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Single-use当选《柯林斯词典》年度词汇 这些新词也值得关注 Collins Dictionary chooses ‘single-use’ as word of the year

中国日报网 2018-11-09 13:26

2018年哪个英语词汇最流行?“一次性的(single-use)”!据报道,英国出版的《柯林斯词典》日前将该词评为2018年度词汇,彰显出环保问题的受关注度。

图片来源:《科林斯词典》网站

Collins Dictionary says we’re hearing a lot more of “single-use.”

《柯林斯词典》表示,单词“一次性的”(single-use)出现的频率大幅增加。

The adjective applied to disposable plastic products has been named the dictionary’s 2018 word of the year. Collins says use of the term has risen fourfold since 2013, as pollution climbs the political agenda.

这个词用来形容用后即弃的塑料产品,被评为《柯林斯词典》2018年度词汇。《柯林斯词典》表示,随着污染成为日益重要的政治议题,这个单词在2018年的使用频率达到2013年的四倍。

The term refers to products that are often made of plastic and have been made to use just once, only to be thrown away after, rendering them unsustainable and harmful to the planet.

“一次性的”产品常由塑料制成,仅供一次使用,之后就被丢弃,不可持续且对地球环境有害。

Collins’s lexicographers said the word “single-use” is now being used more than ever before in light of universal efforts to combat the threats such plastics pose to the environment, with the European parliament recently supporting a ban on products such as straws, cotton swabs and disposable plates.

该词典编纂者说,鉴于全球都在努力应对塑料制品对环境造成的威胁,单词“一次性”的使用比以往更频繁了。最近,欧洲议会还通过了一项禁令,全面禁用一次性吸管、棉签和一次性盘子等产品。

“Images of plastic adrift in the most distant oceans, such as straws, bottles and bags, have led to a global campaign to reduce their use,” said a spokesperson for the dictionary.

该词典的一位发言人说:“吸管、塑料瓶和塑料袋等一次性物品在无际大海上漂流的景象,已引发一场号召减少使用一次性塑料用品的全球性运动。”

Other entries on the dictionary’s list of new and notable words include “backstop” — a legal guarantee about the Irish border after Brexit — and “gammon,” a derogatory British term for an angry pink-faced person sometimes used against supporters of leaving the European Union.

该词典公布的新增及重点关注词汇还包括“后备方案(backstop)”和“腌猪腿(gammon)”。前者是指英国脱欧后有关爱尔兰边界的法律保障协议;后者是贬义词,英国人用它代指生气时满脸通红的人,有时会用于讽刺脱欧支持者。

“MeToo” also makes the list released Wednesday. The dictionary says the campaign against sexual harassment and abuse has become part of the language in phrases such as “the MeToo era” and “MeToo moment.”

“我也是(metoo)”也在此次公布的词汇当中。《柯林斯词典》说,这场反对性骚扰和性侵犯的运动创造出“‘我也是’时代”和“‘我也是’时刻”等短语,已经成为英语语言的一部分。

The movement was started in 2006 by activist Tarana Burke, but it went viral in October 2017 after allegations of sexual assault emerged against Harvey Weinstein.

这场运动始于2006年,由活动家塔拉那-布尔克发起,但一直到2017年10月,关于哈维-温斯坦性侵多人的事件被曝光后,才掀起热潮。

《柯林斯词典》拥有收集45亿单词的语料库,工作人员从书籍、报纸、杂志和广播电视等媒介出现过的词汇中,选取出年度代表词汇。

《柯林斯词典》评选的2017年年度词汇是“假新闻(fake news)”,2016年年度词汇是“脱欧(Brexit)”。

 

下面一起来看看今年《柯林斯词典》年度词汇的候选词汇:

Backstop  后备方案

A system that will come into effect if no other arrangement is made (noun)

如果没有做出其他安排,就将生效的一种体制。(名词)

(指英国脱欧后爱尔兰边界的情况,即北爱尔兰与爱尔兰之间不会存在“硬边界”的法律保障。)

Floss  牙线舞

A dance in which people twist their hips in one direction while swinging their arms in the opposite direction with the fists closed (noun)

一种今年走红的舞蹈。人们在跳舞时拳头紧握,臀部和手臂向相反的方向扭动。(名词)

 

Gammon  腌猪腿

A person, typically male, middle-aged, and white, with reactionary views, especially one who supports the withdrawal of Britain from the European Union (noun)

保守派人士,尤指中年白人男性,特别是“脱欧”支持者。(名词)

Gammon原指烟熏猪肉,现在则具有贬义,用来形容气得涨红脸的“脱欧”支持者,这些人通常是中年白人男性。查尔斯-狄更斯在1838年的小说《尼古拉斯·尼克贝》中用这个词描述了一个用爱国情怀遮掩一己私欲的中年男子。

 

Gaslight  “煤气灯”

To attempt to manipulate (a person) by continually presenting them with false information until they doubt their sanity (verb)

通过不断地给别人灌输错误信息,直到他们开始怀疑自己的理智思维,从而达到操控别人目的的行为。(动词)

 

MeToo  “我也是”

Denoting a cultural movement that seeks to expose and eradicate predatory sexual behavior, especially in the workplace (adjective)

指的是一项文化运动,寻求曝光和根除性侵,特别是在工作场合。(形容词)

 

Plogging  慢跑捡垃圾

A recreational activity, originating in Sweden, that combines jogging with picking up litter (noun)

一边慢跑一边捡垃圾,是起源于瑞典的一项休闲活动。(名词)

 

Single-use  一次性的

Made to be used once only (adjective)

一次性使用的(形容词)

 

VAR  视频助理裁判

Abbreviation for video assistant referee

Video assistant referee(视频助理裁判)的缩写

VAR gained popularity in 2018 as it was "used for the first time during this year's FIFA World Cup."

视频助理裁判“在今年的世界杯期间首次使用”,并流行起来。

 

Vegan  严格的素食主义者

A person who refrains from using any animal product whatever for food, clothing, or any other purpose (noun)

不使用任何动物制品的人,不管是食品、服装、还是其他用途的产品。(名词)

 

Whitewash  “洗白”

To cast a white actor in the role of (a character from a minority ethnic group) or to produce (a film or play) using white actors to play characters from a minority ethnic group (verb)

让白人演员扮演少数族裔,或拍摄白人演员出演少数族裔角色的电影和戏剧。(动词)

 

来源:美联社卫报独立报、环球网、参考消息网、好奇心日报

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