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Gender gap in ADHD diagnosis 多动症诊断中的性别差异

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顶尖心理学家警告说,性别偏见使许多患有注意缺陷多动障碍(又称多动症)的女性无法被确诊。

Research suggests ADHD is three to four times more likely to be detected in childhood in boys as they tend to exhibit more disruptive behaviours.

研究表明,多动症在男孩童年时期被发现的可能性比在女孩童年时期高出三到四倍,因为男孩往往表现出更具扰乱性的行为。

The symptoms in girls tend to be more subtle: less hyperactive, more inattentive. The diagnoses gap between males and females appears to shrink in adulthood, but psychologists say the bias can remain.

女孩的症状往往不大明显:她们没那么多动亢奋,而是更多地表现在注意力不集中。成年后,男性和女性之间的诊断差距似乎缩小了,但心理学家指出,这一偏见可能仍然存在。

The ADHD Foundation says increased awareness is needed in health and educational settings about how the condition can present differently. A late diagnosis can negatively impact on relationships, careers, and mental health.

注意缺陷多动障碍基金会表示,人们需要提高医疗和教育领域对这种疾病的认识,明白它有不同的临床表现。延迟诊断可能会给人际关系、职业和心理健康带来负面影响。

In England, NICE guidance has been updated to make it easier for doctors to detect women and girls with ADHD. Work to improve neurodevelopmental services is underway in Scotland and Wales. But there are currently no dedicated services for adults with ADHD in Northern Ireland.

在英格兰,国家卫生与保健优化研究所(The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence)已经更新指导意见,使医生更容易发现患有多动症的女性和女孩。苏格兰和威尔士正在努力改善其神经发育领域的服务。但在北爱尔兰,目前还没有专门提供给患有多动症的成年人的服务。

词汇表

detected 被发现
exhibit 表现出
disruptive 扰乱性的,破坏性的
subtle 微妙的,不明显的
hyperactive 过于亢奋的,过于活跃的
inattentive 注意力不集中的
shrink (差距)缩减
awareness 意识,认识
neurodevelopmental 神经发育的

阅读理解:请在读完上文后,回答下列问题。

1. How many times more likely is the discovery of ADHD in boys than girls during childhood?

2. True or false? The usual symptoms of ADHD in girls tend to be more subtle.

3. What potential issues are mentioned in people whose ADHD is diagnosed later on in life?

4. At the time of this article, which part of the UK currently has no dedicated services related to ADHD for adults?

答案  

1. How many times more likely is the discovery of ADHD in boys than girls during childhood?
Research suggests ADHD is three to four times more likely to be detected in childhood in boys as they tend to exhibit more disruptive behaviours.

2. True or false? The usual symptoms of ADHD in girls tend to be more subtle.
True. The symptoms in girls tend to be more subtle: less hyperactive, more inattentive.

3. What potential issues are mentioned in people whose ADHD is diagnosed later on in life?
A late diagnosis can negatively impact on relationships, careers, and mental health.

4. At the time of this article, which part of the UK currently has no dedicated services related to ADHD for adults?
There are currently no dedicated services for adults with ADHD in Northern Ireland.

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