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chinadaily.com.cn 2022-12-23 14:16


> New therapeutic strategy for degenerative diseases



A group of Chinese scientists made a breakthrough as they rendered mammalian cells a unique skill owned by green plants -- turning water and carbon dioxide into oxygen and food via sunlight-- and revitalized those impaired animal cells.


The researchers from Zhejiang University developed an independent and controllable photosynthetic system derived from a device in young spinach leaves, according to the study published in the journal Nature this month.


They integrated this plant system into arthritic mice's degenerated chondrocytes, which are cells found in the cartilage, and demonstrated that the modified cells, following exposure to light, help improve the metabolic process in which complex molecules are synthesized from simpler ones with the storage of energy.


The researchers encapsulated the light-powered structure in a nanosized animal cell membrane coating as of camouflage to prevent the rodent's immune system from rejecting it as a foreign body.


In arthritis, the energy-generating devices within cells tend to lose steam, but the photosynthesis of plants can produce the needed energy-carrying molecules, said the researchers.


The plant-derived system is shown to correct energy imbalance, restore cellular metabolism and protect against the chronic inflammation of the joints, according to the study.


Using the natural photosynthetic system as a therapeutic strategy for degenerative diseases, is "an exciting achievement that opens up possibilities of metabolism engineering," said the paper's peer reviewer Francisco Cejudo from the University of Seville.


> What is ‘water poisoning’? How much should you drink every day?



How much water should you drink each day? It's a simple question with no easy answer.


Studies have produced varying recommendations over the years.


But your individual water needs depend on many factors, including your health, how active you are and where you live.


No single formula fits everyone.


But knowing more about your body's needs for fluids will help you estimate how much water to drink each day.


Normal kidneys can release up to a quart of fluid every hour.


If you drink more than that, you’ll retain the excess water in your body, which causes a condition known as hyponatremia and can be hazardous to your health.


Mild hyponatremia causes few symptoms, but more severe cases can lead to brain swelling and progressive neurological symptoms, including confusion, disorientation, seizures, coma and sometimes death.


For most people, drinking more than needed to maintain water balance is neither necessary nor medically helpful.


According to Bruce Gordon, an expert from the World Health Organization, drinking more than 4 liters of water a day can be toxic, leading to impaired brain function or even death.


Normal daily intake of water depends on the level of physical activity and climate, it is recommended that men do not exceed 3.7 liters and 2.7 liters for women.
正常人每日摄入水量要根据身体活动水平和气候,建议男性不超过3.7升,女性不超过 2.7升。


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