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吃大蒜预防新冠病毒感染?世卫组织澄清13个虚假传言 World Health Organization debunk 13 of the biggest myths surrounding the outbreak

中国日报网 2020-02-18 13:45

吃大蒜预防新型冠状病毒?使用紫外线灯可以杀灭病毒?注射肺炎疫苗能提供保护?世界卫生组织近日揭穿了有关新型冠状病毒的13个虚假传言。

Medics comfort a newly admitted patient at Leishenshan Hospital in Wuhan on Feb 16. [Photo by Gao Xiang/for chinadaily.com.cn]

1. Hand dryers will not kill the coronavirus

干手器不能杀死冠状病毒

Hand dryers alone cannot kill coronavirus.

只用干手器是无法杀死冠状病毒的。

Rumors have claimed using the hot air from the dryer for 30 seconds will rid any trace of the virus on your hands.

有传言称,用干手器烘干30秒钟,就能完全灭除手上的冠状病毒。

Above all, people should focus on keeping their hands clean.

最重要的是,人们应该重点保持双手清洁。

'To protect yourself against the novel coronavirus, you should frequently clean your hands with an alcohol-based hand rub or wash them with soap and water,' the WHO said.

世界卫生组织称:“为了免受新型冠状病毒的侵袭,你应该经常用含酒精的洗手液洗手,或用肥皂和水洗手。”

'Once your hands are cleaned, you should dry them thoroughly by using paper towels or a warm air dryer.'

“洗完手后,应该用纸巾或热风干手器把手彻底擦干或吹干。”

 

2. Ultraviolet lamps cannot sterilize the skin

紫外线灯无法为皮肤消毒

Ultraviolet lamps will not sterilize the skin.

紫外线灯无法为皮肤消毒。

They could, however, cause skin irritation, the WHO warned.

世界卫生组织警告说,它们反而可能刺激皮肤。

Long term, UV radiation which also comes from the sun can damage the DNA in cells, which in turn may lead to cancer. It's for this reason that tanning beds are advised against.

长期来看,紫外线辐射会破坏细胞中的脱氧核糖核酸(DNA),进而可能引发癌症。太阳光中也有紫外线。因此不建议使用日光浴床。

Hospitals and laboratories often use ultraviolet UV light to kill microbes, but never use it around humans.

医院和实验室经常使用紫外线灯灭菌,但是在无人的环境下使用。

 

3. Eating garlic is not protective

吃大蒜没有保护作用

Garlic is a healthy food that may have some antimicrobial properties, the WHO said.

世界卫生组织说,大蒜是一种健康食品,可能具有某些抗菌特性。

However, there is no evidence from the current outbreak that eating garlic has protected people from the novel coronavirus.

但从目前的疫情来看,没有证据表明吃大蒜能使人们免受新型冠状病毒感染。

An online post went viral after claiming a bowl of boiled garlic water can cure the novel coronavirus.

之前有网帖称,煮开的大蒜水可以杀灭新型冠状病毒,随后该帖被疯狂转发。

Facebook has since blocked the post because 'the primary claims in the information are factually inaccurate.'

脸书之后屏蔽了该帖,因为“信息中的主要说法实际上是不准确的”。

 

4. Sesame oil doesn't block coronavirus from entering the body

芝麻油不能阻止新型冠状病毒感染

Contrary to rife rumors, rubbing sesame oil onto the skin won't block coronavirus from entering the body.

与流行的传言相反,往皮肤上抹芝麻油并不能阻止冠状病毒进入人体。

The WHO said, 'No. Sesame oil does not kill the novel coronavirus.'

世界卫生组织说:“不。芝麻油无法杀死新型冠状病毒。”

This is because transmission is believed to occur when an infected person sneezes, and droplets land in a person's mouth or nose, or they inhale it from the air.

这是因为,据目前的信息显示,感染者打喷嚏后,飞沫溅落到他人口鼻中,或者他人从空气中吸入飞沫时才会发生病毒传播。

Close contact with someone infected also raises the risk. According to the Center of Disease Control and Prevention, spread from person-to-person can happen from six feet apart.

与感染者密切接触也会增加患病风险。根据美国疾病控制和预防中心的说法,距离6英尺(约合1.8米)远就可能发生人与人之间的传播。

 

The couple Gao Yongzhe and Huang Wenli make a heart shape with their hands in Wuhan's Fang Cang makeshift hospital on Feb 14, 2020. [Photo by Gao Xiang/chinadaily.com.cn]

5. Spraying alcohol or chlorine over your body will not get rid of the virus

在身上喷酒精或含氯消毒剂不会清除体内的新型冠状病毒

Once novel coronavirus is in your system, spraying substances like alcohol and chlorine on the skin will not be of any use.

一旦新型冠状病毒进入人体内,在皮肤上喷洒酒精和含氯消毒剂等等就毫无用处了。

But generally, there are some powerful chemical disinfectants that can kill coronaviruses on surfaces, according to the WHO. These include bleach and chlorine-based disinfectants.

但根据世界卫生组织的说法,通常情况下,一些强效的化学消毒剂可以杀死物体表面上的冠状病毒。这些消毒剂包括漂白剂和含氯消毒剂。

disinfectant[ˌdɪsɪnˈfektənt]:n.消毒剂

 

They should not be used on the skin, as this can be dangerous. It is also not recommended to sniff it.

不过这些消毒剂不应该用于皮肤,因为这很危险,也不建议吸入。

They could be harmful to mucous membranes.

它们可能对黏膜有害。

The WHO said: 'Be aware that both alcohol and chlorine can be useful to disinfect surfaces, but they need to be used under appropriate recommendations.'

世界卫生组织说:“要注意,酒精和含氯消毒剂给物体表面消毒是有用的,但要根据恰当的建议使用。”

 

6. Thermal scanners won't always detect infected people

热扫描仪无法发现所有感染者

Thermal scanners are being used worldwide at airports and railway stations. They can detect people with a fever - a temperature higher than normal.

全球的机场和火车站都在使用热扫描仪。热扫描仪能检测出发热的人。

'However, they cannot detect people who are infected but are not yet sick with fever,' the WHO said.

世界卫生组织说:“但热扫描仪无法检测出未发烧的感染者。”

It takes two to ten days before people who are infected become sick and develop a fever. In some people, it's taken 14 days.

被感染者可能在两到十天的潜伏期后才会发病和发烧。有些人潜伏期长达14天。

 

7. Letters or packages from China do not carry coronavirus

来自中国的信件和包裹不携带冠状病毒

It is safe to receive packages from China, the WHO said. Analysis shows coronaviruses do not survive very long on objects - especially flying between countries.

世界卫生组织说,收取来自中国的包裹是安全的。分析表明,冠状病毒不会在物体上存活太长时间。

People questioned exactly how novel coronavirus spreads and if it can arrive by mail.

人们问及新型冠状病毒究竟如何传播,以及是否可以通过包裹传播。

There is nothing to suggest this is the case.

没有证据表明这种病毒可通过包裹传播。

 

8. Pets can't get ill with coronavirus

宠物不会染上冠状病毒

At present, there is no evidence that pets can be infected by coronavirus.

目前尚无证据表明宠物会感染冠状病毒。

Chinese nationals have made make-shift face masks for their cats who fear their felines could catch the deadly virus.

一些中国人给他们的猫咪制作了临时口罩,担心猫会感染这种致命病毒。

makeshift[ˈmeɪkˌʃɪft]:adj.临时凑合的

 

Such measures are unnecessary, the WHO said.

世界卫生组织说,这样的措施并无必要。

The agency added: 'It is always a good idea to wash your hands with soap and water after contact with pets. This protects you against various common bacteria such as E.coli and Salmonella that can pass between pets and humans.'

该机构补充说:“与宠物接触后用肥皂和水洗手是个好办法。这可以保护你免受大肠杆菌和沙门氏菌等各种常见细菌侵袭,这些细菌可以在宠物和人之间传播。”

 

Niu Chunjuan, a nurse at the community health center on Hongchenggang Street, shows her "smile" to the camera after finishing her work in the morning, on Feb 10, 2020. [Photo by Shi Yi/Provided to chinadaily.com.cn]

9. Vaccines against pneumonia won't protect against novel coronavirus

预防肺炎的疫苗无法抵御新型冠状病毒

Vaccines for novel coronavirus are still in the making and are unlikely to be finished in time to curb the current outbreak.

新型冠状病毒疫苗仍在研制中,近期不太可能研制出来从而遏制当前疫情。

Researchers across the world are racing to develop a drug with the WHO support.

在世界卫生组织的支持下,全球的研究人员都在竞相研制药物。

Jabs for pneumonia - which can be caused by novel coronavirus - will not work. These include pneumococcal vaccine and Haemophilus influenza type B (Hib) vaccine.

肺炎(新型冠状病毒可引发肺炎)疫苗对预防新冠肺炎无效。这些疫苗包括肺炎球菌疫苗和B型流感嗜血杆菌疫苗。

 

10. Saline nose spray won't protect you

盐水喷鼻剂无法保护你

There is no evidence that regularly rinsing the nose with saline has protected people from infection with the novel coronavirus, the WHO said.

世界卫生组织说,没有证据表明定期用盐水洗鼻能使人们免受新型冠状病毒的侵袭。

Some evidence suggests the old wives tale can help people recover more quickly from the common cold because cells in the body use the chloride in salt to produce hypochlorous acid (HOCI) which is the active ingredient found in bleach.

一些证据表明,盐水洗鼻可以帮助人们更快地从普通感冒中恢复过来,因为人体细胞利用盐中的氯生成次氯酸,这是漂白剂中发现的活性成分。

But there is nothing supporting the method against other respiratory infections, including the novel coronavirus.

但是没有任何证据支持这种方法能对抗其他呼吸道感染,包括新型冠状病毒。

 

11. Gargling mouthwash offers no protection

漱口水无法提供保护

Mouthwash cannot protect you from infection with the novel coronavirus.

漱口水无法保护你不感染新型冠状病毒。

Some brands or mouthwash can eliminate certain microbes for a few minutes in the saliva in your mouth.

某些品牌的漱口水可以清除唾液中的某些细菌,但效果只能维持几分钟。

'However, this does not mean they protect you from novel coronavirus infection,' WHO said.

世界卫生组织说:“但这并不意味着它们能保护你免受新型冠状病毒感染。”

 

12. Young people can also get novel coronavirus

年轻人也可能感染新型冠状病毒

Young people are also at risk of novel coronavirus, despite patterns showing the elderly are struck more often.

年轻人也可能感染新型冠状病毒,尽管有例证表明老年人更易感。

Older people, and people with pre-existing medical conditions such as asthma, diabetes, heart disease, appear to be more vulnerable to becoming severely ill with the virus.

老年人以及有哮喘、糖尿病、心脏病等病史的人似乎更容易感染后发展为重症。

WHO advises people of all ages to take steps to protect themselves from the virus, for example by following good hand hygiene and good respiratory hygiene.

世界卫生组织建议,所有年龄段的人都要采取措施保护自己免受感染,例如保持良好的手部卫生和呼吸道卫生。

 

13. Antibiotics will not treat novel coronavirus

抗生素无法治疗新型冠状病毒

Novel coronavirus is a virus and, therefore, antibiotics should not be used as a means of prevention or treatment. Antibiotics only work against bacterial infections.

新型冠状病毒是一种病毒,因此抗生素不应用于预防或治疗。抗生素只对细菌感染有效。

'If you are hospitalized for the novel coronavirus, you may receive antibiotics because bacterial co-infection is possible,' the WHO said.

世界卫生组织说:“如果你因为感染新型冠状病毒住院,或将接受抗生素治疗,因为可能会发生合并感染。”

To date, there is no specific medicine recommended to prevent or treat the novel coronavirus.

截至目前,尚无专门药物可预防或治疗这种新型冠状病毒。

Some specific treatments are under investigation, and will be tested through clinical trials.

一些特定治疗方法正在研究中,并将通过临床试验检验。

 

英文来源:每日邮报

翻译&编辑:yaning

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