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史上最大规模:印度锡金将试行普遍基本收入制 India is about to launch the largest basic income experiment in history

2019-01-28 08:53

普遍基本收入制,简而言之就是不工作也有钱拿。在芬兰、加拿大等福利好的发达国家都已经进行过小规模的试验,结果都是无疾而终。

如今,印度锡金也要学发达国家搞普遍基本收入制,而且是“全邦出动”,不知道理想能否照进现实呢?

Photo by Loren Joseph on Unsplash

 

High in the Himalayas, Sikkim is one of the tiniest states in India. But it is about to embark on an experiment of global interest.

位于喜马拉雅山坡上的锡金是印度最小的邦之一,但这里即将进行一项全球瞩目的试验。

Sikkim's ruling party has announced an ambitious plan to implement a universal basic income for every one of its 610,577 citizens.

锡金的执政党宣布了一项雄心勃勃的计划:为其610577名公民提供普遍基本收入。

If successful, the scheme would represent the largest trial run anywhere in the world of a concept that supporters such as Facebook's Mark Zuckerberg say could provide a safety net, help alleviate poverty and address the challenge of job automation.

如果计划成功实施,那么这将是迄今为止世界范围内最大规模的试点。脸谱网总裁扎克伯格等支持者表示这一制度能提供一个安全网,以帮助减轻贫困和应对工作自动化带来的挑战。

Detractors, meanwhile, say it would reduce the incentive to work and would come at a huge expense.

与此同时,批评者表示,这将降低人民工作的积极性,最终会付出巨大代价。

A universal basic income is a regular, guaranteed income paid by the government, universally and unconditionally, to all citizens. It is a cash payment that aims to replace the often confusing array of assistance that states offer to citizens and place spending decisions in the hands of recipients.

普遍基本收入是政府无条件向所有公民定期支付的收入,用现金偿付,旨在取代政府向公民提供的复杂的援助系统,将支出的决定权交给受助人。

"If there is one chance of it happening anywhere, it is Sikkim," said P.D. Rai, the sole member of India's Parliament from the state.

该州在印度议会唯一的代表P·D·雷表示:“锡金是唯一有可能实施这一制度的地方。”

Sikkim already has a progressive track record: In 1998, it was one of the first Indian states to ban plastic bags - a ban that it has implemented successfully, unlike many other states.

锡金此前已经有不少先进的举措:1998年,锡金成为印度首批禁止使用塑料袋的邦。与其他邦不同,锡金的禁令得到了彻底的实施。

It also provided housing for all its citizens. Most recently, it became the country's first organic state, eliminating the use of pesticides and fertilizers.

锡金还为所有公民提供住房。最近,锡金彻底停止了农药和化肥的使用,成为印度第一个有机邦。

Its social indexes also stand out from the rest of the country, with a literacy rate of 98 percent, and it has reduced the percentage of people living below the poverty line to about 8 percent - compared with nearly 30 percent nationally. Sikkim's small geographic area and low population density have been responsible, in part, for its success.

锡金的各项社会指数也在印度众邦之中脱颖而出:识字率达98%;将贫困线以下人口比例降到大约8%,而印度平均比例接近30%。锡金地狭人少,是它成功的原因之一。

Rai acknowledged that there will be challenges. "It's a matter of political will ultimately," he said.

雷承认锡金将会面临挑战。他说:“归根结底这是一个政治意愿的问题。”

"With the rise of global inequality, we want to ensure that we bridge the gap." Rai declined to reveal how much the program, which was announced ahead of upcoming elections this spring, would potentially cost the state.

“随着全球不平等加剧,我们希望可以克服差距。”雷拒绝透露这项计划会让锡金花费多少钱。今春印度就要举行大选。

The tourism and power sectors will be tapped to raise the resources. Tourism is a major source of revenue, with more than 2.5 million visitors annually.

锡金将利用旅游业与电力部门的收入来筹集项目所需资金。旅游业是锡金的主要收入来源,每年接待超过250万游客。

tap[tæp]: vt. 采用,利用

 

As a surplus power generating state, Sikkim sells 90 percent of its hydropower. For now, he said, the government is holding meetings with experts and stakeholders and expects to roll out the scheme by 2022.

作为一个发电盈余的邦,锡金90%的水力发电量用于出售。他说,目前政府正在与专家和利益相关者进行探讨,预计在2022年推出该计划。

India has a large existing social security apparatus: The central government alone spends 5 percent of GDP on 950 programs. These range from free rice, an allowance to build houses and even guaranteed employment for some residents of rural areas.

印度现有的社保摊子已经铺得很大:光是中央政府就在950个社保项目上投入了5%的国内生产总值——从免费大米、建房补贴到农村居民的就业保障。

But inefficient implementation and diversion of funds because of corruption have long plagued the system, leading many to propose a universal basic income as a possible solution.

但是,长时间以来,印度的社保体系一直饱受执行不力和由腐败导致的资金挪用之害,因此许多人提议采用普遍基本收入制。

Elsewhere in the world, there have been several small-scale experiments with implementing a universal basic income, but they have met with limited success.

世界的其他地方也曾实施过几次小规模的普遍基本收入制试验,但收效甚微。

In April 2017, the government of Ontario in Canada announced a pilot project involving 4,000 people that would have cost 150 million Canadian dollars.

2017年4月,加拿大的安大略省政府宣布试行普遍基本收入制,试验人数为4000人,项目资金1.5亿加元(7.6亿元人民币)。

The project ended abruptly after a year when the local government changed and the new administration described the program as expensive and unsustainable.

在试行一年后,当地政府换届,项目突然终止,新政府认为该项目昂贵且不可持续。

In Finland, an experiment with universal basic income ended in December after completing its two-year trial run, and there are currently no plans to continue the program. The trial included a $630 monthly payment to 2,000 unemployed citizens.

在芬兰,普遍基本收入制的试验在试行两年后于去年12月终止,目前没有继续该项目的计划。该项目给2000名无业公民每月分发630美元的收入。

In the United States, meanwhile, the concept has been floated in Stockton, California, by its young mayor. Last year, it announced that 100 residents would receive $500 a month for 18 months.

与此同时,美国加州斯托克顿市的年轻市长提出试行类似的项目。去年,该市宣布100名居民将在18个月的时间内每月得到500美元的收入。

The notion of a universal basic income has found backers in Silicon Valley, with tech moguls such as Zuckerberg and Elon Musk endorsing it.

普遍基本收入的概念得到了扎克伯格、伊隆·马斯克等硅谷大亨的支持。

mogul['moɡl]: n. 有权势的人;显要人物

 

In his Harvard commencement address in 2017, Zuckerberg spoke of the need for a "new social contract," with ideas like a basic income to provide a "cushion" for everyone. Musk has described it as a "necessary" step as automation takes over human jobs.

2017年在哈佛大学毕业典礼的演讲中,扎克伯格倡议一种“新的社会契约”,认为普遍基本收入可以为每个人提供“缓冲”。马斯克则认为,随着人类工作被机器取代,实行普遍基本收入制是“必经之路”。

But economists have pointed to various possible pitfalls. Some question whether giving cash instead of something like a food subsidy would lead to spending on wasteful items.

但是经济学家也指出了潜在的陷阱。一些人质疑分发现金而非食物补贴是否会导致人们浪费钱买一些没用的东西。

Plus as prices rise, a cash handout would buy fewer goods. Others say a basic income would disincentivize work, raising the possibility of a shrinking labor force.

而且,随着物价上涨,分发的现金能买到的东西更少了。其他专家则表示,普遍基本收入会降低工作积极性,可能会加剧劳动力缩减的情况。

Hailing Sikkim's initiative, Pranab Bardhan, an economist at the University of California at Berkeley, said the rationale behind a universal basic income in a place such as Sikkim is very different from a place like Stockton.

加州大学伯克利分校的经济学家普拉纳‧巴德翰则对锡金试行的项目表示赞赏。他说,在锡金这种地方实施普遍基本收入制和在斯托克顿市实施这一制度,背后的原理大不相同。

rationale[,ræʃə'næl]: n. 基本原理

 

"In developed countries, the main purpose is to restructure or economize the existing welfare schemes, like unemployment benefits," Bardhan said.

巴德翰说:“在发达国家,实施该制度的主要目的是对现有的福利制度(比如失业补助)进行重组或优化。”

"In low- or mid-income countries, like India, the rationale will be to address the minimum economic insecurity of a larger section of the population, not just the poorest, without touching the existing anti-poverty measures."

“在印度这样的中低收入国家实施这一制度,目的是在不动用现有的扶贫措施的情况下,解决大多数人口的温饱问题,而不是仅限于最贫困人口。”

 

来源:华盛顿邮报、煎蛋网

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