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Bilingual Stories about Turner
[ 2009-04-24 09:22 ]

Joseph W Turner (Joseph Mallord William Turner 约瑟夫•马洛德•威廉•透纳)is widely regarded as the greatest artist that Britain has ever produced. 约瑟夫•马洛德•威廉•透纳被公认为英国有史以来最伟大的艺术家。

When Turner was asked his secret of success and secret of genius, he said,“I have no secret except dumb hard work.” 当人们问到他有什么成功秘诀和绘画天赋时,他总说:“除了勤加练习以外,我没有任何秘诀。”

And he is one of the most prolific artists not just in British history but in the history of art, 他是英国历史上、也是整个艺术史上最多产的画家之一。

But it isn't just quantity, through which Turner's life should be measured, 但我们不应仅仅用作品的多少来衡量透纳一生的成就。

but the vision in Turner that is unsurpassed in British art. 而更要以他在英国艺术史上无人能及的视角来衡量。

He took landscape painting into new territories using paint in magical ways 他对颜料的应用出神入化,将风景画带入了一个新的境界,

which captured the wildness of the natural world around him but which bordered on abstraction. 这种技法抓住了他周围自然世界的粗犷,但接近抽象派。

Today we venerate this seemingly unruly brush strokes, 今天,我们很欣赏这种似乎不循章法的笔触,

but in the 19th century, they caused an outrage. 但在19世纪这种画法却引起了广泛争议。

Rembrandt 伦勃朗 Michelangelo 米开朗基罗 Vermeer 维米尔 Velazquez 委拉斯贵支 Leonardo 列奥纳多•达•芬奇 Turner 透纳 Titian 提香

Great Artists with Tim Marlow 名画大师——提姆•马罗导览

Turner 透纳

Joseph Mallord William Turner was born in 1775,above his father's barber shop in London's bustling Covent Garden. 1775年,在伦敦繁华的柯芬园地区,约瑟夫•马洛德•威廉•透纳在他父亲理发店的楼上出生。

It was a time of great change for Britain which is in the process of industrial revolution. 当时正值工业革命时期,英国面临着巨大的变革。

The mass production of goods created new wealth, but also brought with it a deeper division in class. 虽然批量化的工业生产创造出了新的财富,但同时也使社会更加阶级化。

Turner escaped the poverty trap by drawing. 透纳通过绘画使自己摆脱了贫困。

He had precocious talent for drawing as well as marketing his art from a very young age. 他天生的绘画才能和推销自己作品的能力在他很小的时候就显现了出来。

At the age of 9, he copied illustrations from cheap publications and sold them to clients at his father's salon. 他9岁时就临摹廉价出版物上的插图并卖给他父亲理发店的客人,

At 13 he was apprenticed to Thomas Malton, a water colorist specializing in architectural scenes, 13岁师从托马斯•弥尔顿,一个专门画建筑风景的水彩画家。

but his most important professional training came from a new and illustrious institution that would change the face of British art. 一个新兴的杰出学院即将改变英国艺术的面貌,同时也为透纳提供了最重要的艺术职业训练。

The art world into which Turner was born in Britain was going through exciting times. 透纳出生的年代是英国艺术界改革的激励人心的时代。

7 years before his birth, in 1768,the Royal Academy of Arts was founded by a group of artists, sculptors and architects, led by Sir Joshua Reynolds, and including some of the future stars of British art like Thomas Gainsborough. 在透纳出生7年前,也就是1768年,由乔舒亚•雷诺兹爵士以及后来的新起之秀托马斯•庚斯博罗等人领导的一批画家、雕塑家和建筑家组建了英国皇家美术学院。

Tuition in the Academy was free. 学院是不收学费的。

The whole purpose of the institution was both to promote British art by exhibiting art but also by training young artists. 因为学院的办学目的就是:通过举办展览和培养年轻艺术家来发扬振兴英国艺术。

And Turner, came here at the age of 14, and began what was going to be a long association between him and the Academy. 而透纳14岁时进入英国皇家美术学院,结下了他与学院一生的缘分。

Now the basic craft of painting was learnt in the day. Artists would be apprentices working in art studios or in Turner's case, in that of an architectural draftsman. 学院的学生白天学习绘画技巧,他们都曾经在艺术工作室学习和工作,或像透纳那样做过建筑师助理。

but in the evenings, they learned much more of the intellectual discipline, of what it was to be an artist. 而在晚上,他们学习文化课,好让自己成为一名真正的艺术家。

The education centered around philosophy, history, contemporary science with the focus mainly on the human body. 学院的教育涉及哲学、历史和主要研究人体的解剖学。

Students drew, and all did they draw, in the main, from the human body itself, 学生们日复一日的习画,主要从人体本身入手,

but perhaps above all, from plastic arts of idealized classical sculptures. 也许最重要的还是从唯美的古典雕塑中掌握人体。

The Academy was on the shame of the higher radical. 学院是公开分等级的。

Reynolds has established a list of important subject maters in painting that started with history and right at the bottom was landscape. 雷诺兹列出了绘画中重要的题材,历史画位于榜首,风景画排在最后。

But Turner had begun to develop what became a life long love of landscape painting. 而透纳开始创作他一生钻研、挚爱的风景画。

He'd also begun to gain a reputation as a talented water colorist, specializing in topographical and architectural pictures. 他也开始树立声誉,成为人们眼中专精于地形图和建筑画的天才水彩画家。

At 15, he had his first water color, The Archbishop's Palace, Lambeth, chosen for the highly competitive exhibition of the Royal Academy in 1790, 1790年透纳15岁时,他的第一幅水彩画《大主教宫——兰柏宫》经过层层筛选被学院的夏季画展展出。

an astonishing achievement for an adolescent. 对于一个青少年来说,这是一个不小的成就。

Although it was at the bottom of the artist establishment of hierarchy of high art, 尽管风景画处于高雅艺术等级的最低层,

landscape painting became more fashionable among the art buying public as travel became increasingly popular. 随着外出旅行越来越受欢迎,买风景画也成了时尚。

The pictures that Turner produced were often made into engravings,透纳画的画经常被制成版画,

which was then sold as prints or published in a new literary phenomenon, travel guides. 然后以印刷品的形式售出,或出版在一种新的图书类型——旅行指南中。

As well as having strong views about what to paint, the Academy also told artists about how to paint. 学院不仅对创作的题材持不变的观点,而且对艺术家的技法也严格限制。

And the academic view was unequivocal: the most talented artists used oil. 而学院派的看法也是不可动摇的:画油画的艺术家才是最有才华的。

But I think Turner's real artistic laboratory was the art of the water color. 但我认为透纳真正的贡献在于他的水彩画。

Now, we recognize Turner's reputation mainly through his oils: they are wonderful achievements, 现在,我们主要通过他的油画,尤其是那些著名的代表作品来了解他,

but during his life time, it was the water color that spread his reputation because he was prolific. 但在他的有生之年,他却是因创作了许多水彩画而闻名于世。

He produced over 1800 finished water colors as well as thousands of unfinished sketches. 他画的水彩画多达1800幅,还有许多未完成的写生作品。

Now for the Academy, the water color was inferior to oil painting, 在学院看来,水彩画比油画显得略低一筹。

but for a rising artistic public, the water color was a wonderful popular medium. 但对于越来越多的艺术家来说,水彩可谓是一种很受大众欢迎的艺术形式。

It was spontaneous. 水彩画可以在很短的时间内完成。

It was easy to do. 并且很方便。

You can take your water color boxes; turn it out wherever you were to make sketches, 不管你在哪,你都可以随时随地拿出你的水彩画箱写生。

but also, modern science was producing a different kind of color. 同时,当时的科技丰富了颜料的种类。

Most people use previously, to the 18th century, pigments that were produced from earth. 直到18世纪,大多数人所用的颜料都是由天然物质制成的。

These were earth colors and slightly mute, 这些都是矿物色彩,有些黯淡,

but synthetic color production of pigment meant that color could go wild 但人工合成的颜料又使颜色过于鲜艳。

And Turner, ever the experimentalist, took the challenge. 而作为实验主义者的透纳迎接了这个挑战。

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