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2021年1月新闻热词汇总

中国日报网 2021-02-01 11:23

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2021年1月,我国多个城市陆续开始对9类重点人群开展工作;美国国会确认拜登胜选,拜登正式就任美国第46任总统;因为国内疫情散发,国家卫健委发布通知倡议就地过年,多地餐馆开始筹备半成品年夜饭以及年夜饭外带套餐,北京发布进返京新规;我国2020年国内生产总值首次突破100万亿元,并且成为全球最大外资流入国;家庭教育法草案首次提请全国人大常委会审议。

 


新冠疫苗 COVID-19 vaccine

北京市自2021年1月1日起组织各区对9类重点人群开展了新冠疫苗接种工作,在知情和自愿的基础上,力争做到“应接尽接”。

Beijing's 220 health centers have since Friday vaccinated 73,537 people, with no major side effects detected, said Gao Xiaojun, a spokesman for the Beijing Health Commission, at a news conference on Sunday.
北京市卫生健康委员会新闻发言人高小俊在1月3日的发布会上介绍,1月1日以来,北京的220个接种点共接种新冠疫苗73537剂,未发生严重不良反应。


2020年12月31日,国务院联防联控机制发布我国首个新冠病毒疫苗附条件上市(conditional marketing authorization for China's first self-developed COVID-19 vaccine)。


The inactivated vaccine, which got the approval from the National Medical Products Administration (NMPA), is developed by the Beijing Biological Products Institute Co., Ltd. under the China National Biotec Group (CNBG), which is affiliated with Sinopharm.
此次经国家药监局批准的疫苗为国药集团中国生物研发的新冠病毒灭活疫苗。

【知识点】

疫情发生以来,国务院联防联控机制科研攻关组专门设立疫苗研发专班,按照灭活疫苗(inactivated vaccines)、重组蛋白疫苗(recombinant protein vaccines)、腺病毒载体疫苗(adenovirus vector vaccines)、减毒流感病毒载体活疫苗(vaccines using attenuated influenza virus as vectors)、核酸疫苗(nucleic acid vaccines)5条技术路线共布局12项研发任务。


The interim results of its phase-3 clinical trials show 79.34 percent efficacy against COVID-19, meeting the standards of the World Health Organization and the NMPA, according to a press conference by the State Council joint prevention and control mechanism against COVID-19.This vaccine will be provided free of charge to all Chinese people.
国务院联防联控机制发布会表示,三期临床试验中期结果显示,该疫苗有效性达到79.34%,保护效力达到世界卫生组织及国家药监局相关标准要求,将为全民免费提供。


目前,我国首批新冠病毒疫苗开始在北京、山东等地对重点人群进行接种。

Currently, health centers don't accept individual vaccination reservations. Individuals going abroad for personal reasons can apply for the shot at their residential community service centers.
目前,接种点不接受个人接种预约。因私出境人员可到居住地所在社区服务站提交申请。


哪些人群不适宜接种新冠疫苗?

Groups that are not suitable to receive the vaccines include pregnant women, lactating women and patients with some diseases. These patients are those in the acute stage of fever and infection, suffering from immune deficiency or immune disorder, having severe liver or kidney diseases, having uncontrolled hypertension, diabetic complications or malignant tumors.
不适宜接种的人群包括:孕妇、哺乳期妇女、正处在发热、感染等疾病急性期、患免疫缺陷或免疫紊乱的人群、严重的肝肾疾病、药物不可控制的高血压、糖尿病并发症、恶性肿瘤等人员。


Currently, people in the age group from 18 to 59 are arranged to receive the vaccination, and people not in the age group should wait for further data of clinical trials to know whether they could be vaccinated.
目前,只安排18到59岁年龄段的人群接种,其他年龄段的人群需等待进一步临床试验数据,明确是否能接种。

 

宇航发射任务 space launch tasks


中国航天科技集团表示,2021年,该集团计划安排40余次宇航发射任务,载人航天空间站工程进入关键实施阶段。

China plans to launch the core module of its manned space station in the first half of 2021. Subsequent space missions include the launches of the Tianzhou-2 cargo craft and the Shenzhou-12 manned craft.
我国计划在2021年上半年发射载人空间站核心舱,而后接续发射天舟二号货运飞船和神舟十二号载人飞船。


【知识点】

1992年9月,中国实施载人航天工程并确定中国载人航天“三步走”的发展战略(three-step manned space program):

第一步,发射载人飞船(manned spaceship),建成初步配套的试验性载人飞船工程,开展空间应用实验。2003年神舟5号载人飞船任务顺利完成。

第二步,突破航天员出舱活动技术(extra-vehicular activity)、空间飞行器的交会对接技术(rendezvous and docking),发射空间实验室(space lab),解决有一定规模的、短期有人照料的空间应用问题。

第三步,建造空间站,解决有较大规模的、长期有人照料的空间应用问题(operate a permanent manned space station)。

2017年4月20日19时41分,天舟一号货运飞船(cargo spacecraft Tianzhou-1)成功发射。此次任务是中国载人航天工程空间实验室阶段(space laboratory stage of China manned space engineering)的收官之战,标志着中国载人航天工程胜利完成“三步走”战略中的“第二步”任务,为空间站建设任务奠定坚实技术基础。

2022年前后,我国“天和”号空间站有望完成组装,开始全面运行(fully operational)。

 

2021年的其他任务还包括:

China's Mars probe Tianwen-1 is designed to complete orbiting, landing and roving this year.
今年,火星探测器天问一号计划实施中国首次火星“绕、落、巡”探测。


The spacecraft, launched on July 23, 2020, is expected to enter the Mars orbit around February. Afterward, it will spend two to three months surveying potential landing sites to prepare for its landing in May.
天问一号于2020年7月23日发射,有望在2月份左右进入火星轨道。之后,天问一号将用2-3个月的时间考察可能的着陆地点,为5月份着陆火星做准备。


China will continue to research manned lunar exploration, and will foster the application of the BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS) and other major projects in civil aviation and other fields.
我国还将继续载人月球探测等研制工作,重点加快推动北斗导航等国家重大科技工程在民用航空等领域应用落地。

 


寒潮 cold wave

1月6日,北京迎来新年的第一个寒潮。下班时间段,天气软件显示气温零下17度,体感温度却是零下31度。

The first cold wave in 2021 features a "dramatic temperature drop," "significant wind-chill effect" and "prolonged period of low temperature," said Lei Lei, chief forecaster of the Beijing meteorological station.
北京市气象台首席预报员雷蕾表示,2021年第一个寒潮的特点是降温幅度大、风寒效应强、低温持续时间长。

【词汇讲解】

人们通常用cold snap、cold wave、cold front、cold spell来表达寒潮。寒潮是指strong cold air(强冷空气)由亚洲大陆西部或西北部侵袭中国时的强降温天气过程,一般多发生在秋末、冬季、初春时节。

当范围很大的cold air mass(冷气团)聚集到一定程度,就会大规模向南入侵,形成寒潮天气。寒潮地面高压的前端一般都有一条cold front(冷锋)。寒潮过后,当地会受low pressure area(低气压)控制。


根据北京市气象台监测,截至1月6日18时55分,北京南郊观象台的气温为-17.3℃,低于2010年的-16.7℃,创近20年来新低(a record low in 20 years)。


【知识点】

在英文中,除了cold,还能用哪些表达形容“冷”呢?从下面这些句子里学一学吧。

It's chilly today.
今天冷风飕飕。

It's freaking cold today!
今天冷死啦!

The wind really chills me to the bone./The wind is bone-chilling.
这寒风真是刺骨。

I got frozen stiff waiting at the bus stop.
在公交车站等车,我都冻僵了。

From Thursday to Friday, some areas in the provinces of Shanxi, Shandong, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Zhejiang, Fujian, as well as Shanghai, will experience temperature drops of up to 10 degrees Celsius, said the National Meteorological Center (NMC).
1月7日至8日,山西、山东、江苏、江西、浙江、福建以及上海部分地区降温可达10摄氏度。


The cold wave will bring strong gales to areas along the Yangtze River and north of the river, according to the NMC.
受寒潮影响,长江流域及其以北地区将有大风。

【小百科】

气象学上划分风力等级的方法由爱尔兰人法兰西·蒲福海军上将在1805年左右制定,因此被称为“蒲福氏风级(Beaufort Scale)”。按强弱,将风力划为“零”至“十二”,共十三个等级。

0--无风,Calm,风速小于1km/h
1--轻微/微风/软风,Light air,风速1-5km/h
2--轻微/微风/轻风,Light breeze,风速6-11km/h
3--和缓/温和/微风,Gentle breeze,风速12-19km/h
4--和缓/和风,Moderate breeze,风速20-28km/h
5--清劲/清风,Fresh breeze,风速29-38km/h
6--强风,Strong breeze,风速39-49km/h
7--强风/疾风,Near gale,风速50-61km/h
8--烈风/大风,Gale,风速62-74km/h
9--烈风,Strong gale,风速75-88km/h
10--暴风/狂风,Storm,风速89-102km/h
11--暴风,Violent storm,风速103-117km/h
12--飓风,Hurricane,风速118-133km/h


气象专家介绍,这种因风所引起使体感温度较实际气温低的现象,被称作“风寒效应(wind-chill effect)”。

人的体温在多数情况下会高于周围环境气温(the human body temperature is normally higher than the ambient temperature),在无风或微风情况下,人体周围的空气分子交换很弱,这就在人体和大自然空气之间,形成了一个比较稳定的过渡层。由于空气是热的不良导体(air is a poor conductor of heat),这个过渡层就在贴近人体的表面起到了保暖的作用。

可是,当空气流动很快的时候,人体周围的空气保温层便不断地被新来的冷空气所代替(the protective air barrier around the body is constantly replaced by new cold air),并把热量带走。风速越大,人体散失的热量越快、越多,人也就越来越感到寒冷。

从大量的科学实验中,人们找出了风速大小和人体冷暖感觉的关系(the relationship between wind speed and the feeling of temperature),并大致计算出这样的数据:当气温在0℃以上时,风力每增加2级,人的寒冷感觉会下降3~5℃;气温在0℃以下时,风力每增加2级,人的寒冷感觉会下降6~8℃。

不过,风寒效应只发生在暴露在衣物之外的皮肤上(bare skin),所以只要挑选合适的衣物,尽量减少裸露在外的皮肤,就能将风寒效应降到最低。

 

选举人票 Electoral College votes

The US Congress certified Democrat Joe Biden's presidential election victory with 306 Electoral College votes early Thursday morning, after supporters of President Donald Trump stormed the Capitol, halting the certification process for several hours.
1月7日凌晨,美国国会确认民主党人乔·拜登赢得306张选举人票,在总统选举中获胜。此前,现任总统特朗普的支持者冲进国会大厦,导致确认程序中断数小时。

 

【知识点】

美国实行“选举人团(Electoral College)”的间接选举制度,共有538张选举人票。美国选民投票并不能直接选出总统,而是决定各州的选举人票归属哪位总统候选人(presidential candidate),最终获得至少270张选举人票的候选人胜出。

自19世纪80年代起,除缅因州和内布拉斯加州以外,其他各州都实行选举人票“赢者通吃”原则("winner-take-all" basis)。也就是说,某位总统候选人如果赢得某个州大多数的选票,他就赢得了该州全部的选举人票(a state has all of its electors pledged to the presidential candidate who wins the most votes in that state)。

缅因州和内布拉斯加州采用“国会选区法(congressional district method)”选出选举人(elector),每个国会选区(congressional district)选出一位赢得多数票的选举人,其余两名选举人则在全州范围内投票选出(statewide popular vote)。这些选举人支持的可能是不同的总统候选人,所以,在这两个州,总统候选人们都有可能获得一些属于自己的选举人票。


特朗普随后通过白宫发言人的社交媒体账号表态:

Even though I totally disagree with the outcome of the election, and the facts bear me out, nevertheless there will be an orderly transition on January 20th.
虽然我对选举结果完全不认同,事实也证明我是对的,不过,1月20日的权力交接会有序进行的。

【词汇讲解】

这里的bear out是个固定短语,表示“支持(某人的)观点、论点;证明(某人)是对的”,常用的搭配是bear someone out或bear out claims,比如:Recent studies have borne out claims that perfumes can cause psychological changes.(近期研究证明,香水能够引起心理变化这些论点是正确的)。


民主党赢得参议院控制权

Also on Wednesday, Democrat Jon Ossoff defeated Republican incumbent David Perdue in the Georgia runoff, giving Democrats control of the US Senate.
同样在1月6日,民主党人乔恩·奥索夫在佐治亚参议员选举中击败了共和党现任参议员大卫·珀杜,使民主党获得参议院控制权。

Ossoff's victory came after the win on Tuesday by Raphael Warnock over incumbent Senator Kelly Loeffler to become Georgia's first black senator.
此前,民主党人拉斐尔·沃尔纳克在1月5日击败现任共和党参议员凯利·洛夫勒,成为佐治亚州的第一位非裔参议员。

 

核酸检测 nucleic acid testing


临近春节,国内疫情出现多点散发现象,能否“回家过年”成了很多人关心的话题。

People have been urged to stay in the cities where they work for the Spring Festival holiday and abide by the regulations of epidemic prevention and control in scenic spots when traveling, according to Zeng Yixin, deputy head of the National Health Commission.
国家卫生健康委员会副主任曾益新表示,倡导大家在工作地过年,出门旅游要严格遵守景区疫情防控规定。


Zeng said the epidemic situation during the winter and spring was likely to remain grim and complex, especially in the upcoming Spring Festival, so it's necessary to limit gatherings and the flow of people. He advised people to choose off-peak travel and online shopping.
曾益新表示,冬春季,尤其是春节期间,疫情防控形势依旧严峻、复杂,限制聚集活动及人员流动很有必要,同时建议错峰出行和线上消费。

【单词讲解】

这里的off-peak相当于peak的反义词,表示“not at the most popular and expensive time, when many people are doing or using a particular thing”,即“非高峰时段的,淡季的”,比如,off-peak fares(淡季票价),off-peak season/off season(淡季)等,那么与之相对的peak season自然就是“旺季”了。

 


多地明确:返乡者需持核酸检测阴性证明


To curb the epidemic in this winter-spring period, China will expand nucleic acid testing to a larger scale and increase regular testing frequency.
为了遏制冬春季疫情,我国将进一步扩大核酸检测范围,并增加定期检测频率。


Meanwhile, several provinces have made it clear that those returning from low-risk areas during the Spring Festival holidays also need to have negative result of nucleic acid testing.
与此同时,多地已明确,春节假期从低风险区返乡者也需持核酸检测阴性证明。


An urgent notice was also issued in many regions that gatherings, parties, banquets, reunions and other activities should be canceled.
全国多地紧急发布通知:聚餐、聚会、宴请、团拜等活动一律取消。


专家:春节人员流动要注意


Zhang Boli, a member of the Chinese Academy of Engineering, said earlier that scattered COVID-19 outbreaks are almost unavoidable with the falling temperatures in winter, which make it easier for the novel coronavirus to survive. He called for the public to reduce gatherings and travel during and around Spring Festival.
中国工程院院士张伯礼此前表示,冬季气温下降,使得病毒更容易生存,新冠肺炎散发不可避免。他建议人们在春节期间减少聚集和出行。

【单词讲解】

在新冠疫情相关的报道中,我们经常会看到“疫情零星散发”和“聚集性疫情”这样的描述,其中“疫情零星散发”通常用sporadic outbreak或scattered outbreak来表示。Sporadic强调疫情出现的不规律性,与occasional意思相近,比如:She makes sporadic trips to Europe(她偶尔会去欧洲);而scattered则强调散发病例覆盖的范围较广,比如:The forecast is for scattered showers tomorrow(天气预报说明天有分散性阵雨)。


Epidemic control and prevention in China is expected to improve significantly in spring following mass COVID-19 vaccination, he said.
等到春季新冠疫苗普遍接种,疫情防控形势基本会有大好转。

 

本科毕业论文 undergraduate theses

Starting this year, Chinese education authorities will institute random checks on undergraduate theses to crack down on plagiarism, ghostwriting, and other forms of academic misconduct.
从今年起,教育管理部门将对本科毕业论文进行抽检,以打击剽窃、代写及其他形式的学术不端行为。

【知识点】

“学术不端”(academic misconduct)的一般性界定为:高等学校及其教学科研人员、管理人员和学生,在科学研究及相关活动中发生的违反公认的学术准则、违背学术诚信的行为。

2016年,教育部发布《高等学校预防与处理学术不端行为办法》,第一次以部门规章的形式对高等学校预防与处理学术不端行为做出规定。

《办法》中明确的六种“学术不端”情形包括:剽窃、抄袭、侵占他人学术成果(plagiarism),篡改他人研究成果(fabrication or alteration of research results),伪造数据或捏造事实(data falsification),不当署名(inappropriate authorship),提供虚假学术信息(providing false or misleading information),买卖或代写论文(academic paper selling or ghostwriting)等。同时授权高等学校可以结合学校实际,自行规定六类之外的学术不端情形。


如何抽检?


According to the Ministry of Education, provincial education departments should double-check at least 2% of a university’s theses, and graduates with final essays containing irregularities can have their degrees revoked.
教育部要求,省级教育管理部门应对高校本科论文进行抽检,抽检比例不低于2%,毕业论文存在不合规情况的学生,其学位将被撤销。

【单词讲解】

这里的revoke表示“吊销、废除、撤销”,一般都是官方机构发出的正式决定,比如,revoke driving license(吊销驾照)、revoke operating license(吊销营业执照)等;此外也可以revoke a ruling/order(撤销判决、命令)等。

 

Each thesis will be reviewed by three experts, who will also check the essays for quality. If two reviewers say the paper is substandard, it will be identified as problematic. Such results will be made public, and universities with a high percentage of problematic theses will be held accountable, the ministry said.
教育部表示,每篇论文送3位同行专家,3位专家中有2位及以上专家评议意见为“不合格”的毕业论文,将认定为“存在问题毕业论文”。抽检结果向社会公开,“存在问题毕业论文”比例较高的高校将被问责。

 

林长制 forest chief scheme


China has issued a guideline to implement a forest chief scheme nationwide amid the country's continuous efforts to protect forests and grasslands. It was issued by the general offices of the Communist Party of China Central Committee and the State Council and urged that the forest chief scheme will be rolled out nationwide by June 2022.
中共中央办公厅、国务院办公厅近日印发《关于全面推行林长制的意见》,加强对森林和草原的保护。意见提出,2022年6月在全国全面建立林长制。

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