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1700余处出现险情!山西如何抢救暴雨中受损的文物?

中国日报网 2021-10-14 11:29

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近期,持续多日的强降雨波及山西中南部,令当地众多古建不同程度受损。

平遥古城城墙局部坍塌,修缮程序已对接启动。

 

The National Cultural Heritage Administration told a media briefing on Tuesday that 1,783 heritage sites across Shanxi had been damaged as of Monday. Major damage includes cracks in walls, leaking roofs, sinking foundations and broken outer fences. No injuries have been reported at the ancient architecture sites.
国家文物局10月12日表示,截至10月11日,山西省共有1783处文物不同程度地出现墙体开裂坍塌、屋顶漏雨、地基塌陷及周边护坡、围墙坍塌等险情。未造成人员伤亡。


近一半受灾文物“不可移动”

Among the damaged sites, 176 are registered key sites under national-level protection, 143 are under provincial-level protection, and 661 are under city- or county-level protection.
受灾害影响文物中,全国重点文物保护单位176处,省级文物保护单位143处,市县级文物保护单位661处。

【知识点】

全国重点文物保护单位(key historical and cultural sites under national-level protection)是中华文明的优秀代表和重要标识。1961年,国务院核定公布了第一批180处国保单位。根据2002年10月28日第九届全国人民代表大会常务委员会第三十次会议通过的《中华人民共和国文物保护法》第十三条的规定,国务院文物行政部门在省级、市、县级文物保护单位中,选择具有重大历史、艺术、科学价值的(those with significant historical, artistic and scientific value)确定为全国重点文物保护单位,或者直接确定为全国重点文物保护单位,报国务院核定公布。


Preliminary evaluations found most damage to be minor, the administration said, but 89 sites, including two national-level key sites and seven provincial-level sites, were reported to be "severely damaged", which means they partially collapsed or their overall construction safety is in jeopardy.
国家文物局表示,经初步研判,因灾受影响文物中大部分为一般性损伤。但有89处受损程度严重,即局部垮塌或造成重大结构风险,其中包括国家级保护单位2处,省级保护单位7处。

10月13日,工作人员在山西省洪洞县广胜寺进行抢修工作。


未核定文物缺乏修缮保护

山西文物资源丰富,在全省53875处不可移动文物中,全国重点文物保护单位531处(其中古建筑421处),省级文物保护单位408处(其中古建筑407处)。

Shanxi has one of the biggest trove of ancient architecture in China, with some of the oldest surviving Chinese buildings, dating back to the Tang Dynasty (618-907). Statistics from the Shanxi Provincial Cultural Heritage Administration show that over 28,000 ancient buildings remain standing, with 421 of them registered as national-level key sites.
山西拥有国内最大规模的古建文物,部分现存最古老的建筑建于唐代。山西省文物局的数据显示,该省现存古建筑28000多座,其中有421处为国家级文物保护单位。


However, many scattered heritage sites in the countryside, which are not rated, face the biggest threat from natural disasters like torrential rain. More than 800 sites damaged in the latest deluge are not included in protected lists at any level and have lacked renovation and protection.
然而,很多尚未核定的文物单位分散在乡间,遭遇暴雨等自然灾害时面临的危险更大。近期暴雨中受损的800多处文物不在任何一级的保护单位之列,缺乏修缮和保护。


如何保护文物?

From 2016 to 2020, over 1.06 billion yuan was allocated by the central and provincial governments for the renovation and consolidation of major ancient architecture in Shanxi.
2016至2020年,中央和山西省政府共拨款超10.6亿元用于山西省主要古建筑的修缮和加固。


In 2017, Shanxi launched an experimental program enabling enterprises to "adopt" ancient architecture and support its daily maintenance. The program, which covers 238 ancient architecture sites, has raised a total of 300 million yuan from enterprises.
2017年,山西省推出了一个试验项目,让企业“认领”古建筑并对其日常维护提供支持。该项目涵盖238处古建筑,已经筹集认领资金3亿元。

全国重点文物保护单位山西省汾城古建筑群的城隍庙一处建筑檐部瓦件脱落(10月12日摄)。


国家文物局部署抢险工作

An expert panel sent by the National Cultural Heritage Administration was conducting a field investigation in Shanxi for further evaluation and to guide local rescue efforts.
国家文物局派出的专家组正在山西实地勘查掌握文物受影响情况,指导文物救灾工作。


Emergency rescue funds would be allocated to save and remedy cultural heritage sites in Shanxi, and the damaged sites would become the focuses of future conservation projects. A comprehensive survey of the safety of heritage sites in the province will also be launched.
国家文物局紧急拨付文物应急抢险资金,支持山西开展因灾受损文物应急、抢险、修复等,并将在后续文物保护项目和经费上给予重点倾斜安排。同时,将在山西省开展文物安全全面巡查。

 

【相关词汇】

文化遗产 cultural heritage

文化自然双重遗产 cultural and natural heritage

文化多样性 cultural diversity

世界遗产名录 World Heritage List

申遗 bid for the World Heritage List

文化资源整合 integration of cultural resources


参考来源:新华网、中国日报

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