International Workers' Day（国际劳动节） is a celebration of the social and economic
achievements of the international labor movement. International Workers' Day
commonly sees organized street demonstrations by hundreds of thousands of
working people and their labor unions throughout Europe and most of the rest of
the world — though, as noted below, not in either the United States or Canada.
More radical groups such as communists and anarchists are also given to
widespread street protest on this day as well.
International Workers' Day was originally the commemoration of the Chicago
riots（暴乱）of 1886: in 1889, the first congress of the Second International（第二国际）,
meeting in Paris for the centenial of the French Revolution（法国大革命） and the
Exposition Universelle (1889), following a proposal by Raymond Lavigne, called
for international demonstrations on the 1890 anniversary of the Chicago riot.
These were so successful that International Workers' Day was formally recognized
as an annual event at the International's second congress in 1891. The May Day
Riots of 1894 and May Day Riots of 1919 occurred subsequently.
In 1904, the International Socialist Conference meeting in Amsterdam（阿姆斯特丹）
called on "all Social-Democratic Party organizations and trade unions of all
countries to demonstrate energetically on May First for the legal establishment
of the 8-hour day, for the class demands of the proletariat, and for universal
peace." As the most effective way of demonstrating was by striking, the congress
made it "mandatory upon the proletarian organizations of all countries to stop
work on May 1, wherever it is possible without injury to the workers."
International Workers' Day has long been a focal point for demonstrations by
various socialist, communist, and anarchist groups. In some circles, bonfires
are lit in commemoration of the Haymarket Riot, usually right as the first day
of May begins.
Due to its status as a celebration of the efforts of workers and the
socialist movement, International Workers' Day is an important official holiday
in Communist countries such as the People's Republic of China, Cuba, and the
former Soviet Union(前苏联) . International Workers' Day celebrations typically
feature elaborate popular and military parades in these countries.
In countries other than the United States and Canada, resident working
classes fought hard to make International Workers' Day an official
holiday, efforts which largely succeeded. For this reason, in
most of the world today, International Workers' Day is marked by massive street
rallies led by workers, their trade unions, anarchists and various socialist and
The First and Second Red Scare periods ended
International Workers' Day as a mass holiday in the United States, which now
celebrates its Labor Day on the first Monday of September, due to its importance
in Communist countries.