首页  | 双语新闻

科普!越野跑101:有何风险、可能损伤、如何预防 Cross Country Running: Risks and Injury Prevention

英语世界 2021-05-27 10:32

分享到微信

越野跑是人类亲近大自然的一种运动方式,是运动就可能有风险、就可能遭遇损伤、就需要做好预防措施。医学博士罗伯·B.威廉斯(Rob S Williams, MD)科普了越野跑可能带来的风险损伤,给出了一些预防措施建议,希望对喜欢越野跑的朋友有所帮助。

[Photo/Pexels]


Cross Country Running: Risks and Injury Prevention
越野跑:风险与损伤预防

What is cross country running? Cross country is an outdoor endurance sport that can be mentally challenging and fun. This type of running and racing has both a physical and psychological component. You’re not only putting one foot in front of the other; you’re also thinking ahead to obstacles and changes in the trail or course.
什么是越野跑?越野是一项户外耐力运动,能给参与者带来精神挑战和乐趣。这种跑步与竞赛需要身心同时投入。参与者不仅仅是简单地迈步向前,还要预想前方路上或赛道上可能出现的障碍与变化。

For example, how will you clear that stone without tripping? Can you pass the person ahead of you safely without slipping in that mud puddle? How should you handle hills or turns—in a short burst of speed, or at your current steady pace?
例如:如何清走石头而避免绊倒?能否安全超越前面的参与者而不跌入泥坑?应该怎样应对山路和转弯——是短时间突然加速,还是以现有速度稳步前进?


Typically, cross country races take place in all weather conditions, which means you also have to worry about environmental conditions that can affect your race performance: rain and wind, snow and ice, hail and heat waves. It’s rare for a cross country race to be canceled due to inclement weather.
越野赛通常在任何天气状况下都会进行,这意味着参与者还不得不考虑可能影响比赛成绩的环境因素:风雨、冰雪、冰雹和热浪。鲜有越野赛因天气恶劣而取消。


Many runners love cross country and its sister sport, trail running, precisely because running in this way is not the same as road running. The variations in the terrain and the mental challenges of pacing oneself over an ever-changing course make for a more stimulating run.
很多跑者之所以热爱越野跑及其姊妹运动——野外跑,正是因为这种跑步运动与公路跑不同。野外的地势变化,以及调整节奏以适应不断变化的跑道所带来的精神挑战,让越野跑更加刺激。


However, the same aspects of the sport that make it diverting and enjoyable also make it rough on a runner’s body, at any age. High school runners, college runners, and adult runners all need to be aware of the risks of injury that come with running cross country.
然而,让越野跑有趣、快乐的这些因素,恰恰也会对所有年龄段的跑者身体构成挑战。无论是中学生、大学生还是成年跑者,都需要了解越野跑会带来的伤病风险。

 

Risks of running cross country
越野跑的风险

By running cross country over a mix of natural terrain and groomed or paved trails, you may find yourself pounding not only pavement, but also packed or loose dirt, sand, gravel, mud, leaves, pine needles, tree roots, rocks, grass, moss, and anything else you might find on the ground in a natural area (including, possibly, snakes).
越野跑途中会经过多种类型的跑道,有自然地带,也有清理或铺好的路径。参与者可能会发现自己的脚步不仅落在人工铺好的道路上,也可能踩到压实的或松软的土地、沙子、碎石、淤泥、落叶、松针、树根、岩石、草和苔藓,以及其他任何自然地面上可能出现的东西(甚至可能包括蛇)。

Though most cross country race courses are groomed and approved ahead of race day, surprises can come up. Weather, wild animals, and falling foliage from trees can’t always be controlled. And on non-race days, if you train in areas that aren’t approved courses (such as running on wooded paths or through parks), the level of trail maintenance isn’t guaranteed. You may encounter unexpected, non-natural obstacles like trash or discarded bottles.
尽管大多数越野赛在开赛前会清扫并核准赛道,但仍可能出现意外。天气、野生动物和树木落叶并不总是在控制之中。另外,在非比赛日,若在未经核准成为赛道的区域进行训练(比如在林间小路上跑步或跑步穿越公园),跑道的维护水平并无保障。也许就会遇到意料之外的、非自然的障碍,比如垃圾或废弃的瓶子。

All running subjects you to the possibility of impact injuries or repetitive motion injuries. But running over irregular or slippery surfaces can add to risk by changing your gait and creating opportunities for acute injuries. You may overstretch to clear an object in your path, or you may swerve suddenly and pull a tendon, twist an ankle or knee, or trip and fall. With falls, abrasions and head injuries aren’t out of the question, too.
所有的跑步都可能造成撞击伤或反复性动作损伤,但在不规则或湿滑路面跑步会增加风险,因改变步态可能造成急性损伤。可能会因为清除途中障碍物而过度拉伸,或因为急转弯而牵拉到跟腱、扭伤脚踝或膝盖,也可能被绊倒——摔倒还可能造成擦伤和头部损伤。

In addition to changing surfaces, a typical cross-country course may also involve twists and turns and short—but steep—uphills and downhills. These rapid course changes can subject your feet, hips and legs to forces and stresses that may not affect someone running on level roads or gradual inclines. Running downhill, for example, may lead to jammed and sprained toes.
除了路面变化,越野赛道通常还曲折蜿蜒,并且有短而陡的上下坡。赛道的这种迅速变化会使人的脚、髋、腿易受压力冲击,例如跑步下坡可能挤到甚至扭伤脚趾,而在平路或缓坡上跑步的人则不会受到这些影响。


Heat illness is also a concern. In Texas, with our strong sun (and on the coast, high humidity), there’s the additional risk of dehydration, sunburn and heat stroke.
中暑同样令人担忧。在得克萨斯州,阳光强烈(同时海边湿度高),越野跑还有脱水、晒伤和中暑的风险。


Cross country running is a wonderful sport if you love the outdoors and nature, and it’s mostly very safe in comparison to other team sports—but before you begin training and racing, you should be aware of potential injuries and how to avoid them.
如果热爱户外与自然,那么越野跑是极好的运动。与其他团体运动相比,它通常都很安全——但是,在开始训练并参赛前,参与者就应该了解潜在的损伤及如何预防损伤。



The most common cross country injuries
最常见的越野跑损伤


What injuries most commonly affect athletes running cross country, at the middle school level, high school level and beyond?
初中、高中及更年长的越野跑参与者中,最常见的损伤有哪些?

Below is a list of some of the more common injuries seen in cross country runners of all ages. Note that this is a partial list.
以下是全年龄段越野跑参与者比较常见的损伤清单。请注意,这只是一份不完全列表。

Also note that in many cases, these bone and soft tissue injuries are more common in girls and women than in boys and men, due in part to the female athlete “triad” of calorie depletion, bone loss and hormonal and menstrual changes. Women also have a larger angle between the hips and ankles. Women and girls are particularly susceptible to knee injuries (like meniscus tears and ACL tears) and stress fractures.
同样需要注意的是,这些骨损伤和软组织损伤在女孩和成年女性中比在男孩和成年男性中更加常见,部分是由于女性跑者的“三症候群”——热量消耗、骨质疏松及激素和月经变化。同时,女性的髋部与脚踝间角度更大,成年女性和年轻女孩都特别容易遭受膝关节损伤(比如半月板撕裂和前十字韧带撕裂)及应力性骨折。


•Stress fractures. 应力性骨折
•Shin splints (medial tibial stress syndrome, or MTSS). 外胫夹(胫骨内侧压力症候群)
•Achilles tendonitis. 跟腱炎
•Plantar fasciitis. 足底筋膜炎
•Runner’s knee (patellofemoral pain syndrome, or PFPS). 跑步膝(髌骨疼痛综合征)
•Muscle, ligament and tendon strains (calf, hamstring, quadriceps, gluteus). 肌肉、韧带、跟腱拉伤(小腿肚、腘绳肌腱、四头肌、臀肌)
•Dehydration and heat illness. 脱水和中暑



Preventing cross country running injuries
预防越野跑损伤


How can you prevent cross country running injuries? The best ways for outdoor runners to stay healthy include the following running tips:
怎样才能避免越野跑损伤?户外跑者保持健康的最佳方式包括以下建议:


—Stretch daily. For all runners and athletes, a regular stretching regimen is an important part of conditioning. Both static and dynamic stretches are needed to keep your bones, joints, muscles, ligaments and tendons healthy.
——每日拉伸。规律的拉伸是所有跑者和运动员训练的重要组成部分。要保持骨骼、关节、肌肉、韧带和跟腱健康,静态与动态拉伸都是必要的。


—Warm up and cool down. Muscles and tendons are less likely to overstretch or tear if they’ve been properly prepared for running and racing. High-intensity workouts like training and racing require more prep and post-workout cool down than low-impact activities.
——热身与放松。跑步和比赛前,如果肌肉和跟腱做了充分准备,过度拉伸和撕裂的可能性就会降低。与低冲击运动相比,这样高强度运动的训练和比赛需要更多的准备练习和锻炼后的放松。


—Wear the right shoes. Make sure your shoes fit properly, that they are neither too snug nor too loose. Tie double-knots to prevent tripping over undone laces. If an orthopedist tells you that you need special inserts like orthotics or gel soles, use them. Break your shoes in before race day, and replace them regularly (after every 300 miles).
——穿合适的鞋。确保鞋合脚,而不是过紧或过松。给鞋带打双结,以免被松开的鞋带绊倒。如果矫形外科医生告知需要一些特殊配件,比如矫正器或凝胶鞋垫,请遵医嘱。开赛前试穿磨合几双鞋,并定期更换(每跑300英里)。


—Eat and drink enough. Competitive distance runners like to keep their weight low. However, consuming too few calories can harm your body, especially if you’re a girl or woman subject to the female athlete triad. Eat a well-balanced diet and be sure to stay well-hydrated to prevent injury and heat illness. Remember that in Texas, especially in full sun or in humid regions of the state, you’re particularly prone to heat stroke. Drink plenty of water before and after running.
——充足饮食。有竞争力的长跑运动员喜欢保持低体重。然而,摄入热量过低会损伤身体,特别是对于易受“三症候群”影响的女孩或成年女性。应均衡饮食,保障充足饮水,以预防损伤和中暑。记住,在得州,特别是全日照和高湿度地区,跑者尤其容易中暑。跑前和跑后都需要大量饮水。

 

翻译:王冰
审订:WE

中国日报网英语点津版权说明:凡注明来源为“中国日报网英语点津:XXX(署名)”的原创作品,除与中国日报网签署英语点津内容授权协议的网站外,其他任何网站或单位未经允许不得非法盗链、转载和使用,违者必究。如需使用,请与010-84883561联系;凡本网注明“来源:XXX(非英语点津)”的作品,均转载自其它媒体,目的在于传播更多信息,其他媒体如需转载,请与稿件来源方联系,如产生任何问题与本网无关;本网所发布的歌曲、电影片段,版权归原作者所有,仅供学习与研究,如果侵权,请提供版权证明,以便尽快删除。
订阅和关注
人气排行