# Difference between revisions of "Worked examples"

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Step-by-step solutions to problems presented in textual, graphical, or video format. Worked examples sometimes provide explanations of each step and sometimes withhold them so as to encourage student [[self-explanation]]. | Step-by-step solutions to problems presented in textual, graphical, or video format. Worked examples sometimes provide explanations of each step and sometimes withhold them so as to encourage student [[self-explanation]]. | ||

− | + | An worked example is a problem plus the [[step]]s leading up to its solution. For instance, if the problem is "Solve 12+2*x=15 for x" then one worked example is: | |

+ | In order to solve 12+2*x=15 for x, we write | ||

+ | ; 2*x = 15-12 | ||

+ | ; 2*x = 3 | ||

+ | ; x = 3/2 | ||

+ | ; x = 1.5 | ||

+ | |||

+ | There are 4 steps in this solution. | ||

+ | |||

+ | A large body of literature, much due to John Sweller and his [[cognitive load]] theory, has investigated the benefits of interleaving worked examples with problem-solving practice. Such interleaving seems to provide a good balance of [[assistance]] between assistance-giving examples and assistance-withholding problems. | ||

+ | |||

+ | For illustrative studies see the [[Does learning from worked-out examples improve tutored problem solving? | Renkl et al. study]] of faded worked-out examples in geometry and the [[Stoichiometry_Study | McLaren et al. study]] of interleaved worked examples in Chemistry. A number of other studies involving manipulations in the distribution of, presentation of, or supporting instruction around worked examples can be found in the [[Coordinative Learning]] and [[Interactive Communication]] clusters. | ||

[[Category:Glossary]] | [[Category:Glossary]] | ||

[[Category:Independent Variables]] | [[Category:Independent Variables]] | ||

[[Category:Coordinative Learning]] | [[Category:Coordinative Learning]] | ||

+ | [[Category:Interactive Communication]] | ||

[[Category:PSLC General]] | [[Category:PSLC General]] |

## Revision as of 15:58, 10 April 2007

Step-by-step solutions to problems presented in textual, graphical, or video format. Worked examples sometimes provide explanations of each step and sometimes withhold them so as to encourage student self-explanation.

An worked example is a problem plus the steps leading up to its solution. For instance, if the problem is "Solve 12+2*x=15 for x" then one worked example is:

In order to solve 12+2*x=15 for x, we write

- 2*x = 15-12
- 2*x = 3
- x = 3/2
- x = 1.5

There are 4 steps in this solution.

A large body of literature, much due to John Sweller and his cognitive load theory, has investigated the benefits of interleaving worked examples with problem-solving practice. Such interleaving seems to provide a good balance of assistance between assistance-giving examples and assistance-withholding problems.

For illustrative studies see the Renkl et al. study of faded worked-out examples in geometry and the McLaren et al. study of interleaved worked examples in Chemistry. A number of other studies involving manipulations in the distribution of, presentation of, or supporting instruction around worked examples can be found in the Coordinative Learning and Interactive Communication clusters.