EXPLORATIONS -- a program in Special English by the Voice
The 1960s were exciting times in space exploration.
Today, Kay Gallant and Harry Monroe look back at the first flights of the Apollo
program designed to land humans on the moon.
The decision to go to the moon was made in May 1961. President John Kennedy
set the goal in a speech to Congress and the American people. He said he
believed the United States, before the end of the 1960s, should land a man on
the moon and return him safely to Earth.
He said no other effort would be so important to the exploration of space.
And he said no other effort would be so difficult or cost so much to do.
At the time President Kennedy spoke, the Soviet space program seemed far
ahead. The Soviet Union put the first satellite into Earth orbit. A Soviet
spacecraft was the first to land instruments on the moon. And a Soviet
cosmonaut, Yuri Gagarin, was the first man in space.
The United States had just sent an astronaut of its own into space for
the first time. Alan Shepard made only a 15-minute flight in the little one-man
Mercury spacecraft. But his flight gave Americans the feeling that the United
States could pull ahead of the Soviet Union in the space race.
There was great public support for President Kennedy's moon landing goal. And
Congress was ready to spend the thousands of millions of dollars that a moon
landing program would cost.
Much happened in the months after America decided to go to the moon.
New space flight centers were built. Designs for launch rockets and
spacecraft were agreed on. And a new spaceflight program -- Project Gemini --
was begun. Flights in the two-man Gemini spacecraft tested the men, equipment
and methods to be used in the Apollo program to the moon.
Gemini let astronauts learn about the dangers of radiation and the effects of
being weightless during long flights. Astronauts learned to move their
spacecraft into different orbits and to join with other spacecraft.
While the Gemini program prepared astronauts for Apollo flights, NASA
engineers were designing and building the Apollo spacecraft.
It was really two spacecraft. One was a cone-shaped command module. The
astronauts would ride to the moon in the command module. And they would return
home in it.
The second craft was a moon-landing vehicle. Two astronauts would ride in it
from the orbiting command module to the moon's surface. Later, the landing
vehicle would carry them back to the command module for the return trip to
Engineers also were working on a huge new rocket for Apollo. It needed much
more power than the rockets used to launch the one-man Mercury and the two-man
Gemini flights. The Apollo rocket was called Saturn.
Two Saturn rocket systems were built. One was the Saturn one-B. It did not
have enough power to reach the moon. But it could launch Apollo spacecraft on
test flights around the Earth. The other was the Saturn five. It would be the
one to launch astronauts to the moon.
Saturn one-B rockets launched six unmanned Apollo spacecraft. The test
flights showed that all the rocket engines worked successfully. They also showed
that the Apollo spacecraft could survive the launch and could re-enter Earth's
By the end of 1966, NASA officials considered the Apollo spacecraft ready for
test flights by astronauts. Three astronauts were named for the first manned
Apollo test flight: Virgil Grissom, Edward White and Roger Chaffee.
Four weeks before the flight, the three men were in the command module at
Cape Kennedy, Florida. They were testing equipment for the flight.
Suddenly, fire broke out in the spacecraft. When rescuers got the door open,
they found the flames had killed the three astronauts. Grissom, White and
Chaffee were the first Americans to die in the space program.
Engineers redesigned and rebuilt the Apollo command module. They designed a
new door that could be opened more quickly. They improved the electrical wiring.
And they used only materials that would not burn easily.
By November 1967, the moon launch rocket, Saturn Five, was ready for a test
flight. It thundered into space perfectly, pushing an unmanned Apollo spacecraft
more than 16,000 kilometers up into the atmosphere.
The huge Saturn rocket, as tall as a 36-floor building, was the heaviest
thing ever to leave Earth. It weighed more than 2.7 million kilograms. The
noise of its rockets was one of the loudest sounds ever made by humans.
At the end of the test flight, the speed of the Apollo spacecraft was
increased to 40,000 kilometers an hour. That was the speed of a spacecraft
returning from the moon. The spacecraft re-entered the atmosphere without
Apollo flights five and six tested the moon-landing module and the Saturn
Astronauts first flew in the Apollo spacecraft in October 1968. Apollo Seven
astronauts Walter Schirra, Walter Cunningham and Donn Eisele spent eleven days
orbiting the Earth. They tested the spacecraft systems. And they broadcast, for
the first time, live television pictures of men in orbit.
Everything worked perfectly.
The successful flight of Apollo Seven led NASA officials to send the next
flight, Apollo Eight, to the moon. The launch was early on the morning of
December 21, 1968. Millions of people were watching on television.
Astronauts Frank Borman, James Lovell and William Anders were in the
spacecraft at the top of the Saturn Five rocket. NASA officials counted down the
seconds: five, four, three, two, one. The mighty engines fired. Slowly the giant
rocket lifted off the Earth.
Three hours later, NASA officials told the crew that everything was "OK" for
what they called "TLI" or "trans-lunar injection." This meant the Apollo Eight
astronauts could fire the rocket that would send them from Earth orbit toward
the moon. Less than three days later, Apollo Eight was orbiting the moon.
The American spacecraft was just one hundred ten kilometers from its surface.
On December 24, the astronauts made a television broadcast to Earth. They
described the moon's surface as a strange, gray, lonely place. And, as they
talked, people on Earth could see pictures of the moon on their television sets.
Apollo Eight returned to Earth without problems. It landed in the Pacific
Ocean near a waiting ship.
Apollo Eight showed that humans could travel to the moon and return safely.
The next step was to test the lunar landing craft. That was the job of the
astronauts of Apollo Nine: James McDivitt, David Scott and Russell Schweickart.
They spent ten days in Earth orbit during March 1969.
During the flight, they separated the lunar lander from the command module
and flew it for eight hours. They tested all its systems. Then, they joined the
two spacecraft together again, just as astronauts would do after a moon landing.
Engineers decided that after Apollo Nine, one more test flight was needed.
They wanted to test the landing module near the moon. So astronauts Tom
Stafford, John Young and Eugene Cernan did that during the flight of Apollo Ten.
They reached the moon in May 1969. Astronauts Stafford and Cernan entered the
landing craft and separated it from the command ship.
Stafford and Cernan flew the lander down to only 13 kilometers from the
moon. They described the moon during a radio and television broadcast. "It is
like wet clay," they said. "Like a dry river bed in New Mexico or Arizona. It is
a beautiful sight. "
On May 23, the lander rejoined the command module 100 kilometers above
the moon. Apollo Ten started for home. The final testing was done. Apollo was
ready to land on the moon.
That will be our story next week.
ANNOUNCER: This Special English program was written by Marilyn Rice
Christiano. Your narrators were Kay Gallant and Harry Monroe. I'm Shirley
Griffith. Listen again next week at this time to EXPLORATIONS on the Voice of
America as we continue the story of the Apollo moon landing program.