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站在微波炉前会被辐射吗?FDA:不用太担心 Is It Safe to Stand in Front of Microwave Ovens?

中国日报网 2019-11-01 15:07

使用微波炉加热食物时,你是不是打开旋钮就躲得远远的,生怕受到辐射?美国食品和药物管理局称,微波辐射造成的伤害非常罕见。不过,为了防止被烫伤,人们可以采取某些预防措施来保护自己。

Sidekix Media/unsplash

 

Microwave ovens have been a kitchen staple for decades, allowing you to cook everything from frozen vegetables to packaged meals in minutes. But while you zap your food, you may wonder how close you can safely stand next to a microwave, and whether any radiation could escape from the device and potentially harm you.

几十年来,微波炉一直是厨房的主要设备,你可以在几分钟内煮好冷冻蔬菜及袋装饭菜等所有食物。但是当你用微波炉加热食物的时候,你可能会想知道站在微波炉旁边多远才安全,以及设备是否会泄漏一些辐射并伤害到你。

Do you really need to worry about this? The short answer is, not really. Injuries from microwave radiation are very rare, according to the US Food and Drug Administration. However, there are certain precautions you can take to keep yourself safe when using a microwave oven.

你真的需要担心这个吗?太长不看版答案是,并不需要。美国食品和药物管理局(FDA)称,微波辐射造成的伤害非常罕见。不过,使用微波炉时,你可以采取一些预防措施来保证自己的安全。

Microwaves are a type of electromagnetic radiation, or waves of energy that move through space, according to the FDA. Electromagnetic radiation takes different forms, including radio waves, visible light, X-rays and gamma-rays.

FDA称,微波是一种电磁辐射,即在空间中移动的能量波。电磁辐射具有不同的形式,包括无线电波、可见光、X射线和伽马射线。

electromagnetic [ɪˌlektrəʊmæɡˈnetɪk]:adj.电磁的

 

Microwaves, like radio waves, are a type of  of "non-ionizing radiation," meaning they don't have enough energy to knock electrons out of atoms, the FDA says. Microwaves are therefore not known to damage DNA inside cells, according to the American Cancer Society.

FDA称,和无线电波一样,微波是一种“非电离辐射”,这意味着微波不具有足以撞击电子使其脱离原子的能量。因此,美国癌症学会表示,并不认为微波会破坏细胞内的DNA。

In contrast, X-rays and gamma-rays are classified as "ionizing radiation," a type that does have enough energy to remove electrons from atoms and can damage cells and DNA.

相比之下,X射线和伽马射线则被列为“电离辐射”,这种类型的辐射确实具有足以使电子脱离原子的能量,并且能够损害细胞和DNA。

Even though microwaves don't pose the same health risks as X-rays, that doesn't mean they are risk-free. Microwaves heat food by causing water molecules to vibrate, which produces heat. In theory, microwaves can heat body tissues in the same way they heat food, and at high levels, microwaves can cause burns and cataracts, according to the FDA. But these types of injuries are very rare and have generally occurred when people are exposed to large amounts of radiation leaking through openings in the oven, such as gaps in the seal, the FDA says.

尽管微波不会与X射线一样对健康构成风险,但这并不意味着它们毫无风险。微波通过引起水分子振动从而产生热量来加热食物。据FDA称,理论上,微波会以与加热食物相同的方式使人体组织受热,而且在严重的情况下,可能导致烫伤和白内障。但是,FDA认为,这两种类型的伤害非常罕见,并且通常发生在人们接触到透过微波炉的开口(比如密封条的裂口)泄漏大量辐射的时候。

cataract [ˈkætərækt]:n. [眼科]白内障

 

Stefan C. Asafti/unsplash

 

What's more, the FDA requires microwaves to be designed in a certain way to prevent these types of radiation leaks. For example, the FDA requires that microwave ovens have two interlock systems that halt the production of microwaves the moment the door is opened. And the agency requires that these ovens have a monitoring system that stops the device from operating if one of the interlock systems fail.

此外,FDA还要求微波炉的设计能够防止这类辐射泄漏。例如,FDA要求微波炉有两个连锁装置,当微波炉的门被打开时,这个系统就会停止微波的产生。该机构要求微波炉设置监控系统,如果其中一个连锁系统出现故障,该设备就会停止运行。

As a result, there is "little cause for concern" about excess microwaves leaking out from your oven, unless there is damage to the door hinge, latch or seal, the FDA says.

FDA称,除非微波炉的门铰链、门锁或密封条存在损坏,否则对于微波炉会泄漏过量微波几乎“不存在值得担心的理由”。

Still, the agency recommends that you check your microwave oven carefully and do not use it if the door doesn't close properly, or if it is "bent, warped, or otherwise damaged." As an added precaution, the FDA recommends that you don't lean or stand directly against a microwave oven for long periods while it's operating.

尽管如此,FDA还是建议你仔细检查你的微波炉,如果门不能正常关闭,或者发生了“弯曲、歪斜或其他损坏”的话,就不要使用。作为一项额外的预防措施,FDA建议你在微波炉工作时不要长时间地直接贴靠或直接站在微波炉前面。

As far as injuries from microwave ovens go, the most common way people are injured is via heat-related burns from touching hot containers or overheated foods, or being exposed to exploding liquids. The FDA recommends that people use common-sense precautions when handling hot foods and beverages cooked in microwave ovens.

就微波炉造成的伤害而言,最常见的受伤是接触热容器或过热食物,或接触爆炸的液体,从而导致灼伤。FDA建议人们在使用微波炉加热食物和饮料时采取常识性的预防措施。

The agency also warns that, when you use a microwave to heat water in a cup, there's a risk of the water becoming "superheated," which means it has heated past its boiling point.

该机构还警告说,当你用微波炉加热杯子里的水时,会有水变得“过热”的风险,这意味着水的温度超过了沸点。

When this happens, the water does not appear to be boiling, but just a slight disturbance to the water — which can occur when touching or picking up the cup — can cause an eruption of boiling water.

当这种情况发生时,水看起来并没有沸腾,但只要碰到或拿起杯子时对水有轻微的扰动就会导致沸腾的水喷发。

This can lead to skin burns or scalding injuries, particularly on the face and hands. To prevent superheated water from forming, the FDA says people should not exceed the recommended heating time for water, as indicated in the oven's instruction manual.

这会导致皮肤,尤其是脸部和手部,灼伤或烫伤。为了防止过热的水形成,FDA表示,不应该超过微波炉说明书中建议的加热时间。

Indeed, it's generally a good idea to read and follow your microwave oven's instruction manual to help keep yourself safe when using it.

事实上,使用微波炉的时候,最好阅读并遵循微波炉的使用说明书,以保障你的安全。

 

英文来源:趣味科学网站

翻译&编辑:yaning

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