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世界自闭症关注日:一起来关注“来自星星的孩子” What is autism spectrum disorder and can it be treated?

中国日报网 2019-04-02 13:46

有这样一群孩子,我们称他们为“星星的孩子”,医学上他们被称为自闭症儿童。他们在沟通交流方面似乎有着一套不被常人所理解的来自遥远星球的思维模式,好像孤独地沉浸在自己的世界里。

今天是“世界自闭症关注日”,让我们一起来关注“来自星星的孩子”。

August 8 2018 - New York City. Amy Schumer at #BlogHer18 Creators Summit at Pier 17 in New York City. (Credit Image)

Actor Amy Schumer has revealed that her husband, Chris Fischer, has been diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD).

演员艾米-舒默曾透露她的丈夫克里斯-非舍尔被诊断患有自闭症。

In an upcoming Netflix special titled Amy Schumer: Growing, the 37-year-old comedian talks openly about her personal life, including her marriage and her husband’s health.

在即将播出的网飞公司特别节目《艾米-舒默:成长》中,这位37岁的喜剧演员公开谈论了自己的私人生活,包括婚姻和丈夫的健康。

“I knew from the beginning that my husband’s brain was a little different than mine,” Schumer says in the hour-long stand-up show.

在这段一个小时的独立脱口秀中,舒默说:“我从最开始就知道我丈夫的思维和我有些不同 。”

”My husband was diagnosed with what used to be called Asperger’s. He has an autism spectrum disorder. He’s on the spectrum.”

“我的丈夫被确诊患有艾斯伯格症,这是自闭症谱系障碍中的一种。”

The I Feel Pretty actor said there were early signs of the condition when she first started dating Fischer, who she married in 2018.

曾出演《超大号美人》的舒默说,在最初和菲舍尔约会的时候,她就发现了一些早期迹象。两人在2018年结婚。

“Once he was diagnosed, it dawned on me how funny it was, because all of the characteristics that make it clear that he’s on the spectrum are all of the reasons that I fell madly in love with him. That’s the truth,“ she said.

她说:“他确诊后,我觉得这太有趣了,因为所有这些特征让我终于明白,我疯狂爱上他的原因就是他所表现出来的这些特征。真的是这样。”

“He says whatever is on his mind. He keeps it so real. He doesn’t care about social norms or what you expect him to say or do,“ she added.

她补充说:“他想什么就说什么,如此真实。他不在乎社会常规,或者别人希望他说什么做什么。”

Students with autism take a hydrotherapy class at the warm-water pool of the Heep Hong Society, a children's educational and rehabilitation organization in Hong Kong. Provided to China Daily

自闭症谱系障碍是怎么回事?

Autism is a lifelong developmental disability that affects how people perceive the world and interact with others, the National Autistic Society (NAS) states.

英国自闭症协会称,自闭症是终身的发育障碍,影响人们对世界的认知及与他人的互动。

An autistic person experiences their surroundings differently to others which can impact their communication skills and their ability to relate to others.

自闭症患者感知周围世界的方式与常人不同,这会影响到他们的沟通技巧,以及与他人交流的能力。

As the name suggests, autism is a spectrum condition meaning that while all autistic people share certain difficulties, they can experience the condition in different ways.

通过名字可以看出,自闭症谱系障碍意味着,尽管所有的自闭症患者都有某种障碍,但他们的状况又各有不同。

自闭症有多普遍?

There's is no official count of the number of people who have been diagnosed with autism worldwide. 

全世界有多少人患有自闭症,目前没有官方数据。

A study published in the Journal of Child Neurology  in 2007 was the first large-scale examination of the prevalence of autism in China. The study found that 1.61% of children under the age of 15 years were receiving some level of services for an autism spectrum disorder.

2007年发表在《儿童神经病学》期刊的一项研究是中国首个针对自闭症患病率的大规模研究。该研究发现,15岁以下的青少年中有1.61%的孩子在接受某种程度的自闭症谱系障碍治疗。

There are around 700,000 autistic people in the UK – that’s more than one in 100 people, according to the NAS.

英国自闭症协会称,英国有大约70万名自闭症患者,超过总人口的1%。

People from all nationalities and cultural, religious and social backgrounds can be autistic, although it appears to affect more men than women.

来自各种民族、文化背景、信奉不同宗教、拥有不同社会背景的人们都可能患有自闭症,但似乎男性比女性患者比例高。

There are a number of theories as to why more men and boys than women and girls get an autism diagnosis, including genetic differences and the idea that that women and girls are better at masking or camouflaging their difficulties.

关于为何男性和男孩比女性和女孩更容易被诊断为自闭症有多种理论,包括遗传学差异,以及女性和女孩更擅长伪装和掩饰自身的障碍。

camouflage ['kæməflɑːʒ]:vt.伪装,掩饰

 

自闭症的症状有哪些?

While two people will not experience ASD in the same way as it has a variety of effects. However, there are some uniting factors.

因为自闭症有多种症状表现,所以没有两位自闭症患者的表现会完全相同,但还是有一些共同点。

In particular, understanding and relating to other people, and taking part in everyday life can be more difficult.

自闭症患者在理解他人、与他人沟通,以及参与日常生活方面会更困难。

As a result, people with autism can appear to be insensitive, seek out time alone and behave in a way thought to be socially inappropriate.

因此,自闭症患者可能看上去感觉迟钝,总是独处,并且行为怪异,不符合社会常规。

Autistic people also tend to engage in repetitive behavior and routines. For example, they “may want to always travel the same way to and from school or work, or eat exactly the same food for breakfast”.

自闭症患者还总是重复某种行为和活动,比如,他们“或许总选择同一路线去上学或上班,或者早餐总吃同一种食物。”

Many autistic people also experience over or under-sensitivity to sounds, touch, tastes, smells, light, colors, temperatures or pain.

很多自闭症患者对声音、触觉、味觉、嗅觉、光、颜色、温度和痛感过于敏感,或者过于迟钝。

Autism also affects a person’s cognitive abilities, with around 70 percent of children having a non-verbal IQ of 70 or below, with 100 considered the average.

自闭症还会影响人的认知能力,大约70%的自闭症儿童的非语言智商等于或低于70分,正常儿童平均值为100分。

However, Asperger Syndrome, which is a form of autism, is linked with average or above average levels of intelligence.

然而,自闭症中的艾斯伯格症候群患者智商等于或高于平均水平。

Children play at the Shijinglong Ski Resort in Yanqing, Beijing, on Jan 21. [Photo/Xinhua]

自闭症可以治愈吗?

Autism is a life-long condition and many people see it is an important part of their identity.

自闭症是终身的发育障碍,很多人将之视为其自身重要的一部分。

However, there are a number of strategies and behavioral programs that help to enable learning and development which people with autism may find helpful.

不过,也有多种策略和行为计划能帮助自闭症患者学习和发展,对他们有所帮助。

If your child is autistic, it’s also good idea to find out as much as you can about autism.

如果你的孩子患有自闭症,搜集尽可能多的自闭症相关信息是个好主意。

 

英国国民健康保险体系建议大家采取多种干预措施,帮助孩子发育,其中包括:

communication skills – such as using pictures, sign language or both to help communicate as speech and language skills can be significantly delayed

沟通技能:比如使用图片和手语来帮助沟通,因为自闭症患者的语言技能发展可能严重滞后。

social interaction skills – play-based strategies, comic strips and some computer-based interventions can help

社交技能:在玩耍中培养社交技能,阅读连环画,或者一些使用计算机开展的干预措施会有帮助。

imaginative play skills – such as encouraging pretend play

想象力游戏技能:比如鼓励孩子玩角色扮演。

learning skills – such as pre-learning skills to help concentration, reading, writing and maths

学习技能:比如预习技巧,帮助孩子集中精力、阅读、写作和学习数学。

 

【小知识:“世界自闭症关注日”的由来】

2007年12月联合国大会通过决议,从2008年起,将每年的4月2日定为“世界自闭症关注日”,以提高人们对自闭症和相关研究与诊断以及自闭症患者的关注。

自闭症,又名自闭症谱系障碍(ASD),是一类以社会交往和沟通障碍、狭隘兴趣及刻板行为为主要特征的儿童神经发育障碍。此病以男孩多见,男女之比4:1,发病原因主要为先天性因素,但往往在婴幼儿期因为行为异常、语言发育迟缓才引起家长重视,最终到医院才作出诊断。目前已成为全球患病人数增长最快的严重疾病之一。

 

来源:独立报、人民网

翻译&编辑:yaning

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