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美国正式开启退出《巴黎协定》流程 Paris climate accords: US notifies UN of intention to withdraw

中国日报网 2019-11-05 11:38

美国政府11月4日正式通知联合国,要求退出应对全球气候变化的《巴黎协定》。根据《巴黎协定》规定,该协定生效3年后(即2019年11月4日),缔约方才能正式要求退出,退出过程需要一年时间。这意味着,美国将于2020年11月4日起“准时”退出《巴黎协定》。

[Photo/IC]

The United States has formally notified the United Nations of its intention to withdraw from the Paris Agreement. The notification begins a one-year process of exiting the global climate change accord.

美国已正式通知联合国,将退出《巴黎协定》。这一通知开启了为期一年的退出该全球气候变化协定的进程。

The agreement brought together 188 nations to combat climate change.

共有188个缔约方加入该协定,共同应对气候变化。

Announcing the plan last month, US Secretary of State Mike Pompeo said the agreement had imposed an "unfair economic burden" on the United States.

美国国务卿迈克·蓬佩奥上月宣布该计划时表示,该协议给美国带来了“不公平的经济负担”。

The Paris agreement committed the US and 187 other countries to keeping rising global temperatures below 2C above pre-industrial levels and attempting to limit them even more, to a 1.5C rise.

《巴黎协定》承诺,美国和其它187个缔约方将把全球气温升幅控制在比前工业时期高出2摄氏度以内的水平,并尽力将升幅进一步控制在1.5摄氏度以内。

In the Paris agreement, the US agreed to cut its heat-trapping pollution at least 26% below 2005 levels by 2025.

按照该协定,美国同意到2025年将温室气体排放量在2005年的基础上至少减少26%。

The decision to withdraw - taken by President Donald Trump - made the US the world's sole non-signatory and prompted high-level efforts by the European Union to keep the agreement on track.

唐纳德·特朗普总统做出的退出决定,使美国成为世界上唯一没有签署该协议的国家,这还将促使欧盟高层做出努力,确保协议的执行。

The US issued its formal notification on the first day it was possible to do so, firing the starting gun on the long process of extricating the country from the 2015 agreement.

美国在提交退出要求的第一天就发布了正式通知,开启了该国脱离2015年《巴黎协定》的漫长进程。

starting gun:发令枪

 

The withdrawal is still subject to the outcome of next year's US presidential election - if Mr Trump loses, the winner may decide to change course.

美国的退出还取决于明年总统选举的结果——如果特朗普失败,获胜者可能会改变主意。

Mr Trump promised to turn the US into an energy superpower, and has attempted to sweep away a raft of pollution legislation to reduce the cost of producing gas, oil and coal. He characterised former US President Barack Obama’s environmental clean-up plans as a war on American energy.

特朗普承诺将美国转变为一个能源超级大国,并试图废除大量的污染法规,以降低天然气、石油和煤炭的生产成本。他将美国前总统贝拉克•奥巴马的环境治理计划形容为一场针对美国能源的战争。

Announcing his decision to withdraw, last year, Mr Trump said: "I was elected to represent the citizens of Pittsburgh, not Paris. I promised I would exit or re-negotiate any deal which fails to serve America's interests."

特朗普去年在宣布退出时说:“我当选总统,代表的是匹兹堡民众,而不是巴黎市民。我承诺将退出或重新谈判任何不符合美国利益的协议。”

But reports suggest the Trump administration made no effort to renegotiate the Paris agreement, waiting instead until the first possible day to exit.

但有报道称,特朗普政府并没有开展重新谈判,而是一直等待,并在第一时间退出。

The US contributes about 15% of global emissions of carbon, but it is also a significant source of finance and technology for developing countries in their efforts to fight rising temperatures.

美国贡献了全球大约15%的碳排放,但它也是发展中国家应对气温上升的重要资金和技术来源。

 

The White House in Washington [Photo/IC]

决定招致批评

The Trump administration will not be able to finalize its exit until a day after the presidential election in November 2020.

特朗普政府要到2020年11月美国总统大选开始一天后才能完成退出过程。

But scientists and environmentalists fear the effect the Trump administration will have on climate protections in the meantime.

但科学家和环保人士担心,在此期间,特朗普政府将对环境保护产生的影响。

A report issued in December 2018 by the Institute of International and European Affairs suggested President Trump's decision to leave had done "very real damage" to the Paris agreement, creating "moral and political cover for others to follow suit".

国际与欧洲事务研究所2018年12月发布的一份报告显示,特朗普总统的退出决定对《巴黎协定》造成了“实质性损害”,为“其他国家效仿提供了道义和政治上的掩护”。

The report cited the examples of Russia and Turkey, which both declined to ratify the deal despite signing.

报告列举了俄罗斯和土耳其的例子,两国尽管签署了协议,但都拒绝批准该协议。

Criticism from prominent political and environmental figures was swift and forceful.

一些著名的政治和环保人士迅速而有力地批评了特朗普政府的决定。

The former vice-president and climate campaigner Al Gore said in a statement posted on Twitter: “No one person or party can stop our momentum to solve the climate crisis. But those who try will be remembered for their complacency, complicity, and mendacity in attempting to sacrifice the planet for their greed.”

美国前副总统、气候活动家阿尔·戈尔在推特上发表声明称:“没有任何个人或党派能够阻止我们解决气候危机的努力。但是,那些企图为自己的贪婪而牺牲地球的人,将因他们的自满、共谋和虚伪而被世人铭记。”

 

Mothers with prams protest outside Downing Street, ahead of the UN Climate Action Summit, in London, Britain Sept 23, 2019. [Photo/Agencies]

《巴黎协定》的内容是什么?

Climate change, or global warming, refers to the damaging effect of gases, or emissions, released from industry and agriculture on the atmosphere. The Paris accord is meant to limit the global rise in temperature attributed to emissions.

气候变化,或全球变暖,是指工业和农业排放的气体对大气的破坏作用。《巴黎协定》旨在限制温室气体排放导致的全球气温上升。

Countries agreed to:

各国同意:

Keep global temperatures "well below" the level of 2C above pre-industrial times and "endeavour to limit" them even more, to 1.5C

与前工业化时期相比,将全球升温控制在“远低于”2摄氏度之内的水平,并“努力将其控制在”1.5摄氏度以内;

Limit the amount of greenhouse gases emitted by human activity to the same levels that trees, soil and oceans can absorb naturally, beginning at some point between 2050 and 2100

2050年至2100年间,将人类活动排放的温室气体限制在树木、土壤和海洋可以自然吸收的水平;

Review each country's contribution to cutting emissions every five years so they scale up to the challenge

每5年审查各国对减排的贡献,使其能够应对挑战;

Enable rich countries to help poorer nations by providing "climate finance" to adapt to climate change and switch to renewable energy

通过提供“气候资金”以应对气候变化的挑战,并转向可再生能源,使富国能够帮助贫困国家。

 

英文来源:BBC、卫报

翻译&编辑:yaning

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