首页  | 双语新闻

诺贝尔奖的奖金是多少?关于诺奖的10个冷知识 10 Things You Might Not Know About the Nobel Prize

中国日报网 2021-10-11 08:00

分享到微信

2021年诺贝尔奖10月4日至11日陆续公布。提起诺贝尔奖,相信大家一定都不陌生。作为目前世界范围内科学和文学领域的最高奖项,诺贝尔奖从1901年首次颁发以来,已经有120年的历史。你知道诺贝尔奖的由来吗?诺贝尔奖共设有几个类别?诺贝尔奖的奖金是如何分配的?下面10个关于诺贝尔奖的冷知识让你更懂这个奖项。

[Photo/Agencies]


1. A MISTAKEN OBITUARY GAVE ALFRED NOBEL THE IDEA FOR THE PRIZES.
一篇错误的讣告让阿尔弗雷德·诺贝尔萌生创立诺贝尔奖的想法。


The story goes that Alfred Nobel was inspired to establish his awards in 1864 after a French newspaper mistakenly ran his obituary, called "The merchant of death is dead." Nobel didn't want that to be his legacy, and began thinking of more productive ways to be remembered for posterity. (The obituary was supposed to be for Nobel's younger brother Emil, who died while experimenting with nitroglycerine in their father's factory.)
1864年一家法国报纸错误地刊登了阿尔弗雷德·诺贝尔的讣告,题为《死亡商人去世》,据说他因此受到启发而设立了诺贝尔奖。诺贝尔不希望死后仅留下一篇讣告,并开始思考如何能让子孙后代铭记自己的方法。(这篇讣告本来是诺贝尔的弟弟埃米尔的,他在父亲的工厂用硝化甘油做实验时去世。)


The Nobel Prizes are announced in October and awarded December 10 each year, the anniversary of Alfred Nobel's actual death. He died of a stroke at the age of 63 in 1896.
诺贝尔奖于每年10月公布,12月10日颁发,也就是阿尔弗雷德·诺贝尔逝世的日子。1896年,诺贝尔因中风逝世,享年63岁。


2. ONE OF THE NOBEL PRIZE CEREMONIES TAKES PLACE IN NORWAY.
其中一个诺贝尔奖的颁奖典礼在挪威举行


The Nobel Peace Prize is awarded in Oslo and presented by the chairman of the Norwegian Nobel Committee, while the other Nobel Prizes are awarded in Stockholm and presented by the King of Sweden. Alfred Nobel planned it that way in his will:
诺贝尔和平奖在奥斯陆由挪威诺贝尔委员会主席颁发,其他诺贝尔奖在斯德哥尔摩由瑞典国王颁发。阿尔弗雷德·诺贝尔在他的遗嘱中就是这样规划的:


"The prizes for physics and chemistry shall be awarded by the Swedish Academy of Sciences; that for physiological or medical works by the Caroline Institute in Stockholm; that for literature by the Academy in Stockholm; and that for champions of peace by a committee of five persons to be elected by the Norwegian Storting.
“物理和化学奖由瑞典科学院颁发;生理或医学奖由斯德哥尔摩卡罗琳研究所颁发;文学奖由斯德哥尔摩科学院颁发;和平卫士奖由挪威议会选举的五人委员会颁发。”


3. THERE'S NO NOBEL PRIZE FOR ECONOMICS.
没有“诺贝尔经济学奖”


Notice that Nobel didn't mention economics in his will: that's because the Nobel Prize in Economic Sciences is not a "Nobel Prize." It's technically the Bank of Sweden Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel. Sweden's central bank created the endowment in 1968.
请注意,诺贝尔在他的遗嘱中没有提到经济学:那是因为诺贝尔经济学奖不是“诺贝尔奖”。严格来说,这个奖项是瑞典银行为纪念阿尔弗雷德·诺贝尔而颁发的经济学奖。瑞典中央银行在1968年创立了该基金会。

[Photo/Pexels]


4. THE NOBEL PRIZES COME WITH CASH.
诺贝尔奖奖金发现金


Nobel Prize winners take home a diploma, a gold medal, and some cold, hard cash. In 2019, winners of "full Nobel Prizes" are awarded 9 million Swedish kroner, or almost $910,000.
诺贝尔奖获得者可以获得一张证书、一枚奖牌和一些实实在在的现金。2019年,所有诺贝尔奖获得者都获得900万瑞典克朗,约合人民币586万元。

注:2020年诺贝尔奖奖金增加至1000万瑞典克朗(约709万元)。


5. ORGANIZATIONS CAN WIN THE NOBEL PEACE PRIZE.
机构组织可以获得诺贝尔和平奖


Only individuals can be nominated for the Nobel Prizes in medicine, chemistry, literature, and physics, as well as the economics prize. Recent organizations that have been awarded the Nobel Peace Prize include the International Campaign to Abolish Nuclear Weapons (2017), the European Union (2012), and the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (2007).
只有个人才能获得诺贝尔医学奖、化学奖、文学奖、物理学奖和经济学奖提名。最近获得诺贝尔和平奖的组织包括国际废除核武器运动(2017年)、欧盟(2012年)和联合国政府间气候变化专门委员会(2007年).


6. UP TO THREE INDIVIDUALS CAN WIN EACH NOBEL PRIZE.
每项诺贝尔奖最多可有三位获奖者


For teams larger than three, the committee will choose who gets left out. If two people win, the prize money is split equally. If three people win, the awarding committee chooses how to divide the prize.
对于三人以上的团队,委员会将决定谁被排除在外。如果两人获奖,奖金将平均分配。如果三人获奖,颁奖委员会将决定如何分配奖金。


7. PEOPLE DON'T KNOW WHEN THEY'VE BEEN NOMINATED.
人们不知道自己什么时候被提名过。


Nobel Prize nomination records are kept sealed for 50 years after the award is given. Winners don't know they're nominated until they win.
诺贝尔奖的提名记录在颁奖后被封存50年。获奖者在获奖之前不知道自己被提名了。


8. THERE ARE NO POSTHUMOUS NOBEL PRIZE NOMINATIONS.
没有人在去世后获得诺贝尔奖

Eleanor Roosevelt, James Joyce, Mahatma Gandhi, and many others will never be able to bask in the Nobel spotlight. Gandhi was this close to winning: he'd been nominated a number of times and had just been nominated a third time days before his 1948 assassination. Geir Lundestad, a former director of the Norwegian Nobel Committee, called Gandhi's absence from the list of Nobel laureates "the greatest omission" in the prize's history.
埃莉诺·罗斯福、詹姆斯·乔伊斯、圣雄甘地和其他许多人永远无法获得诺贝尔奖了。甘地差一点就获奖,他曾多次获得提名,在1948年遇刺前几天,他刚刚获得第三次诺贝尔奖提名。挪威诺贝尔委员会前主任盖尔·伦德斯塔德称,甘地没有得奖是诺贝尔奖历史上“最大的疏忽”。


9. ALFRED NOBEL ORIGINALLY INTENDED TO GIVE AWARDS FOR WORK FROM THE PRECEDING YEAR.
阿尔弗雷德·诺贝尔最初打算为前一年的成果颁奖。


That criteria occasionally meant honoring ideas in the sciences that weren't sufficiently tested or investigated. Case in point: Johannes Fibiger's 1926 discovery that parasitic worms allegedly caused cancer in rats. (They don't.) Now most scientific discoveries and innovations are honored after they've stood the test of time.
这一标准有时意味着尊重科学中未经充分检验或调查的观点。例如,约翰·菲比格在1926年发现寄生蠕虫会导致大鼠患癌症(事实并非如此)。现在,大多数科学发现和创新都是在经受了时间的考验后被人们接受的。


10. EVENING WEAR IS A MUST FOR NOBEL LAUREATES.
诺贝尔奖获得者必须穿晚礼服。


Nobel laureates are required to give a public lecture within six months of accepting their award. Most of them fulfill the obligation during Nobel Week in Stockholm. Then, at the end of the week, they get to party. The Nobel banquet includes live music, a three-course dinner, dancing, and a strict dress code. Men must wear white tie, consisting of "a black tailcoat with silk facings, sharply cut away at the front; black trousers with two rows of braid down each leg, white stiff-fronted shirt, white stiff wing collar attached to the shirt with collar studs, white bow tie, white low-cut waistcoat, black dress socks and black formal shoes." Women have it a little easier, with no restrictions on the color or design of their evening gowns. Long gloves and a shawl are optional.
诺贝尔奖获得者需要在领奖后六个月内发表公开演讲。他们中的大多数人在斯德哥尔摩的诺贝尔周期间履行这项义务,然后在周末参加聚会。诺贝尔晚宴包括现场音乐表演、三道菜的晚餐、舞会,晚宴对着装也有严格要求。男性必须穿着白领结晚礼服,包括一件丝绸领口、正面裁短的黑色燕尾服;每只裤腿有两排穗带的黑色裤子,白色硬领衬衫和领扣,白色领结,白色低开领马甲,黑色正装袜和黑色正装鞋。女性着装要求更简单些,不受颜色或设计的限制。长手套和披肩可戴可不戴。

 

来源:Mental Floss
编辑:董静

中国日报网英语点津版权说明:凡注明来源为“中国日报网英语点津:XXX(署名)”的原创作品,除与中国日报网签署英语点津内容授权协议的网站外,其他任何网站或单位未经允许不得非法盗链、转载和使用,违者必究。如需使用,请与010-84883561联系;凡本网注明“来源:XXX(非英语点津)”的作品,均转载自其它媒体,目的在于传播更多信息,其他媒体如需转载,请与稿件来源方联系,如产生任何问题与本网无关;本网所发布的歌曲、电影片段,版权归原作者所有,仅供学习与研究,如果侵权,请提供版权证明,以便尽快删除。
订阅和关注
人气排行