:

•ensuring Party organizations and initiatives cover all areas;

•improving the system by which the Central Committee exercises leadership over major tasks;

•strengthening the roles and functions of relevant Central Committee offices in decision-making, deliberation and coordination, and improving the mechanism by which the Central Committee's major decisions are implemented;

•strictly enforcing the system by which all important issues are promptly reported;

•developing practical measures and making institutional arrangements to implement the principle of upholding the Central Committee's authority and its centralized leadership.

In recent years, the Standing Committee of the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee has held dedicated meetings to hear annual work reports of CPC leadership groups of the NPC Standing Committee, the State Council, the CPPCC National Committee, the Supreme People's Court, the Supreme People's Procuratorate, and the report of the CPC Central Committee Secretariat. Each member of the Political Bureau has submitted a written work report to the Central Committee and General Secretary Xi Jinping every year. This has been one of the institutional arrangements for strengthening and upholding the Central Committee's centralized leadership.


维护党中央权威和集中统一领导,有坚强有力的领导核心是重中之重、要中之要。新民主主义革命时期,正是因为遵义会议事实上确立了毛泽东同志在党中央和红军的领导地位,开始形成以毛泽东同志为核心的党的第一代中央领导集体,革命事业才转危为安。党的十八大以来,正是因为确立了习近平同志党中央的核心、全党的核心地位,党的面貌、国家的面貌、人民的面貌、军队的面貌、中华民族的面貌才发生了前所未有的变化。100年来,党之所以能够统一思想、步调一致向前进,根本原因就是形成了坚强有力的领导核心;党不断发展壮大,克服重重艰难险阻而立于不败之地,党的领导核心发挥了独特的、不可替代的作用。历史和现实充分表明,全党有核心,党中央才有权威,党才有力量。党形成并拥护领导核心,决不是庸俗化的“个人崇拜”,党自成立之日起就坚决反对“个人崇拜”,并将“党禁止任何形式的个人崇拜”写入党章。党的领导核心并不意味着无限权力、任性决策,而是担负着为大党大国掌舵领航的重大职责。党是按照民主集中制原则组织起来的,党的领导核心也要按照民主集中制原则发挥作用,遵守集体领导制度,遵守党在宪法和法律范围内活动的法治原则。党的领导核心不是天生的,也不是自封的,而是在长期实践中通过正确领导形成的,是全党全国人民的共同选择。
To uphold the Central Committee's authority and its centralized leadership, a robust leadership core is the top priority. During the New Democratic Revolution, it was at the Zunyi Conference in 1935 that Mao Zedong was confirmed as the de facto leader of the Party Central Committee and the Red Army, and the Party's first central collective leadership with Mao Zedong at the core took shape. This move circumvented a serious threat to China's revolution and resulted in positive progress. Since the 18th CPC National Congress, with Xi Jinping at the core of the Central Committee, the Party, the country, the people, the military, and the whole Chinese nation have made unprecedented headway.

Over the past hundred years since its founding in 1921, the CPC has been able to build consensus among its members on the way forward and take concerted actions; the fundamental reason for this is its robust leadership core, which has played a unique and irreplaceable role in leading the Party to grow stronger despite all the difficulties it has encountered.

Both history and reality have shown to us that only with a firm and effective leadership core can the Central Committee exert authority and the Party remain strong.

Upholding the leadership core of the CPC in no way involves the creation of any kind of personality cult – something the CPC has resolutely opposed ever since it was first founded. The Party's Constitution explicitly stipulates that "The Party proscribes all forms of personality cult." The Party leadership core never wields unlimited power or engages in decision-making at will; instead, it takes on heavy responsibilities in steering the Party and the country. The CPC is organized on the basis of democratic centralism, so its leadership core functions by that principle, observes the system of collective leadership, and acts within the scope of the country's Constitution and the law. The Party leadership core does not emerge through entitlement; it is not self-proclaimed. It comes into being through long-term experience under sound leadership and as a common choice of the whole Party and the whole country.


不论是中国几千年的历史,还是中国的革命、建设、改革,都充分表明,中央政权坚强有力,维持大一统局面,国家才能富强、安宁、稳定,人民才能安居乐业。中国共产党实行集中统一领导,符合人民利益,符合中国国情,符合中国历史文化传统,得到了人民广泛拥护,是党领导人民在长期探索实践中得出来的宝贵经验。坚决维护党中央权威和集中统一领导,坚决维护核心、捍卫核心、忠诚核心,是中国共产党和中国人民的共同认识和自觉行动。
China's history, which dates back thousands of years, and its revolution, reconstruction and reform have fully demonstrated that only with a robust centralized authority to maintain unity of the whole country and rally the people can the nation achieve long-term peace, stability, and prosperity, and the people work and live in contentment. Centralized leadership by the Party serves the best interests of the Chinese people, suits China's national conditions, and conforms to traditional Chinese culture. This is an invaluable understanding that the Chinese people have gained through years of CPC leadership. There is a common purpose behind the conscious commitment of the Party and the Chinese people to uphold the authority of the Central Committee and its centralized leadership, and to protect and be loyal to the leadership core.

 

(二)制定正确路线和战略策略
2. Sound Guidelines and Strategies


坚强的领导,来源于正确的领导;正确的领导,来源于正确的决策。对中国共产党这样一个大党来讲,政策和策略是党的生命。100年来,党在历史重大转折到来时,能够比较好地、有预见地、全面客观地分析研究形势,并在此基础上制定切合实际的目标和任务、政策和路径,使全党在正确路线指引下有条不紊地开展工作。
Robust leadership comes from sound leadership; sound leadership comes from rational policymaking. For a party as large as the CPC, policymaking is its lifeline. Over the past hundred years, at every historic juncture, the CPC has been able to analyze the situation from an overall, objective and forward-looking perspective, and set forth practical goals, tasks, policies and roadmaps. It is the Party's sound guidelines that have enabled it to carry out its work in a well-organized and systematic manner.


制定正确的路线方针政策。在不同历史时期,党科学分析面临形势,准确把握内外条件,在此基础上制定路线方针政策。党在成立之初,制定了最高纲领和最低纲领,指出中国革命必须分两步走,为革命斗争明确了基本方向。抗日战争时期,党制定全面抗战路线和打持久战的战略方针,为抗战胜利指明了方向。社会主义革命时期,制定了“一化三改”的过渡时期总路线⑬,为迈向社会主义社会指明了路径。改革开放后,党制定了“一个中心、两个基本点”的社会主义初级阶段基本路线⑭,确保了中国特色社会主义沿着正确方向不断发展。党的十八大后,党坚持基本理论、基本路线、基本方略,提出统筹推进“五位一体”总体布局、协调推进“四个全面”战略布局,确立了新时代坚持和发展中国特色社会主义的战略规划和部署。正是有了正确的路线方针,党的事业才有所指,全党才有所依,人民才有所趋,才形成了为实现目标共同奋斗的强大力量。
The CPC is adept at formulating sound guidelines, principles and policies. At different historical stages, the Party has succeeded in devising the right policies based on an accurate analysis of domestic and international developments.In the early years of the CPC, at its Second National Congress in 1922, the Party set forth its primary platform of achieving national independence and establishing a democratic republic, and its ultimate goal of realizing socialism and communism, pointing out the direction for a two-step Chinese revolution.During the War of Resistance Against Japanese Aggression, the Party identified the correct path towards ultimate success, adopting the strategy of total resistance and protracted war.During the Socialist Revolution, the Party devised the general guideline for the transition period [ In 1953, the CPC Central Committee adopted the Party's general guideline for the transition period from the founding of the PRC in 1949 to the completion of socialist transformation. The master plan was to realize socialist industrialization and transformation of agriculture, craft industries, and capitalist industry and commerce step by step over a considerable period of time.], mapping out the road towards socialism.After the adoption of reform and opening up, at its 13th National Congress in 1987, the Party formulated the basic guidelines for the primary stage of socialism – One Central Task, Two Basic Points [ In 1987, at its 13th National Congress, the CPC specified its basic guidelines for building socialism with Chinese characteristics in the primary stage – to unite with and lead the people of all ethnic groups, take economic development as the central task, uphold the Four Cardinal Principles (the socialist road, the people's democratic dictatorship, the CPC's leadership, and Marxism-Leninism and Mao Zedong Thought), and uphold the policy of reform and opening up, be self-reliant, hard working and enterprising, to build China into a prosperous, strong, democratic, culturally advanced and modern socialist country. ] – to keep socialism with Chinese characteristics progressing on the right track.After its 18th National Congress, in accordance with its basic theories, guidelines and policies, the Party specified the measures for upholding and developing Chinese socialism in the new era, proposing the Five-sphere Integrated Plan for coordinating economic, political, cultural, social and eco-environmental progress, and the Four-pronged Comprehensive Strategy for achieving moderate prosperity, furthering reform, advancing the rule of law and strengthening Party self-governance.It is due to sound policymaking that the great cause of the CPC has remained on the right course, the CPC has rational guidelines to follow, the Chinese people have been able to enjoy tangible benefits, and the entire Chinese nation has forged a strong synergy to pursue shared dreams and aspirations.


制定阶段性发展目标和战略。为了实现长远目标,中国共产党采取渐进策略,提出一个时期内的目标任务和实现路径,一步一步推进,积小胜为大胜。上世纪60年代,在社会主义革命完成、社会主义建设取得显著成效后,党提出了在20世纪内实现“四个现代化”的奋斗目标和实现这个目标的“两步走”设想⑮。改革开放初期,党提出到20世纪末人民生活达到小康水平的目标。上世纪80年代中期,党制定“三步走”发展战略⑯;90年代中期,制定新的“三步走”发展战略⑰。进入新世纪,党提出在21世纪头20年,全面建设惠及十几亿人口的更高水平的小康社会。党的十八大提出到建党100年时全面建成小康社会。党的十九大提出在全面建成小康社会后到2035年基本实现社会主义现代化、到21世纪中叶建成社会主义现代化强国的奋斗目标。这些目标和部署,既保持一定的连续性稳定性,又根据实际情况及时进行调整,以更好适应发展了的新形势。集中统一领导的政治优势,使得党可以根据长远战略制定阶段性目标,有效协调整体利益和局部利益、长远利益和眼前利益,团结各方为了实现共同目标一起努力,国家的法律、政策也得以稳定连贯实施。在不同历史时期制定并实现阶段性目标,使中国几十年如一日地向前发展迈进,使社会主义现代化的目标一步步成为现实。
The CPC is adept at formulating time-phased development goals and strategies. To achieve its long-range goals, the Party has adopted progressive tactics – defining time-phased objectives and roadmaps and achieving successes in steps.

In the 1960s, after the Socialist Revolution had been completed and initial success in socialist development had been made, the Party set the goal of achieving the Four Modernizations – of industry, agriculture, national defense, and science and technology – by the end of the 20th century, and to this end devised a Two-stage Plan on Economic Development [ In the 1960s, the CPC Central Committee issued a Two-stage Plan on Economic Development, effective since 1966, the first year of the Third Five-year Plan (1966-1970) period: The first stage was to build an independent and relatively comprehensive industrial and economic system by 1980; and the second stage was to achieve modernization of agriculture, industry, national defense, and science and technology by the end of the 20th century, bringing China to the forefront of the global economy.].

In the early stages of reform and opening up, the Party set the goal of providing a relatively comfortable life for the people by the end of the 20th century.

In the mid-1980s, the Party formulated a Three-step Strategy for Economic Development [ In 1987, at its 13th National Congress, the CPC put forward a Three-step Strategy for Economic Development: The first step was to double the 1980 GNP by the end of the 1980s, to ensure the people have adequate food and clothing; the second step was to quadruple the 1980 GNP by the end of the 20th century, to ensure the people live a relatively comfortable life; and the third step was to increase the per capita GNP to the level of moderately developed countries by the mid-21st century, to ensure the people live a well-off life and basically achieve modernization. ] to meet this goal.

In the mid-1990s, the Party proposed a New Three-step Strategy for Economic Development [ In 1997, at its 15th National Congress, the CPC proposed a New Three-step Strategy for Economic Development: The first step was to double the 2000 GNP by 2010, to ensure the people live a better-off life and form a relatively complete system of socialist market economy; the second step was to achieve greater economic growth and establish more complete systems and institutions by 2020; and the third step was to realize basic modernization and build China into a prosperous, strong, democratic and culturally advanced socialist country by the mid-21st century, when the PRC would celebrate its centenary in 2049. ] to meet this goal.

Entering the new century, the Party proposed to build a well-off society of a higher standard in an all-round way to the benefit of well over one billion people in the first two decades of the 21st century.

In 2012, at its 18th National Congress, the Party set the goal of achieving moderate prosperity in all respects by 2021 when the CPC would celebrate its centenary.

In 2017, at its 19th National Congress, the Party set the goals of building on moderate prosperity in all respects to realize basic socialist modernization by 2035, and turning China into a strong, prosperous and modern socialist country by the mid-21st century.

The CPC has worked to see that the above goals and plans remain consistent, but are always adaptable to changing realities and new developments.

Centralized leadership by the Party is one of China's political strengths. It enables the Party to formulate time-phased objectives based on long-range plans. It makes it possible to balance overall with particular interests, and long-term with immediate interests, to forge unity among all social forces to achieve common goals, and to ensure consistency in the implementation of state laws and policies. A step-by-step approach to policymaking has for many years brought China ever closer to the goals of socialist modernization.


通过规划引领发展、化解挑战。制定和实施国民经济和社会发展五年规划(计划),是中国共产党推动发展、实现发展的成功经验。以五年为一个发展阶段,时间长度合适,可以保持政策的稳定和延续,既谋好大事,又办成大事。从1953年实行国民经济第一个五年计划,到现在正实施第十四个五年规划。从上世纪90年代,党把制定五年计划和十年规划结合起来,根据十年或者更长时间经济发展的总趋势和奋斗目标来确定五年计划,使五年计划更具长远性。五年计划制定过程中,深入调查研究,广泛征求意见,反复协商,形成共识。为实现国家规划的落实,建立以国家发展规划为统领的规划体系,把全国总目标按照不同层级、不同类别分解成为若干子目标,使全国形成一盘棋。通过制定规划引领发展,已经从经济社会领域扩展到国家治理的其他领域。具有前瞻性的发展规划和可行性的具体举措相结合,既避免了“只讲长远目标”而“缺乏具体行动”的空谈,也避免了“只顾低头拉车”而“忘了抬头看路”的短视,对于党的事业长期稳定发展发挥了重要作用。
The CPC is adept at spearheading development and overcoming challenges through systematic planning. The mechanism of Five-year Plans on National Economic and Social Development has proven successful. Five years is an appropriate time span to ensure consistency in policymaking and to plan and accomplish major programs and projects. Since the implementation of the First Five-year Plan (1953-1957), the CPC has introduced a total of 14 such plans, with the 14th Five-year Plan (20212025) now under way.In the 1990s, the Party launched a mechanism of Ten-year Outline Programs to anticipate general trends of economic development in the next decade or the foreseeable future. The purpose is to set long-range goals, provide a framework for the Five-year Plans, and make the plans more future-oriented. In preparing Five-year Plans, the Party conducts in-depth research and many rounds of extensive consultations.To implement its time-phased plans and programs, a system of national planning guided by the country's overall development strategies has been established. This system divides overall goals into sub-goals in different categories and at various levels to ensure coordinated nationwide development.The system has expanded from social and economic fields to other areas of state governance. With proactive plans and feasible measures, the Party has succeeded in eliminating both "grand words and no concrete action" on long-range goals, and blinkered carthorses feverishly dragging their loads with no real idea of where they are heading.


试点先行,稳步推进。对关系国计民生的重大问题,党既反对保守,也反对冒进,既大胆试、大胆闯,又实事求是、稳扎稳打,在综合平衡中稳中求进。把制定长期政策目标和广泛的政策试验结合起来,中央设定大的政策目标,在地方设立试点或试验区摸索具体的实施方法,然后总结试点经验,以点带面、以点串线地推广到其他地方,实现探索、试错、纠错、前进的螺旋式发展。党提出并实行改革决策与立法决策相衔接,确保重大改革于法有据、顺利实施。注重发挥法治固根本、稳预期、利长远的保障作用,及时将实践证明行之有效的改革成果上升为法律制度和国家政策。对试点先行中的风险和挑战,党及时作出分析并进行相应的政策和制度调整,避免了在全国推行时出现大范围政策失误甚至引发社会震荡。从建立经济特区到设立中国(上海)自由贸易试验区,从建设雄安新区到支持深圳建设中国特色社会主义先行示范区、支持浦东新区高水平改革开放打造社会主义现代化建设引领区、支持浙江高质量发展建设共同富裕示范区等,党通过试点办法,积极而又稳妥地成功推进一系列重大改革。试点先行、由点到面的工作方法,既实现了改革的“蹄疾步稳”,也将地方的创新精神融入中央的政策制定过程中,促进了中央和地方的良性互动,提高了政策的创新力和适应力。经过长期探索实践,中国实现了以试点促改革、以改革促发展、以发展促稳定,人民在共享发展和稳定“红利”后进一步支持改革的良性循环。
The CPC is adept at conducting pilot programs before launching nationwide reform measures. In addressing issues vital to the economy, development and people's wellbeing, the Party opposes both conservative thinking and impetuous actions, preferring to seek practical, balanced and steady progress while encouraging bold experiments and breakthroughs. Confirming long-term development goals and implementing related policies is always preceded by small-scale pilot programs. Within the policy framework of the central government, regional pilot programs are conducted to work out specific methods, through testing, modifying and then wider application, for the implementation of a particular national policy. These specific methods, if successful, will be gradually replicated by other localities.

The Party's reform initiatives are implemented through national legislation so as to ensure their legal basis and assist their smooth and effective application. The Party attaches great importance to the rule of law and considers it a guarantee for consolidating the foundations of the Party's governance, meeting people's expectations, and maintaining long-term development. Successful reform measures are codified into state laws and policies in a timely manner.

To mitigate the risks of any social instability or other problems that might arise from the ill-judged nationwide rollout of a pilot program, the Party conducts timely analysis of the results of the pilot and makes the appropriate policy adjustments.

The Party has launched a series of major reform initiatives through pilot programs, including:

•special economic zones,

•China (Shanghai) Pilot Free Trade Zone,

•Xiong'an New Area,

•Shenzhen Pilot Demonstration Zone for Chinese Socialism,

•Pudong Leading Pilot Zone for Socialist Modernization Through High-level Reform and Opening Up,

•Zhejiang Demonstration Zone for Common Prosperity Through High-quality Development.

The pilot approach has ensured that vigorous reform can make steady progress. It has made national policies more creative and adaptable, and facilitated positive interaction between the policymaking of central government and the innovative initiatives of local government.

Through constant experiment and practice, China has created a positive cycle – promoting reform through pilot programs, propelling development through reform, maintaining stability through development, and winning public support for reform by sharing the fruits of development achievements with the people.

 

(三)决策部署有效贯彻
3. Effective Implementation of Decisions and Plans


中国共产党这样一个大党,如果没有坚强有力的组织支撑和纪律约束,就是一盘散沙,大而不强,没有力量。100年来,中国共产党建组织、严纪律、强法治,真正使千百万党员凝聚起来,真正把亿万人民组织起来,保证了党的决策部署能够及时、坚决、有力地贯彻执行。
If there were no strong organizational support and disciplinary restraints, the CPC would become fragmented and remain weak in spite of its massive size. Over the past hundred years, the Party has been consistent in building its organization, tightening its discipline and strengthening the rule of law. It has united tens of millions of Party members and organized hundreds of millions of Chinese people, thereby ensuring that its decisions and plans are implemented in a timely, resolute and forceful manner.


建立上下贯通、执行有力的组织体系。中国共产党的酝酿和发起,就是以“成立一个强固的精密的组织”为目标的。经过长期发展,党建立起由党的中央组织、地方组织、基层组织构成的科学严密的组织体系。党的最高领导机关是党的全国代表大会和它所产生的中央委员会,中央委员会、中央政治局、中央政治局常务委员会是党的组织体系的大脑和中枢,党中央制定党的大政方针,具有定于一尊、一锤定音的权威。党的各级地方组织负责党中央的决策部署在本地区的贯彻落实,并把基层和党员的意见建议报送党中央,是承上启下、实现政令畅通的重要环节。486万多个基层党组织,广泛分布在企业、农村、机关、学校、科研院所、街道社区、社会组织、解放军连队等基层单位,是党的肌体的“神经末梢”,负责把党中央和上级党组织的决策部署贯彻落实到基层末端,并收集反映党员和群众的意见建议。9500多万党员在基层组织中发挥先锋模范作用。依托这种广泛的、严密的、坚强的组织体系,党中央既可以“如身使臂、如臂使指”,灵活高效地进行指挥,使党的大政方针和决策部署及时地、不折不扣地贯彻落实到基层,又可以使党的组织和党员深深扎根人民,不断巩固党的执政根基。
The CPC has built an organizational system featuring unimpeded communication and effective policy implementation at all levels. Prior to and during the creation of the CPC, its founders aimed to establish a strong and tightly-knit organization. Over the years, the Party has established a sound and complete structure consisting of the central, local and grassroots units.

The highest leading bodies of the Party are the National Congress, and the Central Committee which it elects. The Central Committee, the Political Bureau of the Central Committee, and the Standing Committee of the Political Bureau are like the brain and nerve center of a body. The Central Committee is responsible for formulating the Party's policies and guidelines. Therefore, it has the authority to make the final decisions.

Local Party organizations are responsible for implementing the Central Committee's decisions and plans in their respective areas, and for reporting feedback and suggestions from grassroots Party organizations and Party members to the Central Committee. Hence they are important intermediate links helping realize the smooth transmission and implementation of policies.

There are more than 4.86 million grassroots Party organizations, widely distributed in enterprises, villages, Party and government institutions, schools, research institutes, sub-districts, communities, social organizations, military units and other grassroots entities. They are like the nerve endings of the Party, responsible for implementing, at the relevant level, the decisions and plans of the Central Committee and the Party organizations at each successive level up. They also collect and report the concerns and suggestions of Party members and the people. More than 95 million Party members also play an exemplary role in grassroots organizations.

With such an extensive, well-knit and strong organizational system, the Central Committee can command with flexibility and efficiency the subordinate Party organizations just as the brain employs the arms and the arms employ the fingers. This is why the Party's policies, guidelines, decisions and plans are implemented fully and rapidly at the grassroots. This is why the Party's organizations and members keep close ties with the people and constantly reinforce the foundations of the Party's governance.

 

具有严明的纪律规矩。纪律是党的生命线。没有铁的纪律,就没有党的团结统一,政令就不能通达,党的凝聚力和战斗力、领导力和执行力就会大大削弱。革命战争年代,党作出“三大纪律、八项注意”⑱等纪律规定,提出“加强纪律性,革命无不胜”,加强了内部团结,赢得了人民支持。改革开放新时期,针对资产阶级自由化思潮和西方腐朽生活方式的冲击影响,党提出“一靠理想二靠纪律才能团结起来”,着力加强纪律建设。党的十八大以来,党把纪律建设作为全面从严治党的治本之策,把严明政治纪律、政治规矩摆在首位,坚持依规治党、形成比较完善的党内法规体系,加强党员教育管理,严肃查处违规违纪行为,尊党章、守纪律、讲规矩在党内更加鲜明地立了起来。严明的纪律规矩加上严密的组织体系,使得党像一台结构复杂的精密机器,紧密、协调、高效运转,产生强大力量。
The CPC has strict discipline and rules. Discipline is the lifeline of the Party. Without strict discipline, there would be no unity and solidarity in the Party, policies would not be communicated and implemented smoothly, and the Party's cohesiveness and leadership would be seriously weakened.

In the years of revolutionary war, convinced that "the army will win all battles in revolution as long as discipline is strengthened", the Party issued the Three Main Rules of Discipline and the Eight Points for Attention [ The Three Main Rules of Discipline and the Eight Points for Attention were formulated by Mao Zedong and other Party and military leaders for the Chinese Workers' and Peasants' Red Army during the Agrarian Revolutionary War (1927-1937). Later, they were applied to the Eighth Route Army, the New Fourth Army and the People's Liberation Army (PLA). The contents varied slightly in different military units and different periods of history. In October 1947, they were unified and reissued by the General Headquarters of the PLA. The Three Main Rules of Discipline are as follows: (1) Obey orders in all your actions; (2) Do not take a single needle or piece of thread from the people; (3) Turn in everything that is captured. The Eight Points for Attention are as follows: (1) Speak politely; (2) Pay fairly for what you buy; (3) Return everything you borrow; (4) Pay for anything you damage; (5) Do not hit or swear at people; (6) Do not damage crops; (7) Do not take liberties with women; (8) Do not ill-treat captives.]. It used these to reinforce its internal unity and win popular support.

After the beginning of reform and opening up, in response to the adverse impact of bourgeois liberalization and the decadent Western lifestyle, the Party proposed that unity depends on ideals and discipline, and made great efforts to strengthen discipline.

Since its 18th National Congress, the CPC has employed the enforcement of discipline as an essential tool in its full and rigorous self-governance. It has prioritized its efforts to enforce strict political discipline and rules, and is committed to running itself with rigor by forming a sound system of Party regulations. It has strengthened guidance and management of Party members, and strictly investigated and punished violations of discipline and rules. As a result, the principle of observing the Party's constitution, discipline and rules has become more firmly established.

Strict discipline and rules and a sound organizational system ensure that the sophisticated machine of the Party runs efficiently, with all its parts well-coordinated, generating a powerful force.

 

把党的领导落实到国家治理各领域各方面各环节。中国共产党作为执政党,通过建立和完善国家治理体系开展执政活动、实现执政目标。党通过领导国家政权机关,将党的领导体现到国家政权机构、体制、制度等的设计、安排、运行之中,有效实现了党的主张与国家意志的有机统一。党始终支持和保证国家政权机关依照宪法法律积极主动、独立负责、协调一致地开展工作。按照党管干部、党管人才原则,党通过甄选德才兼备的优秀人才,按照法定程序推荐到国家政权机关并成为其中的领导人员;又通过国家政权机关实现党对国家和社会的领导,确保党的领导意志贯彻落实到国家治理之中。在国家机关、事业单位、群团组织、社会组织、企业和其他组织中设立党委(党组),由批准其成立的党组织统一领导。在非公有制经济组织和社会组织中建立健全党的组织,做到党和人民的事业发展到哪里,党的组织就覆盖到哪里。党的十八大后,党深化党和国家机构改革,对党和国家组织结构和管理体制进行系统性整体性重构,党的领导体系、政府治理体系进一步健全,党的领导力、政府执行力进一步增强。中国特色社会主义具有制度优势,一个重要方面就是党的领导的政治优势与国家治理的制度优势有机结合,使得党、国家和人民成为目标相同、利益一致、相互交融、同心同向的整体,产生了极大耦合力,最大限度地避免了内耗,显著提升了国家治理效能。
The CPC ensures that its leadership is followed in all aspects of state governance. As a governing party, the CPC exercises governance and realizes its goals by establishing and improving the state governance system. By exercising leadership over departments running state power, and embodying its leadership in the design, setup and functioning of state power systems and institutions, the Party has effectively integrated its views with the will of the state.

The Party actively supports the work of the government in accordance with the Constitution and other laws. With the Party supervising officials and exercising leadership over staff, the CPC selects talented people of integrity and ability, and recommends candidates for leadership positions in government in accordance with statutory procedures. The Party exercises leadership over the state and society through the agencies of state power, and thus ensures that its decisions are implemented in the governance of the country.

The Party establishes Party committees or Party leadership groups in government agencies, public institutions, people's organizations, social groups, enterprises and other entities, and places them under the unified leadership of the Party organizations at the next level up. The Party sets up and improves Party organizations in non-public economic entities and social organizations, to ensure that its leadership reaches all social undertakings.

Since its 18th National Congress, the CPC has further reformed Party and government institutions, and conducted thorough and systematic restructuring of the organization and management of the Party and the government. As a result, the Party's leadership system and the government's administrative system have improved, and the leadership of the Party and the government's capacity to deliver have been strengthened.

The integration of the Party leadership's political strengths and the government's institutional strengths unites the Party, the government and the people behind shared goals, interests and aspirations. This generates a huge cohesive force, keeps internal differences to a minimum, and significantly raises the efficiency of state governance. This is a clear manifestation of the institutional strengths of socialism with Chinese characteristics.

 

通过法治保障党的政策有效实施。崇尚法治、善用法治、厉行法治,是实现良政善治、保障党的政策实施的必然途径。中国共产党始终坚持依法治国,运用法治思维和法治手段巩固执政地位、改善执政方式、提高执政能力。新民主主义革命时期,党就在中央苏区、陕甘宁边区等局部执政地区,领导制定实施了有关土地、婚姻、劳动、财经等方面的法律。新中国成立后,在废除旧法统的同时,党积极运用新民主主义革命时期根据地法制建设的成功经验,初步奠定了社会主义法治的基础。党的十一届三中全会后,党总结民主法制建设正反两方面经验,加快推进社会主义法治建设,将“依法治国”确立为党领导人民治理国家的基本方略,将“依法执政”确立为党治国理政的基本方式。党的十八大以来,党站在巩固执政地位、确保国家长治久安的高度,定位法治、布局法治、厉行法治,将“全面依法治国”纳入“四个全面”战略布局,坚持党领导立法、保证执法、支持司法、带头守法,坚持依法治国首先要坚持依宪治国,进一步健全党领导全面依法治国的制度和工作机制,更好地通过法定程序使党的主张成为国家意志、形成法律,通过法律保障党的政策有效实施,有力推进了国家治理体系和治理能力现代化。
The CPC ensures effective implementation of its policies through the rule of law. Respecting and practicing the rule of law are essential to good governance and the implementation of the Party's policies. The CPC is committed to law-based governance and always applies law-based thinking and approaches to consolidate its governing status, improve its approach to governance, and strengthen its governance capability.

During the New Democratic Revolution, the Party supervised the formulation and implementation of laws on land, marriage, labor, finance and other matters in the Central Soviet Area, the Shaanxi-Gansu-Ningxia Border Region and other areas under its rule.

After founding the PRC, the Party applied its successful experience in introducing a new legal system in base areas during the New Democratic Revolution, and laid the foundations of socialist rule of law.

After the Third Plenary Session of the 11th CPC Central Committee, the Party reviewed the experience and lessons it had learned in building democracy and the legal system. It used this review to accelerate the implementation of socialist rule of law and establish law-based governance as the basic means of governing the country, and law-based exercise of state power as the basic tool for governance.

Since the 18th National Congress, to consolidate its position as the governing party and ensure lasting peace and stability, the CPC has emphasized the importance of the rule of law. Comprehensively advancing the rule of law is one prong of the Four-pronged Comprehensive Strategy. The Party provides guidance for legislation, guarantees law enforcement, supports judicial justice, and plays an exemplary role in abiding by the law. It holds that respecting the Constitution is essential to law-based governance. The Party is improving its working mechanisms for exercising law-based governance to ensure effective implementation of its policies through the law, and to modernize China's governance system and capacity.

 


(四)团结和凝聚各方力量
4. Pooling the Efforts of All Sectors


中国共产党之所以有力量,在于党在不同历史时期,始终把统一战线摆在重要位置,坚持大团结大联合,坚持一致性和多样性统一,加强思想政治引领,广泛凝聚共识,广聚天下英才,努力寻求最大公约数、画出最大同心圆,不断巩固和发展最广泛的统一战线,团结一切可以团结的力量、调动一切可以调动的积极因素,最大限度凝聚起共同奋斗的力量。爱国统一战线是党团结海内外全体中华儿女实现中华民族伟大复兴的重要法宝。
The CPC is strong because it has always placed the united front in an important position. It has ensured great unity and solidarity, and balanced commonality and diversity. It has strengthened theoretical and political guidance, built broad consensus, brought together the brightest minds, and expanded common ground and the convergence of interests. It has always consolidated and developed the broadest possible front, combining all the forces that can be united, mobilizing all positive factors, and pooling as much strength as possible for collective endeavors. The patriotic united front is an important means for the Party to unite all the sons and daughters of the Chinese nation, both at home and abroad, behind the goal of national rejuvenation.


团结和凝聚各方力量战胜强大敌人。大革命时期,中国共产党积极推动同中国国民党的合作,建立国民革命联合战线,给予帝国主义在华的侵略势力和北洋军阀的反动统治以致命打击。抗日战争时期,党推动建立抗日民族统一战线,工人阶级、农民阶级、城市小资产阶级、民族资产阶级、海外华侨、一部分地主买办阶级,以不同形式参加了抗日民族统一战线,使抗日战争成为全民族的反侵略战争。解放战争时期,党在农村、在城市、在国民党军队中,团结一切可以团结的力量,建立最广泛的人民民主统一战线,人民军队能够在那么短的时间内取得三大战役胜利,解放战争能够以如此之快的速度向前推进,与各方广泛支持是分不开的。
The CPC has united with and pooled the efforts of all sectors to defeat powerful enemies. During the Great Revolution (1924-1927), the Party actively called for cooperation with the KMT, which resulted in a nationalist revolutionary united front, striking a blow against foreign imperialist forces in China and ending the reactionary rule of the Northern Warlords.

During the War of Resistance Against Japanese Aggression, the CPC campaigned for a national united front. Workers, peasants, urban petty bourgeoisie, national bourgeoisie, overseas Chinese, and some landlords and compradors answered the call in various ways, waging an all-out people's war.

During the War of Liberation, the Party united all possible forces in both rural and urban areas, even among the KMT troops, forming the broadest possible people's democratic united front. The extensive support of so many parties was indispensable to the victory of the PLA in the three major campaigns and to the rapid success of the War of Liberation.


建立人民大众的、各方面共同参与的人民政权。延安时期,党就倡导建立“民主联合政府”;陕甘宁边区政府实行共产党员、党外进步人士、中间派各占三分之一的“三三制”政权制度,极大调动了各方面人士参与边区建设的热情。新中国成立前夕,在中国共产党倡议下,中国人民政治协商会议召开,中国共产党、各民主党派、无党派人士、各人民团体、人民解放军、各地区、各民族以及国外华侨代表,代表4亿中国人民,充分发扬民主,开展热烈讨论,协商完成了建国大业。新中国成立后,党继续坚持走人民民主统一战线的道路,凝聚各方力量建设国家。改革开放以来,党同全国各民族工人、农民、知识分子,同各民主党派、无党派人士、各民族的爱国力量团结在一起,进一步发展和壮大由全体社会主义劳动者、社会主义事业的建设者、拥护社会主义的爱国者、拥护祖国统一和致力于中华民族伟大复兴的爱国者组成的最广泛的爱国统一战线,为民族复兴大业汇聚各方力量。
The CPC has founded a people's government in which all parties participate. During its Yan'an Period (1935-1948), the Party proposed a "democratic coalition government", with CPC members, non-CPC progressives, and centrists each accounting for one third of the Shaanxi-Gansu-Ningxia Border Region government. This aroused great enthusiasm among all parties involved in the arrangement.

Shortly before the founding of the PRC, the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC) was convened at the behest of the CPC. The CPC, the other political parties, the non-affiliates, people's organizations, and the PLA were all represented, as were various regions and ethnic groups and overseas Chinese. On behalf of some 400 million Chinese people, they engaged in a lively democratic debate and agreed on the terms for the founding of the People's Republic.

After the PRC was founded, the Party continued to maintain the people's democratic united front, involving participants from all walks of life in reconstruction.

After policies for reform and opening up were implemented, the CPC united workers, farmers, intellectuals, and other patriots, regardless of their party affiliation or ethnic background, expanding the patriotic united front and making it as broad as possible. Formed of all builders of socialism, patriotic supporters of socialism, and patriots who support the reunification of the country and the rejuvenation of the Chinese nation, the front represents a combined effort to achieve the rejuvenation of the Chinese nation.


探索形成新型政党制度。在长期的革命、建设、改革进程中,中国共产党与各民主党派、无党派人士,长期共存、互相监督、肝胆相照、荣辱与共,形成了中国共产党领导的多党合作和政治协商制度。这一新型政党制度,能够真实、广泛、持久地代表并实现最广大人民和全国各族各界的根本利益,有效避免了旧式政党制度只代表少数人、少数利益集团的弊端,有效克服了政党之间互相倾轧造成政权更迭频繁的弊端。中国共产党作为执政党,处于领导地位和执政地位,善于听取意见,乐于接受监督,勇于接受批评。各民主党派作为中国特色社会主义参政党,是中国共产党的好参谋、好帮手、好同事,积极参与国家政权建设和国家大政方针制定,在促进国家政策、法律法规的制定实施等方面发挥了重要作用。
The CPC has formed a new political party system. During the long process of revolution, reconstruction and reform, the CPC, together with the other political parties and the non-affiliates, has formed a CPC-led system of multi-party cooperation and political consultation based on long-term coexistence, mutual oversight, sincerity and sharing weal and woe. This new model can truly, extensively, and consistently promote the interests of the maximum number of people of all ethnic groups and social sectors. It is effective in avoiding the drawbacks of the old political party system that stood for only a small number of people and interest groups, and it can prevent the frequent changes of regime caused by internal strife among political parties.As the governing party, the CPC is willing and able to hear opinions, and accept scrutiny and criticism. As participants in socialism with Chinese characteristics, the non-CPC political parties function as advisors and assistants of the CPC, and play an active role in establishing the people's government and formulating important national strategies and policies. They have played a key role in devising and implementing national policies, laws and regulations.


不断激发全体人民团结奋进力量。物质生活的日益丰富、和平时期的承平日久,可能会滋生拜金主义、享乐主义、个人主义,导致理想信念消退、奋斗精神缺失、社会凝聚力下降。党对此保持清醒认识,在推进物质文明不断发展的同时,高度重视精神文明建设,坚持不懈在全社会开展党的创新理论、理想信念、奋斗精神教育,加强思想舆论引导,展示昂扬向上的社会主流,反映发展进步的社会本质,营造团结奋进的社会氛围。加强青少年教育,引导他们坚定理想信念、继承革命精神、传承红色基因,扣好人生第一粒扣子,在党的领导下把红色江山守卫好,一代一代传下去。
The CPC has systematically inspired and rallied the people to work together and make progress. Growing affluence and an extended period of peace may breed mammonism, hedonism and self-centrism, leading to a weakening of resolve, a loss of fighting spirit, and a decline in social cohesion.

Always conscious of this, while promoting continuous progress in material terms, the CPC also attaches great importance to education in culture and ethics. It carries out systematic campaigns to encourage the general public to study the Party's theories, ideals, beliefs, and spirit, so as to strengthen guidance and create a positive atmosphere for social development, unity and progress.

The CPC has stepped up education of young people, encouraging them to hold fast to its ideals and beliefs, carry forward the revolutionary spirit, and pass down revolutionary traditions. The Party works to ensure that they are on the right track when starting their lives. Thus, under the CPC's leadership, they will be able to safeguard the socialist country and pass it from generation to generation.


凝聚海外侨胞力量。海外侨胞是中华民族大家庭的重要成员,是实现中华民族伟大复兴的重要力量。党在不同历史时期,团结号召海外侨胞积极投身中华民族复兴大业。广大海外侨胞不忘祖国、不忘祖籍,热情支持中国革命、建设、改革事业,为中华民族发展壮大、促进祖国和平统一大业、增进中国人民同各国人民的友好合作作出了重要贡献。国家的强盛、民族的复兴,极大增强了海外侨胞的民族自豪感和向心力。
The CPC has gathered the strengths of overseas Chinese. Overseas Chinese are important members of the great Chinese family, and a vital force for the rejuvenation of the Chinese nation. The Party has united with and called on them to play their part in national revival.Overseas Chinese, with the motherland and hometown in their hearts, have given unstinting support to China's revolution, reconstruction and reform, and made a huge contribution to the development of the nation, the reunification of the motherland, and the cooperation between the peoples of China and other countries. China's growing prosperity and national rejuvenation have given a great boost to their pride in the nation and sense of identity.

 

(五)建设高素质干部队伍
5. Fostering High-Caliber Party Officials


政治路线确定以后,干部就是决定因素。党之所以能够实现对党和国家事业的全面领导,能够实现对各个领域各个行业的领导,关键是有一支规模宏大的高素质干部队伍,关键是能够聚天下英才而用之。
With the CPC's political guidelines clearly defined, how officials carry out their duties makes a great difference to the performance of the Party. The CPC can realize its overall leadership over state affairs and in all sectors of society because a large number of high-caliber officials play their role to the best of their ability.


吸引汇聚先进分子。自古以来,中国的仁人志士就有忧国忧民的家国情怀。中国共产党的理想信念、性质宗旨与中国先进分子价值追求的一致性,使得党对先进分子具有强大的吸引力,成为他们一心向往、施展抱负、实现价值的依托。党成立之初,许多家境富裕的青年知识分子放弃优渥生活,加入中国共产党,选择了可能牺牲生命的革命事业。延安时期,全国各界的许多进步人士纷纷奔赴延安,很多热血青年更是“只要还有一口气,爬也要爬到延安城”。新中国成立后,许多在海外的优秀科学家,突破重重封锁回国,为新中国建设贡献力量。今天的中国繁荣发展,为各路英才实现人生理想搭建了更加广阔的舞台。党在不同历史时期,都能吸引汇聚中国最优秀的群体,为民族独立、人民解放和国家富强、人民幸福共同奋斗。
The CPC attracts progressive individuals. For millennia, dedicated progressives in China have demonstrated a deep concern for the country and the people. Today they are attracted to the CPC to realize their aspirations, as the Party's ideals, beliefs and principles are consistent with their values and goals.

In the early years of the CPC, a large number of young intellectuals left their well-off families and joined the Party in its struggle, ready to sacrifice their lives for the Chinese revolution wherever and whenever they might be called upon to do so.

During the Yan'an period, progressive individuals from every sector of society overcame great difficulties to make the testing journey from all parts of the country to Yan'an, where the CPC Central Committee was located. Many young patriots were willing to risk their lives to complete the journey.

After the founding of the PRC, many outstanding overseas Chinese scientists made great efforts to break through the Western blockade and return to China in order to work for the country.

Today's China, on the path to greater prosperity and development, provides an even larger arena for talented individuals to fulfill their aspirations.

Throughout history, the CPC has always been able to gather the most outstanding social groups, all dedicated to the nation's independence, the people's liberation and wellbeing, and the country's prosperity.


重视选贤任能。党始终把选人用人作为关系党和人民事业的关键性根本性问题来抓。革命战争年代,党培养了一大批对党忠诚、英勇善战、不怕牺牲的优秀干部。新中国成立后,随着党的工作重心由农村转向城市、由战争转向生产建设,党培养了一大批懂政治、懂业务、又红又专的优秀干部。改革开放后,适应社会主义现代化建设新要求,党提出建设“革命化、年轻化、知识化、专业化”干部队伍的要求,一批年富力强、锐意改革的优秀干部走上领导岗位。党的十八大以来,党总结干部队伍建设经验,把从严治吏、培养选拔党和人民需要的好干部作为从严治党的重要内容,进一步明确以什么标准选人、选什么样的人、怎样选人,为优秀人才脱颖而出创造了更好条件,培养选拔了一大批新时代的好干部。
The CPC values talented and capable professionals. Selecting and appointing talent has always been of fundamental importance in advancing the cause of the Party and the people.

During the revolutionary war years, the CPC trained a large number of qualified officials who were loyal to the Party, brave and skillful in battle, and unafraid to sacrifice their lives.

After the founding of the PRC, as the CPC shifted its focus from rural areas to cities, and from war to reconstruction, it trained a cohort of officials who were politically solid and professionally competent.

After the beginning of reform and opening up, to facilitate socialist modernization, the CPC began to select officials who were younger, better educated, more professional, and more dedicated to the revolution. A group of young officials committed to reform rose to positions of leadership.

Since its 18th National Congress, selecting and training officials, and tightening their discipline, have been key to strengthening the Party. The CPC has further clarified the standards and procedures for selecting officials for the new era, enabling a large number of outstanding candidates to emerge.


把好干部选出来、用起来。中国共产党在长期探索中,传承中国历史上选贤任能的优良传统,借鉴其他国家的有益做法,形成了选拔、任用、培训、管理、考核、激励等比较完备的选人用人体系,使优秀人才发现得了、培养得好、用得起来。制定党的干部工作方针,强调坚持党管干部原则,坚持德才兼备、以德为先,坚持五湖四海、任人唯贤,坚持事业为上、公道正派,坚持注重实绩、群众公认。提出“信念坚定、为民服务、勤政务实、敢于担当、清正廉洁”的好干部标准,体现了对干部综合素质的要求。干部录用主要是通过严格公平的考试,从全社会优秀人才中选拔。干部提拔晋升,按照好干部标准,围绕德、能、勤、绩、廉,经过组织推荐、民主评议、个别谈话、会议决定等多个程序深入进行考察,同时,严格实行“凡提四必”⑲等制度,防止“带病提拔”。党的各级干部,都是一步步成长起来的,都是通过层层考核选拔出来的优秀者。党高度重视干部的使用培训,通过在职培训、挂职锻炼、交叉任职、多岗轮换等多种形式,提升履职尽责的素质能力,着力建设忠诚干净担当的高素质专业化干部队伍。
The CPC selects competent officials and puts them to good use. Drawing on domestic and foreign experience, the CPC has developed a comprehensive system for selecting, appointing, training, managing, evaluating and incentivizing officials, allowing competent officials to be identified and trained, then assigned to the posts where they are most needed.

The Party selects officials regardless of background, on the basis of both integrity and ability, with priority given to integrity. The Party appoints officials who are dedicated, impartial, upright, pragmatic and successful.

Qualified officials must be firm in their ideals and convictions, willing to serve the people, diligent in work, ready to take on responsibilities, honest and upright.

The recruitment of officials is based on the results of fair national exams and reviews.

The promotion of officials, based on the assessment of integrity, ability, diligence, performance and incorruptibility, follows strict procedures – recommendation by Party organizations, assessment by the public, oral inquiries, and group discussions. To prevent incompetent or even corrupt officials from being promoted, the Party has adopted the mechanism of Four Musts [ Before a proposed promotion is confirmed, the archives of the candidate must be reviewed; the report on personal information must be subject to investigation; feedback from discipline inspection and supervision departments must be reviewed; and details of reported misconduct must be subject to investigation. ] for the selection and appointment of officials at all levels.

To improve officials' performance, the Party provides them with training in various forms, including on-the-job training and assignment to temporary posts, rotating posts, and concurrent Party/administrative posts. The aim is to train competent and professional officials who are loyal, honest and upright.


100年来,中国共产党从一棵小树成长为枝繁叶茂的参天大树。这棵大树,吸吮着马克思主义科学理论的养分,深深扎根于14亿多人民的丰厚土壤之中,坚强有力的党中央和领导核心是主干,党的各级组织是枝干,9500多万党员是树叶。这样一棵枝繁叶茂的大树,具有不断成长的内生动力,具有抵挡任何风雨侵袭的强大力量。
Over the past hundred years, the CPC has grown into a towering tree with its roots spreading throughout China, drawing on a wealth of experience from Marxism and serving 1.4 billion people. The CPC Central Committee with its leadership core is the trunk of the tree, the Party organizations at all levels the branches, and 95 million Party members the leaves. The tree continues to grow with vigor and vitality, impervious to wind and storm.

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