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《中国的出口管制》白皮书(双语全文)

新华网 2021-12-29 14:00

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二、不断完善出口管制法律制度和管理体制
II. Ongoing Improvements to the Legal and Regulatory System for Export Controls


中国坚持全面依法治国基本方略,既立足中国国情,又借鉴国外有益经验,不断健全出口管制法律制度,完善出口管制管理体制,为出口管制提供法治和体制保障。
Committed to the basic principle of pursuing law-based governance in all respects, China continues to improve its legal and regulatory system for export controls. To provide law-based and institutional export control guarantees, it bases its efforts on its national conditions and draws upon helpful experience from overseas.


(一)建立健全出口管制法律制度
1. Establishing and Improving a Legal System for Export Controls


改革开放以来,中国经济发展的内外环境发生了深刻变化,社会主义市场经济体制不断完善,出口管制工作的法治化水平不断提升。自20世纪90年代起,中国先后颁布《监控化学品管理条例》《核出口管制条例》《军品出口管理条例》《核两用品及相关技术出口管制条例》《导弹及相关物项和技术出口管制条例》和《生物两用品及相关设备和技术出口管制条例》等6部行政法规。商务部、工业和信息化部、海关总署、国家国防科技工业局、国家原子能机构、中央军委装备发展部等相关部门配套出台数十项部门规章及相关规范性文件,细化出口管制事项规定,包括对特定物项的具体规定、许可管理及执法监督的具体规定、实施联合国安理会有关决议的相关文件等。
Since the beginning of reform and opening up in 1978, profound changes in the internal and external environment have impacted economic development in China. There have been continuous improvements in China's socialist market economic system, and its law-based export control work has improved steadily. Since the 1990s, China has promulgated six administrative regulations: Regulations of the People's Republic of China on the Administration of the Controlled Chemicals, Regulations of the People's Republic of China on the Control of Nuclear Export, Regulations of the People's Republic of China on Administration of Arms Export, Regulations of the People's Republic of China on the Control of Nuclear Dual-use Items and Related Technologies Export, Regulations of the People's Republic of China on Export Control of Missiles and Missile-related Items and Technologies, and Regulations of the People's Republic of China on Export Control of Dual-use Biological Agents and Related Equipment and Technologies. The Ministry of Commerce, the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, the General Administration of Customs, the State Administration of Science, Technology and Industry for National Defense, China Atomic Energy Authority, the Equipment Development Department of the Central Military Commission (CMC), and other related departments have introduced a number of departmental rules and normative documents setting detailed provisions on matters related to export controls, including specific stipulations on particular items, license regulation and enforcement supervision, and documents on implementing relevant UN Security Council resolutions.


2020年10月,中国颁布《出口管制法》,对出口管制体制、管制措施以及国际合作等作出明确规定,统一确立出口管制政策、管制清单、临时管制、管控名单以及监督管理等方面的基本制度框架和规则。《出口管制法》是在总结中国出口管制实践经验基础上,根据形势变化,借鉴国际通行做法,提升立法层级而制定的一部统领中国出口管制工作的法律,对中国出口管制的制度作出全面安排,确保管制物项、适用主体和管制环节全覆盖。《出口管制法》出台以来,为确保各项制度有效实施,国家出口管制管理部门积极开展相关配套法规、部门规章的“立改废”工作,确保出口管制法律制度各领域之间高效衔接。除《出口管制法》外,《对外贸易法》《国家安全法》《数据安全法》《核安全法》《海关法》《行政许可法》《行政处罚法》《刑法》等法律也为出口管制措施执行等相关工作提供了有力法律依据。目前,中国已基本形成法律、行政法规、部门规章相衔接,层次分明、结构协调的出口管制法律制度,为构建中国特色现代化出口管制体系奠定了坚实的法律基础。
In October 2020, China promulgated the Export Control Law, which includes clear provisions on systems, measures, and international cooperation on export controls. It also sets a basic institutional framework, and unified rules for export control policies, a control list, temporary controls, a restricted name list, and supervision. The Law was formulated in the light of changing circumstances, drawing on China's own experience in export controls and taking into account standard international practices. It raises China's export control legislation to a higher level, makes comprehensive arrangements for China's export control system, and provides a full coverage of controlled items, legal subjects and other aspects of export control. To make sure that the Export Control Law is effectively implemented, China's authorities have introduced, revised, and rescinded supporting administrative regulations and departmental rules. In addition to the Export Control Law, China's Foreign Trade Law, National Security Law, Data Security Law, Nuclear Safety Law, Customs Law, Administrative Licensing Law, Administrative Punishment Law and Criminal Law also provide a strong legal base for the enforcement of export control measures. China now has in place a well-organized basic legal system on export controls with well-coordinated laws, administrative regulations and departmental rules and a balanced structure, which provides a solid legal foundation for developing a modern export control system with Chinese characteristics.


(二)构建协同高效的出口管制管理体制
2. Building a Coordinated and Efficient Export Control Regime


出口管制涉及国务院、中央军事委员会的多个部门。国家建立健全出口管制工作机制,明确各部门分工,为出口管制工作提供了坚实的体制保障。
Export controls involve multiple departments of the State Council and the CMC. China has established a sound working mechanism and clearly assigned roles and responsibilities among departments, which provides a solid institutional guarantee.


两用物项出口管制管理体制。核两用物项出口,由商务部会同国家原子能机构进行管理;生物类两用物项出口,由商务部根据需要会同农业农村部、国家卫生健康委员会等部门进行管理;有关化学品类两用物项出口,由商务部进行管理;导弹类两用物项出口,由商务部根据需要会同国家国防科技工业局、中央军委装备发展部等部门进行管理;商用密码出口,由商务部会同国家密码管理局进行管理,《密码法》规定商用密码出口管制清单由商务部会同国家密码管理局和海关总署制定并公布;监控化学品出口,由工业和信息化部会同商务部进行出口经营者资质管理,工业和信息化部负责具体出口审查。
Regulatory system for export control of dual-use items.

·Export of nuclear dual-use items is regulated by the Ministry of Commerce jointly with the China Atomic Energy Authority;

·Export of dual-use biological items is regulated by the Ministry of Commerce jointly with the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs and the National Health Commission, among others as required;

·Export of dual-use items related to certain chemicals is regulated by the Ministry of Commerce;

·Export of dual-use missile-related items is regulated by the Ministry of Commerce jointly with the State Administration of Science, Technology and Industry for National Defense and the Equipment Development Department of the CMC, among others as required;

·Export of commercial cryptography is regulated by the Ministry of Commerce jointly with the State Cryptography Administration - the Cryptography Law stipulates that the export control list of commercial cryptography shall be formulated and published by the Ministry of Commerce in conjunction with the State Cryptography Administration and the General Administration of Customs;

·For the export of controlled chemicals, the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology regulates exporter accreditation jointly with the Ministry of Commerce, and is responsible for undertaking specific export review.


军品出口管制管理体制。军品出口,由国家国防科技工业局与中央军委装备发展部根据分工进行管理,主要管理内容包括审批军品出口专营资格、军品出口立项、军品出口项目、军品出口合同,核发军品出口许可证,制定相关业务管理办法,对军品出口活动进行监督管理,对军品出口管制违法行为进行处罚等。
Regulatory system for export control of military products. The State Administration of Science, Technology and Industry for National Defense, and the Equipment Development Department of the CMC, regulate military exports in accordance with the division of their duties. This mainly includes reviewing the franchise qualification of military exports, export project proposals, projects and contracts for military exports, approving and issuing licenses for military exports, formulating rules regulating related business, supervising export activities, and punishing violations.


核出口管制管理体制。核出口,由国家原子能机构、商务部会同其他部门进行管理。核出口由国务院指定的单位专营,并坚决贯彻核出口保证只用于和平目的、接受国际原子能机构保障监督、未经中国政府许可不得向第三国转让等三项原则。管理部门对核出口实施严格的审查制度,并对违法行为采取严厉的处罚措施。
Regulatory system for export control of nuclear materials. The export of nuclear materials is regulated by the National Atomic Energy Authority and the Ministry of Commerce in cooperation with other departments. These exports are conducted by entities designated by the State Council. They are carried out in strict accordance with three principles - that nuclear materials should be exported for peaceful purposes only, that they should be under the supervision and safeguard of the International Atomic Energy Agency, and that they must not be transferred to third countries without the permission of the Chinese government. Competent authorities carry out rigorous reviews of nuclear exports and impose severe penalties on violators.


海关总署与相关管理部门紧密合作,依法对管制物项的出口实施监管,参与相关违法出口案件的调查处理,开展风险防控、监督执法等相关工作。
The General Administration of Customs cooperates closely with related authorities to regulate the export of controlled items. Among other duties it also engages in investigating and handling violations, carries out risk prevention and control, and supervises law enforcement.

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