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“为什么冬季容易情绪低落”上热搜,原来冬天也需要预防抑郁…… Tips for Dealing With Seasonal Affective Disorder

中国日报双语新闻 2022-01-08 08:00

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最近,“为什么冬季容易情绪低落”登上微博热搜榜,什么是 “季节性情绪失调”?它和冬天有什么关系?日常怎么预防?


首先,如果冬天让你感到情绪很差,常常陷入抑郁情绪,先不必惊慌,因为大多数人体会到的抑郁尚属正常范围。


但如果你明显地感受到悲伤和易激惹,频繁地哭泣,总是觉得劳累和疲乏,难以集中注意力,并且睡眠增多,缺乏能量,在社交场合退缩,饮食上总是渴望糖和碳水化合物,那么你需要注意了——


季节性抑郁可能已经给你带来了严重的心理痛苦和功能损伤,你需要检查一下自己是否患了季节性情感障碍(Seasonal Affective Disorder,SAD)。

根据精神障碍诊断与统计手册第五版(DSM-5),季节性情感障碍属于抑郁障碍(Depressive Disorders)的大类,是一种“伴季节性模式”的重度抑郁障碍(Major Depression)。

[Photo/Pexels]


“伴季节性模式”,指重性抑郁只在一年中的特定时间发作。大多数个体的抑郁发作始于秋季和冬季,缓解于春季;少部分个体有反复的夏季抑郁发作。


Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) is a type of depression that sets in or starts in the winter months. Unlike other types of depression, it may improve as spring comes on. It is often a cyclical, recurring disorder--you'll feel depression every winter and begin to feel better each spring.
季节性情绪紊乱(seasonal affective disorder,SAD)指多发于冬季的一种抑郁症,也称“冬季抑郁症”。与其它类型的抑郁症不同的是,这种季节性抑郁症会在春天到来时有所好转。这是一种循环的、反复发生的情绪紊乱,每年冬天时觉得抑郁,春天到来时又好转了。


为什么冬季容易情绪低落


这其实是个生理问题,是大自然的规律。环境的变化,会对我们体内的神经递质和激素水平产生影响。


比如说,秋季和冬季阳光减少,人体内的五羟色胺活跃程度就会下降——而五羟色胺的活跃程度下降与抑郁有关。


再比如褪黑素,这种化学物质可以增加人们在黑暗中的睡意。秋冬季节阳光减弱,人体褪黑素分泌也会增加,导致疲倦和睡意。


此外,秋冬季节阳光更少,如果皮肤接触到的阳光减少,机体产生的维生素D会减少,而维生素D的缺乏也与临床上的抑郁症状有关。

SAD depression is caused by lowered levels of serotonin, the mood-affecting brain chemical that is triggered by seasonal changes in daylight. Shorter days may also disrupt the body’s biological clock – circadian rhythm – which upsets the balance of melatonin, the hormone which regulates mood and sleep patterns.
SAD由血清素水平降低所诱发,大脑中的这种化学物质能够左右情绪,其分泌受到季节性光照变化的影响。白昼变短同样会扰乱人体生物钟——又称昼夜节律,继而导致褪黑素(调节情绪和睡眠规律的荷尔蒙)分泌失衡。


研究发现,在高纬度地区,尤其是北方地区,以及女性群体、长期在室内工作的人等更容易出现类似情况。


Seasonal affective disorder is far more common in northern climates, where days can be very short in winter. SAD affects more women than men and is likelier to occur in people under age 40 than those older than that.
季节性情绪紊乱在北方气候地区更常见,北方冬季的白天都很短。该症状的女性患者多于男性,而且更易发生在40岁以下人群中。


如何调节抑郁情绪


如果季节性抑郁已经给你带来了严重的心理痛苦和功能损伤,应该及时寻求专业帮助和治疗。当你的抑郁情绪尚属正常范围,达不到诊断标准,可参考以下建议来缓解抑郁情绪:


1、多晒太阳,尤其是在早上。即使工位不在窗边,也每天找时间去窗边坐一会儿。


Although any amount of outdoor light can help raise serotonin levels, getting light in the morning seems to offer the most benefit.
尽管任何数量的户外光线都有助于提升血清素水平,但在清晨享受阳光似乎效果最佳。


If the weather permits, take a walk. In your home or office, try sitting close to a window that faces south.
如果天气条件允许, 多外出散步。在家里和办公室, 尽量坐在朝南的窗户旁边。


Replacing light bulbs in your home with full spectrum light bulbs can help because they emit light similar to sunlight.
把家里的电灯泡换成全光谱灯泡会大有益处,因为全光谱灯泡发出的光和太阳光相似。


2、多运动。上班族可利用午休时间,到户外在空气新鲜、阳光充足的地方散步和倒走。


Studies have shown that upping your exercise routine can counteract SAD. Exercise raises levels of serotonin and also increases levels of endorphins, which are responsible for “runner’s high” and have been shown to fight depression.
研究表明,平时多运动可以避免患上季节性情感障碍。因为运动可以提升血清素和内啡肽水平,两者都能使人产生“跑步者的愉悦感”,并已得到证实可以对抗抑郁症。


Moderate exercise such as walking, riding a stationary bike, or swimming is a great way to get started. But any activities that raise your heart rate, including daily chores, can help, especially if you can do them outdoors or near a sunny window. Yoga, jogging and Tai chi can all help lift your mood.
适度的运动,如散步、骑固定自行车或游泳是一个很好的开始。但任何能提高心率的活动,包括日常琐事,都会有所帮助,尤其是在户外或阳光明媚的窗户附近。瑜伽、慢跑和太极都能帮助你提升心情。


3、多摄入富含维生素D的食物如鸡蛋黄、豆浆、蘑菇、奶酪、动物肝脏、脱脂牛奶和海产品(如鳟鱼、鲭鱼、金枪鱼、鳗鱼)等。


Vitamin D is necessary for the synthesis of serotonin and dopamine(chemicals associated with depression), so researchers concluded that a link between low vitamin D levels and depression was logical. The Vitamin D Council recommends 2,000 IU daily, but suggests taking more if you get little exposure to the sun.
维生素D对于合成血清素和多巴胺(两者都是与抑郁症有关的化学物质)不可或缺。所以研究人员得出结论:如果维生素D水平较低,就会产生抑郁,这种解释合乎逻辑。维生素D委员会建议每天补充2000国际单位的维生素D, 如果不常晒太阳,则应补充更多。


Eat more fish. Fatty fish, such as salmon and sardines, contain omega-3 fatty acids. Studies have found that people who have low levels of two chemicals found in fish, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), are at increased risk for depression. Either eat more fish – at least three times a week – or take fish oil capsules to combat SAD.
多食用鱼类。富含脂肪的鱼类,比如鲑鱼和沙丁鱼,包含奥米伽-3脂肪酸。研究表明,人体如果缺乏鱼肉所富含的两种化学物质:二十碳五烯酸(EPA)和二十二碳六烯酸(DHA),患上抑郁症的风险将大增。


其实,进入年底,聚会和探亲开始变多,需要面对七大姑八大姨的“灵魂拷问”。“年关焦虑”也是导致情绪低落的原因之一。


Year-end panic refers to the self-reproach and overall feeling of panic brought about by the approach of the year's end, often due to a poor financial year and pressure from work and family.
“年关焦虑症”指的是年关将至而产生的自责和恐慌心理,通常由年度收入不佳、工作和家庭压力引起。


Psychological experts suggest that we should avoid peer competition. While regretting for the failed plans in the past year, you can still make resolution to do it better in the coming year.
心理专家建议不应盲目攀比。也许你还在为没有实现的目标后悔不已,但是你还是可以下定决心在来年做得更好!


同时,对一些表面上关心地“盘问”,学会说不,比如幽默地搪塞过去,而不是被牵扯掉不必要的精力,影响情绪。


冬天也要让内心充满阳光哦!

 

编辑:陈月华
来源:中国日报 央视新闻 果壳网等

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