Success and reward 成功与奖赏
媒体英语会带大家一起学习 BBC 撰稿人在报道世界大事时常用到的单词和短语。
社会往往对那些商业上的成功者给予奖赏，这其实并不好。真正应该受到赞颂的是那些具有才能但是并不成功的人。根据英国两所大学的调查，成功者之所以成功往往同运气有关。以下是BBC 记者 John McManus 的报道。
The message that society's top performers are not the most skilled and shouldn't be emulated, appears to be counter-intuitive. Yet this report says that those who appear to have achieved the most in their particular field of expertise, are often the beneficiaries of luck, an external, random force.
The authors of this study point to the example of Bill Gates, the co-founder of the computing giant Microsoft, and one of the world's richest men. They say that although he is undoubtedly talented, he achieved his initial success because his affluent family were able to send him to a school where programming was on the curriculum - at a time when most Americans didn't have access to computers. Family connections also helped, according to Professor Chengwei Liu from Warwick University Business School.
That kind of luck is often at work in the lives of the most successful, argues Mr Liu, which means their achievements aren't completely attributable to their own skill. Instead, he advocates looking at those whom he calls 'the second best'. They aren't relying on lucky chances, so their performances offer an opportunity to measure real success. The study also argues that there are dangers if colleagues try to emulate the achievements of those who've been overly fortunate.
This could explain the global Banking crisis, says Professor Liu, who also believes that studying the lives of people such as Bill Gates for tips on reaching the top is fruitless. Of course, some academics argue that individuals can in fact create their own, lucky circumstances, through using personal contacts, and pursuing all available opportunities. This research though, says that because those with the highest salaries haven't completely earned them through skill, they should be taxed more heavily - which would be very bad luck.