如何翻译“全面建设小康社会”
[ 2006-09-14 14:43 ]

  由于well off的意义不确定,因此在表达不同富裕程度的时候,常常在前面加上副词,用以修饰和限定其意义。从收集的大量例句中我们发现,用以限定well off的词数量可观,如more, less, most, least, fairly, quite, pretty , relatively, comfortably, financially, reasonably, moderately等。下面是几个相关的例句:
1. Some rich men took utterly destitute people into their houses, where they performed menial services, and it was usual for even the moderately well-off to invite poor men and strangers off the street to eat meals at home.
2. His work implies that there is a typical "housing history" at least for relatively well-off people in contemporary Britain.
3. However, many townsmen were reasonably well-off by the standards of the time and were able to rebuild their modest dwellings.
4. I was the middle-class son of a comfortably well-off Glasgow bookie; I was even educated at George Heriot's in Edinburgh.

  以上论述旨在说明用well off表达"小康"的概念意思上并不准确。除此之外,将"小康社会"翻译成well off society从搭配上看也有问题。well off往往比较具体,用以修饰具体的人、家庭、或社会中的某个群体。例如:well-off families,well-off home owners,well-off pensioners,the least well off in our society等等。也正是由于well off的这一特点,它也很少与society, nation, country等词联用。我们从互联网语料库上百个例句中均未发现有 well-off society, well-off country, well-off nation的搭配情况,也很难找到well-off life, well-off standard的说法。我们只找到了以下两个相关的句子:
1. Tobacco profits jumped 16%, thanks to the growth in smoking in less well-off parts of the world.
2. The government has been quick to say that it plans to continue the economic policies that have pleased businessmen and kept the country relatively well-off.
最后,从语言风格上看,well-off 比较口语化, 不够正式庄重。而"小康社会"是我国当前政治生活中的一个中心词,所阐述的是我国的大政方针,也是全国人民的奋斗目标,同时又是对外宣传的一个重点。因此,用该词表述一个国家的奋斗目标也不十分妥当。

  那么应该如何翻译"小康"或"小康社会"呢?我们知道,英语中prosperity (prosperous)表示"富裕",而这种"富裕"并非指某个家庭或个人生活上的富裕,而是指一个国家或地区总体上的繁荣,因而也自然可以同 society, nation, country 等词搭配联用。例如,美国总统布什在其2003年的《国情咨文》中说过这样一句话:We will work for a prosperity that is broadly shared, and we will answer every danger and every enemy that threatens the American people. 再看下面的一些例句:
1. Mr. Gorbachev's strategy of turning the USSR into a prosperous society in which intelligent Russians can take pride will be doomed.
2. Socialists believe in greater equality in society: A more equal society will be a more prosperous society and a more peaceful society
3. The implication is that we must adopt the same system in Britain if we are to become a modern, prosperous nation.
4. That alone will provide the resources that are essential if we are to build a steadily more prosperous society.

既然"小康"是指"不富裕",但"比较好过",那么,在prosperity (prosperous)一词的前面加上修饰词 moderate (moderately) 便是我们所说的"小康"了。请看下面的例句:
1. That is why we prefer to meditate about Lord Spencer's death than worry about the election, when the nation will choose between a future of moderate prosperity and happiness, or one of bitterness and penury.
2. The second half of the 18th century began to see some big changes in the parish and it is from this period, which was one of expansion and moderate prosperity, that the present houses and buildings begin to date.

从语言风格上看,prosperity(prosperous)是书面语,适用于正式场合。另外,prosperity(prosperous)除了指经济上的富足之外,还有更加广泛的相关意义,该词的这一特点使我们有理由相信,选择该词作为"小康"的英译更为合适,因为我们在前面谈到,我们所说的"小康"并不单纯是指经济方面。请看例句:
1.It gave Hazel an impression of good feeding, of health and of a certain indolence, as though the other came from some rich, prosperous country where he himself had never been.
2.The steps we outline in this paper are necessary to create a fair, democratic and prosperous society, in which individuals are able to make their voice heard and develop their talents and skills to the full.

其实,用moderate prosperity指我们所说的"小康"国外媒体多有报道,例如,有一位外国记者对"小康"的解释就是:A Confucius term of 3000 years, xiaokang means a condition of moderate prosperity. 这也从一个侧面证实了moderate prosperity的译法比较可取。
 123  

 
 
相关文章 Related Story
 
如何翻译“批准某市为沿海开放城市” 如何翻译“西部大开发”?
如何翻译“素质教育” 如何翻译“人文奥运”
         
 
 
 
 
 
         

 

 

 
 
  有声词典
 

48小时内最热门

     

论坛热贴

     
  福娃英文名更改,为何事先不考虑好?
  C-E: 台下诸葛亮 台上猪一样
  请教高人:关于社保方面的词汇
  “流行金曲”大家评
  常用英语口语1000句
  婚礼上牧师的证言