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2021年5月新闻热词汇总

中国日报网 2021-06-01 09:00

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博物馆强国 museum powerhouse

为持续推进我国博物馆事业高质量发展,国家文物局等9部门5月24日发布关于推进博物馆改革发展的指导意见。

China has set the goal of becoming a museum powerhouse by 2035, according to the guideline. China plans to upgrade 10 to 15 museums into world-class museums featuring Chinese characteristics.
意见提出,我国将重点培育10至15家中国特色世界一流博物馆。到2035年,基本建成世界博物馆强国。

【词汇讲解】

Powerhouse表示“a country, organization, or person with a lot of influence, power, or energy”(拥有强大影响力或能力的国家、组织或个人),所以,在表示“XX强国”的语境下,我们基本都可以用XX powerhouse来表示,比如:经济强国(economic powerhouse),创新强国(innovation powerhouse),制造业强国(manufacturing powerhouse)等。如果我们说某人是a powerhouse of original ideas,意思就是说这个人“是想法新颖独到的人”。


指导意见提出:

China will also implement a "Development Plan for Museums of Excellence," develop major museums at provincial and prefecture levels according to local conditions.
实施卓越博物馆发展计划,因地制宜支持省级、重要地市级博物馆特色化发展。


The country will help foster the growth of medium- and small-sized museums and strengthen their innovation mechanism.
实施中小博物馆提升计划,加强机制创新。


Moreover, certain social institutions that have some attributes of a museum but have not yet met registration and archival requirements will be included in the scope of industry guidance.
鼓励将具有部分博物馆功能、但尚未达到登记备案条件的社会机构,纳入行业指导范畴。


China will also expand museum collections, improve the mechanism of handing over archaeological relics as well as relics confiscated by law enforcement departments, and encourage the public to donate collectibles.
我国将拓展藏品入藏渠道,健全考古出土文物和执法部门罚没文物移交工作机制,鼓励公众向博物馆无偿捐赠藏品。

【词汇讲解】

Collectible虽然是以ble结尾的,但它是一个名词,表示“an object that people collect as a hobby or an investment”(人们作为爱好或投资手段收藏的物品),即“收藏品”,比如,the collectibles market(收藏品市场),这个词也可以用collectable来替换,只不过collectable还可以用作形容词,表示“可收藏的,值得收藏的”意思,比如:Comics from the 1960s are highly collectable(20世纪60年代的漫画很有收藏价值)。


Efforts will be made to boost cooperation between museums and other public cultural facilities, with more digital exhibitions to be opened in urban areas, and more exhibitions and educational activities to be held in rural areas.
推动博物馆与其他公共文化设施合作,推动博物馆虚拟展览进入城市公共空间,增加展览、教育活动进乡村频次。

 

“四史”宣传教育 promote the learning of the histories of the Party, New China, the reform and opening-up, and socialist development


China will continue to promote the learning of the histories of the Party, New China, the reform and opening-up, and socialist development across Chinese society. According to a circular issued by the General Office of the CPC Central Committee, various activities will be carried out across the country, including reading activities, lectures at the grassroots level, exhibitions, "red tourism" activities and speech contests.
近日,中共中央办公厅印发《关于在全社会开展党史、新中国史、改革开放史、社会主义发展史宣传教育的通知》。全国范围内将组织开展各项“四史”宣传教育活动,包括读书学史、基层宣讲、精品展览、红色旅游、演讲比赛等。

 

塑料污染治理 management of plastic pollution

民航局日前印发实施《民航行业塑料污染治理工作计划(2021-2025年)》,提出以机场和航空公司为塑料污染治理重点。

 

China will ban the use of disposable plastic packaging bags, tableware and straws made from non-degradable materials on domestic flights starting next year, the Civil Aviation Administration of China said.
民航局表示,明年起,国内客运航班将禁止提供一次性不可降解塑料吸管、餐具、包装袋等用品。

【词汇讲解】

形容词disposable表示“可丢弃的,一次性的”,比如:disposable plastic bags(一次性塑料袋)、disposable chopsticks(一次性筷子)等。这个词来源于动词短语dispose of,表示“to get rid of”,即“处理、清除、丢弃”等意思,比如:dispose of toxic waste(处理有害垃圾);其名词形式为disposal of,表示同样的意思,比如:the disposal of hazardous substances(有害物品的处置)。


Airports with an annual throughput of at least 2 million passengers will also stop providing such products next year, and the ban will be extended to all airports and international passenger flights in 2023, the administration said.
年旅客吞吐量200万(含)人次以上机场从明年起也将禁止使用此类用品,2023年起实施范围将进一步扩展至全国机场和国际客运航班。


《民航行业塑料污染治理工作计划(2021-2025年)》提出:

By 2025, the consumption of disposable non-degradable plastic in the civil aviation industry will decline sharply from the 2020 level.
到2025年,民航行业一次性不可降解塑料制品消费强度较2020年大幅下降。

【词汇讲解】

与塑料污染(plastic pollution)相关的一个常见词就是non-degradable,这个词来源于动词degrade(降解、分解),比如:These chemicals quickly degrade into harmless compounds(这些化学品很快分解成了无害的化合物)。此外,degrade还表示“降级、降低(身份)”等意思,比如:He was degraded to a private by his commander.(他的长官把他降为二等兵);his actions have degraded his profession(他的行为拉低了他的职业声誉)。


Alternative products are more widely used, and a smart and standardized waste recycling and treatment system is basically established.
替代产品应用水平明显提升,塑料等垃圾智慧化、规范化回收处理体系基本建立。

 

新冠灭活疫苗Ⅲ期临床试验结果 phase-3 study results of inactivated COVID-19 vaccines

关于国药集团中国生物新冠疫苗Ⅲ期临床试验中期分析结果的论文5月26日正式发表在《美国医学会杂志》上。

The inactivated vaccine, developed by a Beijing unit of Sinopharm's China National Biotech Group, has 78.1 percent efficacy against symptomatic cases of COVID-19, while the vaccine made by the group's unit in Wuhan, Hubei province, has 72.8 percent efficacy, according to the study results.
研究显示,中国生物旗下北京生物制品研究所的新冠灭活疫苗有效性为78.1%,武汉生物制品研究所的新冠灭活疫苗有效性为72.8%。

【知识点】

疫情发生以来,国务院联防联控机制科研攻关组专门设立疫苗研发专班,按照灭活疫苗(inactivated vaccines)、重组蛋白疫苗(recombinant protein vaccines)、腺病毒载体疫苗(adenovirus vector vaccines)、减毒流感病毒载体活疫苗(vaccines using attenuated influenza virus as vectors)、核酸疫苗(nucleic acid vaccines)5条技术路线共布局12项研发任务。

 

The study marks the first time a domestic COVID-19 vaccine maker had released third-stage trial data in a peer-reviewed international journal and the world's first published phase-3 study results of inactivated COVID-19 vaccines.
这是国产新冠疫苗首次在同行评议的国际期刊上发布疫苗Ⅲ期试验数据,也是全球首个正式发表的新冠灭活疫苗Ⅲ期临床试验结果。


试验中期分析结果

The trial was initiated in mid-July and involved more than 40,400 people in the United Arab Emirates and Bahrain aged 18 and above without known history of COVID-19. It was conducted in a randomized, double-blind method.
试验自2020年7月中旬开始,来自阿联酋和巴林的40400多名18岁以上且没有已知新冠肺炎患病史的受试者参与。试验采用双盲随机方式进行。


About one-third of participants in the trial were given the vaccine from the Beijing unit, one-third from the Wuhan unit and the remainder were given a placebo.
三分之一受试者接种北京生物的疫苗,三分之一接种武汉生物的疫苗,剩余的三分之一接种安慰剂。

【词汇讲解】

在药物试验中,placebo是一个常用词,是没有任何效力的“安慰剂”,通常用来与药物组做对照。在一些心理疾病的治疗中,医生有时候也会给病人一些类似安慰剂的药物,已达到心理上的安抚作用,由此产生的效力就叫placebo effect(安慰剂效应)。在日常生活中,一些没有实际作用、但是能起到安抚作用的做法、政策也可以用placebo来表示,比如:None of those placebos has reduced unemployment, but they have successfully held wages down.(这些安慰政策并没有降低失业率,但成功地维持了工资低水平)。

 

Interim analysis of the trial shows that treatment of adults with either of the inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccines "significantly reduced the risk of symptomatic COVID-19", the study said.
试验中期分析结果显示,两种新冠灭活疫苗均能在成年人身上“显著降低新冠肺炎发病风险”。


Both vaccines also demonstrate a good safety record, as the rates of adverse reaction within seven days after an injection were roughly the same among the three groups.
两种疫苗也都表现出了良好的安全性,三组受试者在接种后7天内出现的不良反应比例基本相当。


The most common adverse symptoms were pain at the injection site and headache, but they were mild and transient, without need for special treatment.
最普遍的不良反应为注射部位疼痛以及头疼,且程度轻,具有一过性,无需专门治疗。

【词汇讲解】

Transient表示“转瞬即逝的,短暂的,临时的”,比如:a transient workforce/worker(临时工),transient population(临时居住人口),transient beauty(转瞬即逝的美,昙花一现);transient也可以直接用作名词,表示“临时工,临时居住人员”,比如:It's an organization set up to provide money and help for transients.(这是专门为临时工提供资金和援助的机构)。


The new study also noted that more research and data are needed to evaluate Sinopharm vaccines' efficacy in protecting pregnant women, people younger than 18, as well as high-risk groups including those with chronic diseases and the elderly.
结果指出,国药疫苗对孕妇、18岁以下青少年、慢性病患者以及老年人等高危人群的有效性还需进一步研究和数据支持。


Their efficacy in preventing severe cases and asymptomatic infections and the length of immunity also require further tests, it added.
防止重症和无症状感染的有效性,以及长期保护性也需要更多试验。

 

野生亚洲象 wild Asian elephants

近日,云南亚洲野象群北迁动态备受关注。

 

The 15 wild Asian elephants are now wandering in the Hongta district of Yuxi, following a long journey from Yunnan province's southmost prefecture starting from April 16. As of Sunday morning, the elephants were 50 km from Kunming's Jinning district and 100 km from the downtown area of the provincial capital.
自4月16日起,这15头亚洲野象从云南省最南端的县开始长途迁徙,目前在玉溪市红塔区境内,距离云南省省会昆明市晋宁区50公里,距离昆明市城区100公里。

【知识点】

亚洲象(Asian elephants)为我国一级重点保护野生动物(wild animals under first-class national protection),在世界自然保护联盟濒危物种红色名录( the International Union for Conservation of Nature Red List of Threatened Species)中被列为“濒危物种”(endangered species),主要分布在云南普洱、西双版纳、临沧3个州市,是亚洲现存最大和最具代表性的陆生脊椎动物(terrestrial vertebrate),也是维持森林生态系统的“工程师”。


Monitoring images show that the herd includes six female adult elephants, three male adults, three sub-adults, and three cubs.
监测显示,该象群由成年雌象6头、雄象3头、亚成体象3头、幼象3头组成。

【词汇讲解】

我们知道这里的cub指的是大象“幼崽”,其实,这个词可以用来指代好几种动物的“幼崽”,比如:leopard(豹)、lion(狮子)、tiger(虎)、大熊猫(giant panda)等。此外,还有一些常见动物的“幼崽”表达方式,我们也来了解一下:
sheep(绵羊)--lamb
pig(猪)--piglet/ porkling / gilt
horse(马)--foal / colt / filly
goat(山羊)--kid
goose(鹅)--gosling
duck(鸭)--duckling
dog(狗)--puppy
cat(猫)--kitten

 

The 15 roaming elephants have damaged 561,333 square meters of crops and caused financial losses of nearly 6.8 million yuan on their 400-km journey, but no deaths or injuries to local residents have been reported.
在400多公里的迁徙途中,这15头象直接破坏农作物达561333平方米,初步估计直接经济损失近680万元,尚未接到人员伤亡报告。

 

缓解“人象冲突”

Local authorities said it is rare for the giant animals to move so far northward from their traditional habitat. Precaution measures have been taken to prevent human-elephant conflict as the elephants may well stray into human settlements.
当地政府表示,亚洲野象离开传统栖息地向北迁移这么远很罕见。当地已经采取预防措施,防止象群进入人类居住地引发人象冲突。


The provincial bureau of forestry and grassland said that it is a priority to protect the safety of both human beings and the elephants.
云南省林草局表示,保护象群和人群安全是首要任务。


Police officers have been sent to escort the elephants. They are aided with 228 vehicles, four excavators and three unmanned aerial vehicles in case that they need to distance the animals with human settlements.
当地已出动警力引导象群,同时派出228辆车,4辆挖掘机,3架无人机协助将象群从人类居住区引开。


(中国日报网英语点津 Helen)

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