|New technologies for sport equipment
[ 2006-12-21 14:52 ]
Pole Vault: Poles were originally made out of solid wood,
probably hickory. At the 1896 Olympics in Athens, a bamboo pole was used to set
the vaulting record of 10 feet 6 inches. Between 1942 and 1957, aluminum, steel,
and fiberglass poles were tried. Fiberglass won out, increasing the indoor
record height to 20 feet 2 inches in 1993.
Wooden starting blocks replaced toe grooves at the 1948 London games. In ancient
Greece, runners took off from a standing position and were flogged if they
started too soon. Modern metal starting blocks contain micro-controllers to
prevent false starts.
wedge-heeled Nike sneakers at 1972 US Olympic trials began the modern
The javelin was an event first enjoyed by the Mycenaeans at least 3000 year ago.
The Greeks of 500 BC used thin wooden javelins with a cord wrapped around the
centre of mass. When the javelin was thrown, the athlete would hold onto the end
of the cord to make the javelin rotate freely through the air in much the same
way that a toy gyroscope is made to rotate by pulling a string. The rotation
stabilized the javelin by averaging any asymmetries in its construction about a
central axis. At the London games in 1908 the winning throw was just over 50m.
By 1976 this distance had increased to almost 95m and in non-Olympic event. The
IAAF decided fairly quickly that the javelin had to be redesigned to
underperform. According to Mont Hubbard of the University of California at
Davis, the furthest distance a javelin could be thrown depended on how it was
designed. When the rules were changed so that the centre of mass was moved 4cm
forward, the total distance a javelin can travel is reduced 15m than they were
before the rule change.
（Foreign and Domestic Olympic