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《中国的粮食安全》白皮书(双语全文)

新华网 2019-10-15 13:55

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三、对外开放与国际合作
III. Opening Up and International Cooperation


中国积极践行自由贸易理念,认真履行加入世界贸易组织承诺,主动分享中国的粮食市场资源,推动世界粮食贸易发展。不断深化粮农领域国际合作,积极参与世界粮食安全治理,为促进世界粮食事业健康发展、维护世界粮食安全作出了重要贡献。
China is an active promoter of free trade. It has worked hard to fulfill its commitments to the WTO, and shares China's food market resources to facilitate world food trade. By expanding international cooperation in food and agriculture and actively participating in global food security governance, China has made an important contribution to the healthy development of the world food industry and food security.


(一)对外开放日益扩大
1. More areas are opening up


——中国粮食市场更加开放。涉粮外资企业加工转化粮食数量、产品销售收入不断增加,2018年分别占到全国的14.5%、17%。外资企业进入中国粮食市场的广度、深度不断拓展,在食用植物油、粮食加工转化等领域的份额不断增长,并向粮食收购市场、批发零售和主食品供应等方面延伸,成为促进中国粮食产业发展的重要力量。
- The Chinese food market is more open than before. Foreign-funded enterprises in China have been processing more food, and their revenue from sales is increasing over the years, accounting for 14.5 percent and 17 percent of the national total in 2018. Foreign-funded enterprises are becoming more involved in depth and width of China's food market, with growing shares of business in edible vegetable oil and food processing, and activities extending into procurement, wholesale and retail, and staple food supply. They have become a key force in developing China's food industry.


——认真履行加入世界贸易组织承诺。中国严格按照加入世界贸易组织承诺,取消了相关农产品进口配额和许可证等非关税措施,对小麦、玉米、大米实施进口关税配额管理,大幅度削减其他粮食品种的进口关税。进一步放宽农业领域外商投资准入限制,除中国稀有和特有的珍贵品种、转基因品种之外,将外商投资种业的限制范围缩减为小麦、玉米,取消农产品收购、批发的外商投资准入限制。
- China has honored its commitments to the WTO. In strict accordance with its commitments upon joining the WTO, China has rescinded import quotas, permits and other non-tariff measures for relevant agroproducts, exercised quota management for imported wheat, corn and rice, and cut import duties on other food types by large margins. It has further eased restrictions on foreign investment in agriculture, allowing foreign-invested seed companies to operate in all grain types other than wheat, corn, and rare species or species unique to China, or genetically modified crops. Restrictions on foreign-invested companies regarding the procurement, processing and wholesale of agroproducts have also been lifted.


——促进国际粮食贸易繁荣发展。中国在确保国家粮食安全的前提下,认真遵守世界贸易组织规则并履行中国加入世界贸易组织的相关承诺,积极与世界主要产粮国分享中国巨大的粮食市场。2018年,包括大豆等油料和饲料在内的粮食进口总量为11555万吨,出口总量366万吨,分别比1996年增长944.8%、171.1%。进口总量中大豆8803万吨;谷物及谷物粉进口2047万吨,占当年世界谷物贸易量的4.9%。
- China works for the development and prosperity of international food trade. On the precondition of ensuring national food security, China strictly abides by WTO rules and fulfills its commitments to the organization, sharing its huge food market with major food-producing countries. In 2018, China imported 115.55 million tons of oil crops (including soybeans), feed and other foods, and exported 3.66 million tons of food. These figures represented growth of 945 percent and 171 percent over 1996. It imported 88.03 million tons of soybeans, and 20.47 million tons of grains and grain powders, accounting for 4.9 percent of world grain trade in 2018.


(二)国际合作全面加强
2. International cooperation is strengthened in all areas


——主动分享粮食安全资源和经验。1996年以来,中国与联合国粮农组织实施了20多个多边南南合作项目,向非洲、亚洲、南太平洋、加勒比海等地区的近30个国家和地区派遣近1100人次粮农技术专家和技术员,约占联合国粮农组织南南合作项目派出总人数的60%。积极支持国内有条件的企业“走出去”,秉持共商共建共享原则,在有需要的国家和地区开展农业投资,推广粮食生产、加工、仓储、物流、贸易等技术和经验。截至2017年底,中国农业对外投资存量173.3亿美元,在境外设立企业851家,分布于六大洲的100个国家(地区),雇佣外方员工13.4万人,为东道国增加就业、发展经济、改善民生作出了积极贡献。
- Sharing resources and experience on food security with the rest of the world. Since 1996, the Chinese government and the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (UNFAO) have jointly implemented more than 20 multilateral South-South cooperation programs, and sent 1,100 agricultural experts and technical personnel to around 30 countries and regions in Africa, Asia, the South Pacific, and the Caribbean, accounting for 60 percent of the total number of personnel dispatched by the UNFAO's South-South cooperation program. It supports competent food enterprises in going global, encouraging them to invest in agriculture in countries and regions where such investment is needed, and share with them technology and experience on food production, processing, storage, logistics, and trade in accordance with the principles of extensive consultation, joint contribution and shared benefits. By the end of 2017, China had a total investment of 17.33 billion US dollars in agriculture overseas, with 851 enterprises operating in 100 countries and regions in six continents and employing 134,000 foreign employees. They have helped these countries and regions create more jobs, develop their economy, and improve peoples' lives.


——不断深化国际合作。中国与60多个国家和国际组织签署了120多份粮食和农业多双边合作协议、60多份进出口粮食检疫议定书,与140多个国家和地区建立了农业科技交流和经济合作关系,与50多个国家和地区建立了双边农业合作工作组。中国始终将支持非洲农业发展和粮食安全作为对非合作的优先重点领域。截至2016年,中国共帮助50多个非洲国家实施近500个农业援助项目,包括成套项目、技术援助项目、物资项目等,涉及农业种植、粮食仓储、农业机械、农田灌溉及农产品加工等领域。2013年以来,中国积极推进共建“一带一路”,与参与国建立经贸合作关系,推动粮食领域合作。
- Deeper international cooperation. China has signed more than 120 bilateral and multilateral agreements on food and agriculture cooperation with over 60 countries and international organizations, and more than 60 inspection and quarantine protocols for food imports and exports. It has established exchanges in agricultural science and economic cooperation with over 140 countries and regions, and formed bilateral work groups on agricultural cooperation with more than 50 countries and regions. China has always prioritized agricultural development and food security in its cooperation with African countries. As of 2016, China had provided assistance to more than 50 African countries in implementing nearly 500 agricultural programs, including complete projects, technical support and material supply, in the areas of farming, food storage, agricultural machinery, farmland irrigation, and agroproduct processing. Since it launched the Belt and Road Initiative in 2013, China has strengthened trade and economic relations with many participating countries to promote cooperation in the food industry.


——积极参与世界粮食安全治理。积极响应和参与联合国粮农组织、世界粮食计划署等涉粮国际组织的倡议和活动。推动增强非洲等发展中国家在涉粮国际组织中的代表性和发言权,支持发展中国家的合理诉求。致力于落实联合国2030年可持续发展议程,制定《中国落实2030年可持续发展议程国别方案》,发布《中国落实2030年可持续发展议程进展报告》,为其他国家落实工作提供有益借鉴。积极参与国际食品法典、国际植物保护公约等国际规则制定,成功推动世界动物卫生组织、国际标准化组织等10多项农药残留国际标准、谷物国际运输标准、国际贸易粮食检疫措施标准等国际标准的制定,主导制修订小麦规格、玉米规格等多项粮食国际标准。牵头推动亚洲合作对话“粮食、水与能源安全相互关系”工作,积极参与东盟与中日韩10+3大米紧急储备机制,先后发起或主办亚太经合组织农业和粮食安全部长会议、二十国集团农业部长会议、金砖国家农业部长会议、中国-拉丁美洲和加勒比农业部长论坛、中国-太平洋岛国农业部长会议、世界农业展望大会等重要国际会议,推动各国在粮食安全治理方面形成共识。
- Actively participating in world food security governance. China has actively responded to and participated in the initiatives and activities organized by the UNFAO, the World Food Programme, and other international organizations for agriculture. It has worked to enhance the representation and voice of Africa and other developing countries in international organizations for agriculture, lending support to their reasonable demands. It is committed to implementing the UN's 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, and has developed its country program for the Agenda and released a report on its progress for the Agenda, providing beneficial experience for other countries to do their work. China is engaged in the development of the Codex Alimentarius, International Plant Protection Convention, and other international rules. It led the formulation of and revisions to international standards on the specifications of wheat, corn, and other foods, and facilitated the development of about a dozen international standards on pesticide residues, grain transport, and food inspection and quarantine in foreign trade initiated by the World Organization for Animal Health and the International Standardization Organization. In order to push for consensus on food security governance, it took the lead in promoting the Asia Cooperation Dialogue on the relationship of food, water and energy security, and joined the 10+3 rice emergency reserve between ASEAN countries, China, Japan, and the ROK. It has also initiated or hosted APEC ministerial meetings on agriculture and food security, G20 meetings of agricultural ministers, BRICS meetings of agricultural ministers, the China-Latin America and the Caribbean Agricultural Ministers Forum, the China-Pacific Island Countries Agriculture Ministers Meeting, and the World Agricultural Outlook Conference.


——提供力所能及的国际紧急粮食援助。应有关国家紧急粮食援助请求,无偿提供力所能及的多双边紧急粮食援助,对缓解有关国家人道主义危机、促进世界消除饥饿目标的实现,发挥了积极作用,得到国际社会和有关国家的高度评价。
- Providing emergency food assistance within its capacity. In response to the emergency food needs of other countries, China has provided bilateral and multilateral free emergency food assistance within its capacity, playing a positive role in alleviating humanitarian crises and facilitating global efforts toward eliminating hunger, for which it has won recognition and commendation from the international community.

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