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保持大脑健康,请远离这7种食物! The 7 worst foods for your brain

中国日报网 2019-08-21 08:50

作为人体最重要的器官之一,大脑不但控制着人体其他器官的运作,存储着你的思想和记忆,还左右着你的情绪。

那么,如何才能让我们的大脑保持健康和活力,延缓大脑衰老呢?当然要多吃一些营养丰富的健康饮食啦。但是,下面这7类食物却要少吃,因为它们对你的大脑都有害无益。

 

1. Trans Fats 反式脂肪

Photo by Juan Manuel Giraldo Grisales on Unsplash

 

The good news is that not all fats are bad for you. However, a particular kind of fat called trans fat does have a detrimental effect on the brain. Trans fats are found naturally in animal products including meat and dairy, but even these are not as problematic as the industrially produced trans fats that get pumped into all sorts of packaged foods.

好消息是,不是所有的脂肪对你都没好处。但是,反式脂肪确实会给大脑造成损害。反式脂肪天然存在于肉制品和奶制品等动物产品中,但这些脂肪都没有各种包装食品中的工业反式脂肪危害大。

Otherwise known as hydrogenated oil, people who eat a lot of trans fat in the form of margarine, store-bought baked goods, chips and crackers, frozen and canned meals, and creamy beverages are at a greater risk for Alzheimer’s and dementia. Studies have shown that high consumption of trans fats also leads to earlier cognitive decline, lower brain volume, and poorer memory.

工业反式脂肪又名氢化油,通过吃人造黄油、商店买来的烘焙食品、薯片和饼干、冷冻和罐头食品、奶油饮料摄入反式脂肪的人更容易得阿尔茨海默病和痴呆症。研究显示,大量摄入反式脂肪还会导致认知功能过早衰退、脑容量降低和记忆力减退。

 

2. Sugary Drinks 含糖饮料

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Sugary drinks like soda, sports drinks, energy drinks, and even fruit juice have little to no nutritional value. Regular consumption of sugary drinks can lead to a whole host of physical impairments, including type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and yes – Alzheimer’s disease or dementia.

汽水、运动饮料、能量饮料甚至果汁等含糖饮料都没有什么营养价值。经常摄入含糖饮料会引发一系列身体损伤,包括2型糖尿病、高血压、高胆固醇、阿尔茨海默病或痴呆症。

A high intake of fructose that’s found in many sugary drinks, has been shown to reduce learning ability, memory, overall brain function, and the formation of new neurons in the brain. It may also lead to increased inflammation in the brain, which negatively affects all types of brain function.

研究显示,大量摄入果糖(许多含糖饮料都含有果糖)会降低学习能力、记忆力、整体脑功能和大脑中新神经元的生成速度。摄入果糖也许还会加重大脑炎症,对各种大脑功能产生负面影响。

 

3. Refined Carbs 精制碳水化合物

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Refined carbohydrates are products made with processed grains. They may not necessarily taste sweet, but they break down into sugar in your body very quickly. That’s because the refining process strips all of the fiber and nutrition out of the original grain. A meal rich in refined carbs represents a high glycemic load that spikes your blood sugar.

精制碳水化合物是用加工过的粮食制成的产品。它们的味道也许不是甜的,但很快就会在体内分解成糖。这是因为精制过程中从原始谷物中剔除了所有的纤维和营养。富含精制碳水化合物的一餐意味着让血糖飙升的高血糖负荷。

That causes all the same issues as if you had eaten straight sugar, including memory impairment, inflammation, and a higher risk of developing dementia. Studies have shown that children who consume diets high in refined carbohydrates score lower on nonverbal intelligence tests. And elderly people who take in more than 58% of their daily calories in refined carbs have twice the risk of mental impairment and dementia than those who eat more whole grains, fruits, and vegetables.

这就会引发和直接吃糖一样的问题,包括记忆力减退、炎症和更高的痴呆症风险。研究显示,摄入大量精制碳水化合物的孩子在非言语智力测试中得分更低。精制碳水化合物日常摄入量超过总热量58%的老年人智力受损和痴呆的风险比吃更多全谷物、水果和蔬菜的人高两倍。

 

4. Processed and Packaged Foods 高加工和包装食品

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Processed and packaged foods remove important nutrition from whole food and replace it with sugar, fat, and salt. This is our so-called Western diet, one which relies on convenience and fast foods. And we get it – people are busy and sometimes it just isn’t possible to make your own sauces, dressings, pastas, and baked goods.

高加工和包装食品从天然食物中移除了重要营养,并用糖、脂肪和盐取而代之。这就是我们所谓的依赖方便食品和快餐的西式饮食。我们理解,人们很忙,有时候没办法自己做酱汁、调料、面条和烘焙食品。

However, it is important to cook with whole nutritious foods as often as you can swing it, because the Western diet is notorious for causing an accumulation of fat around the vital organs. This, in turn, is associated with damage to the brain tissue and a reduction in the brain’s volume. It may also cause disruptions to the blood-brain barrier, the membrane that is responsible for protecting the brain from harmful substances.

但是,只要你能腾出空来,你应该尽量自己多做全营养食品,因为西式饮食会导致脂肪在重要器官周围积聚,进而对大脑组织造成损伤,降低脑容量,也许还可能破坏血脑屏障,血脑屏障是保护大脑不被有害物质侵入的薄膜。

 

5. Alcohol 酒精

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It’s probably no surprise that alcohol can harm the brain, considering how much stupid stuff people tend to do under the influence. Getting tipsy every once in a while probably won’t cause permanent damage, but alcoholism and bouts of binge drinking absolutely can.

酒精会损害大脑,这可能并不让人意外,你只需要想一想人们在酒精的影响力下都干了多少蠢事。偶尔小酌也许没事,但是酗酒绝对会造成永久性大脑损伤。

Chronic consumption of alcohol tends to shrink the brain and disrupt the neurotransmitters that your brain uses to communicate. Alcoholics also often experience a vitamin B1 deficiency, which can lead to the development of Korsakoff’s syndrome. That syndrome is responsible for severe brain damage that causes memory loss, confusion, unsteadiness, and intermittent loss of eyesight.

长期酗酒往往会导致大脑萎缩、破坏大脑用于沟通的神经传递素。酗酒的人通常还会缺乏维生素B1,这可能会引发科尔萨科夫氏综合征(又称健忘综合征)。这种综合征会带来严重的脑损伤,导致记忆缺失、混乱、不稳定以及间歇性失明。

tipsy['tɪpsi]: adj. (非正式)微醉的,略有醉意的

binge drinking: 酗酒;豪饮

intermittent[ˌɪntərˈmɪtənt]: adj. 间歇的;断断续续的;间歇性

 

6. Fish High in Mercury 含汞量高的鱼类

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Fish in general is a healthy addition to your diet. It is low in saturated fat yet contains healthy omega-3 fatty acids as well as vitamin B12, zinc, iron, and magnesium. However, some fish is especially high in mercury, which is a heavy metal contaminant and neurological poison. Mercury stays stored in animal tissue (including human) for a long time.

基本上,鱼是一种健康的膳食。鱼肉的饱和脂肪含量低,又含有健康的欧米珈-3脂肪酸和维生素B12、锌、铁、镁。但是,有些鱼的汞含量特别高,汞是一种重金属污染物,会毒害人体神经。汞能在动物组织(包括人类)体内储存很长时间。

Fish that are longer lived and predatory tend to have the highest concentration of mercury in their flesh. That’s because as long as they live, they are consuming other fish that contain lower levels of mercury. Over a lifetime, these fish can accumulate mercury levels of 1 million times the concentration in the water they swim in. It is best to avoid or seriously limit your consumption of tuna, swordfish, orange roughy, king mackerel, shark, and tilefish to prevent disruption of your brain’s neurotransmitters.

更长寿的捕食性鱼类通常鱼肉中的汞含量最高。这是因为只要它们活着,它们就会不断摄入其他含汞鱼。这些鱼一生中体内所聚积的汞含量是它们生活的水体的100万倍。为了防止大脑的神经传递素被破坏,最好避免或严格控制金枪鱼、剑鱼、橙连鳍鲑鱼、国王鲭鱼、鲨鱼和方头鱼的摄入。

 

7. Aspartame 阿斯巴甜代糖

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Unfortunately, it is not possible to avoid the harms of too much sugar by replacing it with an artificial sweetener – especially not aspartame. While producers of this sugar substitute swear that it is safe, several studies have linked aspartame to behavioral and cognitive problems. As a chemical stressor, it can cause deleterious effects on the ability to learn and regulate emotions.

不幸的是,用人工甜味剂来代替糖也无法避免对大脑的危害——尤其是阿斯巴甜代糖。尽管这种代糖的生产商宣称它是安全的,但多项研究已经指出阿斯巴甜代糖和多种行为及认知问题之间的联系。作为一种化学刺激物,它会对学习能力和情绪调节能力造成有害影响。

In one study, just 8 days of a high-aspartame diet cause participants to score lower on mental tests and feel more irritable and depressed to boot. Another study revealed that people who drink a lot of diet soft drinks, which replace the sugar with artificial sweetener, have an increased risk of dementia or stroke. For now, the FDA says aspartame is safe, but also mandates warning labels on products that contain it.

一项研究发现,只需连续8天摄入含有大量阿斯巴甜代糖的膳食就会导致参与者智力测试的分数下降,而且还让他们感觉更烦躁更抑郁。另一项研究揭示,喝大量无糖软饮料(用人工甜味剂代替糖)的人患痴呆症或中风的风险更高。目前,美国食品及药物管理局认为阿斯巴甜代糖是安全的,但同时也要求含有阿斯巴甜代糖的产品必须贴上警示标签。

deleterious['dɛlə'tɪrɪəs]: adj. 有毒的,有害的

to boot: 再者;除此以外

 

英文来源:Welcome Organic

翻译&编辑:丹妮

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