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研究:被性侵的女性大脑出现病变的风险更高 Sexual assault linked to later brain damage in women, study finds

中国日报网 2021-09-28 08:00

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美国一项研究发现,曾经遭到性侵害的女性,未来出现认知能力下降、痴呆、中风等脑部病变的风险更高。这表明性暴力对受害者在心理上和身体上都有巨大的长期影响。


Women who have been sexually assaulted have a higher risk of developing a type of brain damage that has been linked to cognitive decline, dementia and stroke, a new study found.
一项新的研究发现,遭受性侵犯的女性出现认知能力下降、痴呆和中风等脑损伤的风险更高。


"It could be either childhood sexual abuse or adult sexual assault," said study author Rebecca Thurston, a professor and director of the Women's Biobehavioral Health Laboratory at the University of Pittsburgh's Graduate School of Public Health.
该研究作者丽贝卡·瑟斯顿称:“这包括童年遭受的性虐待或成年后遭遇的性侵犯。”瑟斯顿是匹兹堡大学公共卫生研究生院女性生物行为健康实验室的教授兼主任。

 

2021年9月15日,美国奥运会操运动员西蒙尼·比尔斯出席国会听证会指认前队医拉里·纳斯萨性侵。图源:法新社



身体表现


The new study, presented Thursday at the annual meeting of the North American Menopause Society, adds to a growing body of research on the long-term impact of sexual assault on the body and the mind.
这项新研究是越来越多关于性侵犯对身体和精神的长期影响的研究之一,于9月23日在北美更年期协会年会上发布。


"We need to keep our attention on this issue of sexual violence against women and not let it fall off the radar screen of society, because it continues to be a major women's health issue," Thurston said.
瑟斯顿说:“我们需要持续关注对妇女的性暴力问题,不要让它从社会关注中消失,因为这仍然是关乎妇女健康的一个主要问题。”


Prior studies have found sexual trauma to be linked to higher levels of triglycerides and blood pressure in midlife, and a three-fold greater risk of developing carotid plaque, all key risk factors for heart disease.
此前的研究发现,性创伤与中年时的甘油三酯偏高和高血压有关,并且形成颈动脉斑块的风险增加三倍,而颈动脉斑块是导致心脏病的关键风险因素。


In addition, a 2018 study Thurston conducted found women who reported prior sexual assault were three times more likely to experience depression and twice as likely to have elevated anxiety and insomnia than women without a history of sexual trauma.
此外,瑟斯顿2018年开展的一项研究发现,与没有性创伤史的女性相比,报告过性侵犯遭遇的女性患抑郁症的可能性高出三倍,患焦虑和失眠的可能性高出一倍。


Depression, anxiety and sleep disorders are all linked to poorer health outcomes, including heart disease, according to the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
据美国疾病控制和预防中心称,抑郁、焦虑和睡眠障碍都与心脏病等健康问题有关。


CDC statistics also show more than 1 in 3 women in the US (and 1 in 4 men) experience sexual assault at least once in their lifetimes. Considering the widespread impact, Thurston said physicians should be asking their patients about any prior sexual trauma, and then carefully monitoring the woman's cardiovascular risk as she ages.
美国疾控中心的统计数据还显示,在美国,超过三分之一的女性(四分之一的男性)一生中至少经历过一次性侵犯。考虑到这一广泛的影响,瑟斯顿说,医生应该询问患者之前的性创伤史,然后随着患者年龄的增长仔细监测女性的心血管风险。

图源:Unsplash



大脑扫描


The new study, which will publish soon in the journal Brain Imaging and Behavior, looked for signs of white matter hyperintensities in the brain scans of 145 midlife women with no prior history of cardiovascular disease, stroke or dementia. However, 68% of participants had experienced trauma, and for 23% of the women, that trauma was sexual assault.
这项新的研究很快将发表在《脑成像与行为》杂志上,研究在145名没有心血管疾病、中风或痴呆病史的中年女性脑部扫描中寻找白质高信号的迹象。68%的参与者经历过精神创伤,23%的女性经历过性侵犯。


White matter hyperintensities, which show up as small spots of white on MRIs, are markers of disruptions in blood flow that have left damage in the brain.
脑白质高信号在磁共振成像上表现为小白点,是血流中断导致大脑受损的标志。


"Using brain imaging, we found that women with a history of sexual assault have greater white matter hyperintensities in the brain, which is an indicator of small vessel disease that has been linked to stroke, dementia, cognitive decline and mortality," Thurston said.
瑟斯顿说:“通过脑成像,我们发现有被性侵史的女性大脑中的白质高信号更严重,这是小血管疾病的一个指标,与中风、痴呆、认知能力下降和死亡有关。”


The study controlled for other diseases and conditions that would affect the development of white matter hyperintensities, such as age, hypertension, smoking and diabetes. The study also controlled for emotional disorders, including depression, anxiety and post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms.
该研究控制了可能影响白质高信号发展的其他疾病和条件,如年龄、高血压、吸烟和糖尿病。该研究还控制了情绪障碍这一变量,包括抑郁、焦虑和创伤后应激障碍(PTSD)症状。


The increase in white matter hyperintensities "wasn't explained by these subjective symptoms of distress," Thurston said. "It's almost like your body has a memory that may not be fully manifesting through psychological symptoms. The sexual assault also leaves footprints of the trauma in our brains and our bodies."
瑟斯顿说,脑白质高信号的增加“不能用这些痛苦的主观症状来解释”。“这就像你的身体有一种记忆,这种记忆可能不会通过心理症状完全显现出来。性侵犯还会在我们的大脑和身体上留下创伤的足迹。”


来源:CNN
编辑:董静

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