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改革印记:从彩电冰箱“四大件”到“买遍全球”

中国日报网 2018-11-13 09:42

11月10日,首届中国国际进口博览会在上海闭幕。预计未来15年,中国进口商品和服务将分别超过30万亿美元和10万亿美元。

 

改革开放40年,中国一步步晋升为“世界工厂”,又逐渐转变为“世界市场”,一边是中国企业“卖全球”,另一边则是企业和消费者“买全球”。

从侧重扩大出口到更加注重进口,这40年见证了中国逐步对外开放的历史进程。

 

1978-1988: NEW LOOK 新面貌

A 1978 Japanese documentary, China's New Look, featured a scene that said everything about what the Chinese craved back then. In front of an old-fashioned television set, dozens of Shanghainese gathered around to watch a TV show.
1978年,一部名为《中国的新面貌》的日本纪录片中有一个场景展示了当时那个年代,中国人普遍追求的东西。镜头里面,一群上海人围在一个老式电视机前一起看电视剧。

In 1981, only one out of every 170 urban households in China had a color television. Having a TV set at home was something worth boasting about, especially when a man would propose.
1981年,中国每170户城镇居民家中只有一户拥有一台彩色电视机。家里有台电视是一件值得炫耀的事情,男士们去提亲的时候尤其如此。

As China started to open its doors to foreign manufacturers, a TV, a refrigerator and a washing machine became a "must-have" home appliances set for a typical middle-class family.
随着中国向外国制造商打开大门,电视、冰箱、洗衣机成为中产家庭的必备电器。

1980年夏,顾客在北京西单购物大厦选购日本进口冰箱(Xinhua/Lu Yanyuan)

 

"With more electronic products available, color televisions, cassette recorders, stereo components, record players and electronic games and toys, which were only a dream just a decade ago, can now be found in millions of Chinese homes," read a Xinhua story in 1987.
新华社1987年的一篇文章指出:“随着电子产品越来越多,彩电、录音机、音响组件、唱片机、电子游戏以及玩具等10年前仅存在于梦里的东西,如今已走入千家万户。”

 

1988-1998: WEST MEETS EAST 当西方遇见东方

In October 1990, the first outlet of McDonald's on the Chinese mainland opened for business in Shenzhen, a southern city at the forefront of China's opening-up.
1990年10月,麦当劳在中国大陆的第一家分店在深圳开张,深圳是中国开放的前沿城市。

 

The western fast-food chain quickly became the hottest tourist spot in town. Curious Chinese consumers lined up in front of the 20 cashiers of the three-story building, shouting to the staff "I want 10 big macs," recalled a trainee with McDonald's at that time.
这家西式快餐连锁店迅速成为深圳最火的旅游景点。当时的一位实习生回忆说,那家店当时有三层,一共有20个收银台,好奇的中国消费者在收银台前排着长队,冲着店员喊“我要十个巨无霸。”

A meal at McDonald's was never so fast. China's new rich would line up at the fancy western restaurant for two hours to chat with friends, discuss businesses or even have a date.
在麦当劳吃饭也绝不可能速战速决。中国的新贵阶层会在装修考究的店里排队2个小时,然后跟朋友聊天、谈论工作,甚至还可以约个会。

While McDonald's stood for fashion, a Volkswagen's Santana car was a symbol for status. As many Chinese once said, somewhat jokingly: "As long as you have a Santana, you have nothing to fear driving all around the world."
如果麦当劳代表时尚,那么大众牌桑塔纳轿车代表的就是地位。正如很多中国人曾经开玩笑说的:“拥有桑塔纳,走遍天下都不怕。”

 

The German automaker set up its first joint venture (JV) with SAIC Motor in Shanghai in 1985. By the end of 1991, the JV produced more than 100,000 Santana cars in total.
1985年,德国大众汽车公司与上汽集团合作成立了首家合资企业。到1991年底,该合资企业生产的桑塔纳轿车超过10万辆。

Following the success, Volkswagen has been expanding its footprint in China, with the establishment of a second venture, FAW Volkswagen, in northeastern city of Changchun in 1991, and a third in Hefei, eastern Anhui province, in 2017.
顺着成功的轨迹,大众在中国不断扩大,1991年在长春建立了第二家合资企业——一汽大众,2017年在安徽省合肥市建立了第三家合资企业。

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