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壮丽70年:就业保持稳定 新职业不断涌现 Occupations evolving amid China's stable employment

中国日报网 2019-10-07 08:30

就业是最大的民生。新中国成立70年来,就业形势长期稳定,就业质量显著提升,就业结构不断优化,在第三产业和高新技术领域还涌现出了大批新职业。

 

返乡创业记——回村种草的“90后”大学生文森在位于兴业县北市镇兴福村的种植基地内给香水柠檬树剪枝(2019年8月15日摄)。新华社记者 曹祎铭 摄

 

China's economy and society have undergone sea changes in the past seven decades, and so have people's occupations.

中国的经济和社会在过去70年间经历了翻天覆地的变化,人们的职业也经历了巨变。

In the early years after the People's Republic of China was founded in 1949, the majority of the population worked as farmers. At that time about 180 million people were employed, and only 8.3 percent of them worked in urban areas, data from the National Bureau of Statistics (NBS) showed.

在1949年中华人民共和国成立初期,中国大部分人口都是农民。国家统计局的数据显示,当时约有1.8亿就业人口,其中只有8.3%的人口在城镇工作。

In 2018, the country's employed population surged to 780 million, with over 56 percent working in cities.

2018年,中国就业人口增加到7.8亿,其中超56%在城市工作。

Given the huge size of the Chinese population and the challenges of transforming from a planned economy to a market economy capable of pursuing high-quality development, China has been largely successful in keeping employment stable over the past 70 years.

考虑到中国庞大的人口和从计划经济到追求高质量发展的市场经济的转变,过去70年中国在保持就业稳定这方面在很大程度上是成功的。

On top of that, China has seen constant improvement in its employment structure, with new jobs popping up as a result of an evolving economy.

除此以外,中国一直在不断改善就业结构,新增就业机会也伴随着经济发展不断涌现。

There was no standard classification for jobs in 1949. A popular saying of "360 professions" generalized the various occupations before 1999, when China released an official reference book on occupations.

1949年时,中国对职业没有标准分类。1999年中国发布了《中国职业分类大典》,在这以前,“360行”就可以概括各行各业。

An updated version of the reference book was rolled out in 2015, with 526 manufacturing jobs such as open-hearth steelmaker becoming obsolete, while some 81 new service-related professions such as courier were included.

2015年中国颁布了新版《中国职业分类大典》,平炉炼钢工等526种制造业的过时职业被取消,新增了快递员等81个服务性职业。

 

9月22日,在广西南宁国际会展中心,快递员在打包顾客的商品。新华社记者 张浩 摄

 

The rising urban demand for services has attracted farmers like Chang Baohong to seek job opportunities in cities. The 34-year-old man is now a deliveryman working for the country's largest online food delivery-to-ticketing services platform Meituan Dianping, and he can deliver 50 orders per day with the help of smart apps.

城市对服务业需求的增长吸引了常宝红(音)这样的农民到城市来寻找工作机会。这名34岁的男性现在是国内最大外卖订票网站美团点评的配送员,他借助智能手机应用每天可以配送50个订单。

In 2018, around 46 percent of the employed people worked in the tertiary industry in China. "This is an indicator of China's transformation to a service-based economy," said Lai Youwei, head of Meituan Research Institute.

2018年,受雇于第三产业的人约占中国从业人员的46%。美团研究院院长来有为说:“这表明中国正在向服务经济转型。”

tertiary[ˈtɜːʃəri]: adj. 第三的;第三位的

 

Unlike Chang, entrepreneurial Liao Zaijie, who calls himself a "new farmer," chose to seek his fortune in the country's rural areas.

和常宝红不同,自称为“新农民”的企业家廖再杰(音)选择在中国农村地区寻找致富机会。

Encouraged by the country's mass innovation and entrepreneurship campaign, Liao decided in 2015 to return to Hubei province's countryside to start his own business by helping local farmers sell agricultural products through e-commerce platforms.

受到国家“大众创业、万众创新”行动的鼓舞,2015年廖再杰决定回到湖北农村自主创业,帮助当地农民通过电子商务平台出售农产品。

As of June this year, Liao's sales volume on Pinduoduo, a social e-commerce giant with a huge consumer base in rural areas and small cities, reached 65 million yuan (about 9.16 million US dollars).

截至今年六月,廖再杰在拼多多上的销售额已达到6500万元。拼多多是一个在农村地区和小城镇拥有庞大消费者基础的社交电商巨头。

By the end of 2018, a total of 7.8 million people like Liao had returned to their rural hometowns to start businesses, promoting the application of new technologies, new varieties and expanding new markets, NBS data showed.

国家统计局的数据显示,到2018年底,总共有780万像廖再杰这样的人回农村老家创业,促进了新技术的应用和多样化发展,以及新市场的扩张。

 

网店店主李琛璨在打包车间中给客户打包发货(2019年8月30日摄)。2014年,李琛璨发动家人,开了一家专卖东北农副产品的网店,取名为“小样儿的春天”。新华社记者 王松 摄

 

To keep pace with economic and technological development, China added 13 new professions to the occupation dictionary in April, featuring a series of high-tech occupations including artificial intelligence technicians, Internet of Things technicians, cloud computing technicians, electronic sports specialists and unmanned aerial vehicle pilots.

为了和经济技术发展保持同步,国家在今年四月发布了13个新增职业,其中包括人工智能工程技术人员、物联网安装调试员、云计算工程技术人员、电子竞技运营师和无人机驾驶员等一系列高科技职业。

As the Chinese economy is shifting from high-speed growth to high-quality development, new jobs requiring new skills and knowledge have appeared in various industries, attracting a relatively stable number of workers, according to the Ministry of Human Resources and Social Security.

人力资源和社会保障部表示,随着中国经济从高速发展向高质量发展转变,各行各业涌现出需要新技能新知识的新职业,吸引了数量相对稳定的劳动力。

 

英文来源:新华社

翻译&编辑:丹妮

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