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2021年2月新闻热词汇总

中国日报网 2021-03-01 09:00

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2月,恰逢新春佳节。就地过年的大背景下,春运客流下降,春节档电影票房却异常火爆。
北京冬奥会、冬残奥会火炬发布,河南春晚《唐宫夜宴》舞蹈节目出圈,我国宣布取得脱贫攻坚战全面胜利,天问一号火星探测器进入环火轨道,戍边英雄事迹报道感动全国。


春运 Spring Festival travel rush

在国家就地过年政策的作用下,今年铁路春运客流总体大幅下降。

The number of railway passenger trips took a nosedive in the first three days of the Spring Festival travel season amid stringent epidemic control measures, data from the national railway operator showed Sunday.
国铁集团1月31日发布的数据显示,在严格的疫情防控措施背景下,今年春运前三天铁路客流明显下降。

【单词讲解】

这里的nosedive是很形象的一个词,从字面意思可以理解为“鼻子朝下跳水”,字典里一般解释为“俯冲”,并由此延伸出“骤降,急剧下跌”等意思,用作动词或名词都可以,比如:Stock prices took a nosedive(股价暴跌);Profits nosedived in the last quarter(最后一个季度,利润暴跌);The plane went into a nosedive without warning(飞机毫无预兆地来了个俯冲)。


Passengers made 2.96 million railway trips on Saturday, while a total of 3.08 million and 2.83 million trips were registered on Thursday and Friday, respectively, according to the China State Railway Group Co., Ltd. (China Railway).
国铁集团表示,1月28日、29日和30日,春运前三天,全国铁路发送旅客分别为308万、283万和296万人次。

The company said on Sunday, the fourth day of the travel rush, 2.9 million passenger trips were expected to be made, a year-on-year decrease of 75 percent.
1月31日,春运进入第四天,全国铁路预计发送旅客290万人次,同比下降75%。

【单词讲解】

在一些统计类的报道中,我们经常会看到“环比”、“同比”这样的表述,这两种比较方式的区别在于:环比,就是跟上一个周期比;同比,就是跟去年同期比。如果用今年1月的数据跟去年1月的数据相比就是“同比”,英文用形容词year-on-year或者副词短语year on year表示,上文中的a year-on-year decrease of 75 percent也可以改为decrease 75 percent year on year;而1月的铁路客流量与12月的相比,就是“环比”,可以用形容词形式month-on-month或者副词形式的month on month来表示,比如:the number of passenger trips saw a month-on-month increase of 30 percent in January。


In light of sporadic resurgence of COVID-19 cases and measures to reduce people's movement, the group previously lowered its estimate of railway passenger trips from 407 million to 296 million for the travel peak.
鉴于新冠肺炎疫情散发以及各地实行减少人员流动的各项措施,国铁集团已将春运期间预计发送的旅客数量由此前的4.07亿人次降低为2.96亿人次。


一证通行、无接触服务保障春运安全

Electronic tickets are used in most railway stations across the country, and passengers can check in with their ID cards or through facial recognition.
全国大部分火车站均可使用电子车票,乘客可使用身份证或刷脸进站乘车。

Passengers are urged to practice social distancing at the waiting halls.
在候车大厅,督促乘客保持安全距离。

Online food ordering service is also available so that passengers can get their deliveries at their boarding stations.
旅客可以通过在线订餐服务下单,然后在始发站取餐。

 

 

中小学生手机禁止入校 mobile phone ban for primary and secondary school students

教育部办公厅印发了《关于加强中小学生手机管理工作的通知》。

Primary and secondary school students will not be allowed to bring mobile phones to schools, according to the circular from the Ministry of Education (MOE).
教育部发布的通知明确,中小学生原则上不得将个人手机带入校园。

【单词讲解】

这里用primary and secondary school表示“中小学”,具体来说,primary school通常指代“小学”,也可以用elementary school来替换,而secondary school指“介于小学和大学之间的教育机构”,即“中学”,是各类中等教育学校的统称,既包括普通的初高中,也包括职高、技校等教育机构。我们更加熟悉的middle school在英语国家通常指“五年级(或六年级)到八年级的学校”,即“初中”。


通知明确:

If students do need to bring mobile phones to school, a written application should be submitted to school authorities along with consent from their parents.
学生确有将手机带入校园需求的,须经学生家长同意、书面提出申请。


Once the application has been approved, students should hand in their mobile phones to relevant school authorities upon arrival. The phones will be kept together and should by no means be allowed into classrooms, according to the circular.
申请一旦获批,学生进校后应将手机交由学校统一保管,禁止带入课堂。

【词汇讲解】

这里的by no means表达的是绝对的否定“决不”,与其相似的另一个短语by all means则表示“必定、一定”这样肯定的意思,比如:By all means, come to our party if you end up being free on Saturday night!(周六晚上如果能抽出空,一定要来我们的派对),此外,by all means还可以表示“想尽一切办法、千方百计”等意思,比如:There will be a lot of people at this event, but we need to court that one big investor by all means.(这个活动来的人会很多,但我们要想尽一切办法抓住那个大投资人)。


Schools should not assign or ask students to do homework via mobile phones and they should set up public phones and teacher hotlines for communication between parents and students, it added.
老师不得使用手机布置作业或要求学生利用手机完成作业。学校应通过设立校内公共电话、班主任沟通热线等途径,解决学生与家长通话需求。


教育部表示,

The notice aims to protect students' eyesight, make sure they focus on study and prevent them from becoming addictive to the internet and online games.
印发该通知意在保护学生视力,让学生在学校专心学习,防止沉迷网络和游戏。

 


李子柒 Li Ziqi

2021年1月25日,短视频博主@李子柒再次刷新吉尼斯世界纪录。

 

The official Sina Weibo account of the Guinness World Records announced on Tuesday that Chinese vlogger Li Ziqi broke the world record for “Most subscribers for a Chinese language channel on YouTube” set by herself with 14.1 million subscribers on Jan 25.
吉尼斯世界纪录官方微博2月2日宣布,1月25日,中国短视频博主@李子柒 以1410万的YouTube订阅量刷新了由她创下的“最多订阅量的YouTube中文频道”的吉尼斯世界纪录称号。

【单词讲解】

这里的subscriber指视频频道的“订阅用户”,而我们打电话时听到的“the subscriber you dialed is busy now”中subscriber指的是“电信服务用户”,所以,这个词通常表示“付费给某个机构以得到某种定期服务的人”,来自于动词形式subscribe,而“订阅”这个行为或服务就是subscription。不过,在互联网内容大量涌现的今天,很多内容服务都是可以免费订阅的。当然,也有一些提供付费订阅服务的平台。

付费订阅(pay-to-read/paid content)服务一般分为:单次订阅(pay as you read)、周订阅(weekly subscription service)、包月订阅(monthly subscription service)、包年订阅(yearly subscription service)等。

吉尼斯世界纪录官方微博表示:

The poetic idyllic life and profound traditional Chinese culture in Li Ziqi's videos have attracted fans from all over the world, with many YouTube fans expressing their admiration under her videos.
李子柒视频中充满诗意的田园生活和博大精深的中国传统文化吸引了来自世界各地的粉丝,不少YouTube粉丝在她的视频下留言赞叹。


The Chinese culture conveyed in her videos is going further abroad.
她的视频所传递的中华文化也正在走向更远的地方。

 

去年7月首创世界纪录

Li uploaded her first video on YouTube, about how to make a dress using the cloth dyed with color extracted from grape skin, in 2017.
2017年,李子柒在YouTube发布第一支视频“用葡萄皮染的布做裙子”。


She went viral overseas afterwards with her short videos about cooking Chinese food, making traditional Chinese handicrafts such as embroidery and living an idyllic rural life in China.
之后,她用短视频展现中国食物的烹制过程、制作刺绣等传统中国手工艺品以及乡村田园生活,在海外走红。

【词汇讲解】

“走红”有两个常用的英文表达,一个是go viral,另一个是become a hit。前者表示某件事或者现象就像病毒一样迅速传播开来,所以用viral这个词,它是virus(病毒)的形容词形式;后者当中的hit作名词时本身就有“风行一时的事物”之意。比如:Some apps can quickly go viral and gain millions of users.(有些应用程序会迅速走红并获得数百万的用户。)The song became a massive hit in 1998.(这首歌在1998年风靡大江南北。)

 

On July 16 last year, she had 11.4 million subscribers on YouTube, breaking the Guinness record at the time.
2020年7月16日,李子柒获得1140万的YouTube订阅,打破了当时的吉尼斯世界纪录。

 

 

新冠肺炎疫苗实施计划 COVAX

At the request of the World Health Organization (WHO), China has decided to provide 10 million doses of COVID-19 vaccines to COVAX, mainly to meet the urgent need in developing countries. This is another important measure taken by China to promote equitable distribution of vaccines, advance international cooperation in fighting the pandemic, and apply the vision of a community of common health for all.
应世卫组织方面请求,中方决定向“新冠肺炎疫苗实施计划”提供1000万剂疫苗,主要用于发展中国家急需。这是中方促进疫苗公平分配,推进国际抗疫合作,践行人类卫生健康共同体理念的又一重要举措。

【知识点】

2020年10月8日,中国同全球疫苗免疫联盟签署协议,正式加入“新冠肺炎疫苗实施计划(COVAX)”。这是中国秉持人类卫生健康共同体理念(uphold the concept of a shared community of health for all)、履行自身承诺推动疫苗成为全球公共产品(turn COVID-19 vaccines into a global public good)的一个重要举措。

“新冠肺炎疫苗实施计划”由世界卫生组织和全球疫苗免疫联盟、流行病防范创新联盟共同牵头成立,拟于2021年底前向全球提供20亿剂新冠肺炎疫苗(the initial aim is to have 2 billion doses available by the end of 2021),供应给“自费经济体(higher-income self-financing countries)”和“受资助经济体(lower-income funded nations)”。包括我国在内的“自费经济体”需向该计划承诺为本经济体一定比例人口购买疫苗并缴纳预付款,而“受资助经济体”无须缴纳预付款,同时享受该计划补贴。


汪文斌表示:

The WHO has started to review emergency use authorization for Chinese vaccines. The Chinese companies involved will continue to offer their close coordination. We hope that the WHO will finish the review process as soon as possible.
世卫组织已开始审核中国疫苗的紧急使用授权。中国企业将继续积极配合。希望世卫组织尽早完成这项工作。


We hope that countries, with the capacity to do so, will take actions to actively support COVAX and the work of the WHO, help developing countries access vaccines in a timely manner, and make their due contributions to mankind's early victory over the pandemic.
我们希望国际社会有能力的国家都积极行动起来,以实际行动支持“实施计划”,支持世卫组织工作,帮助发展中国家及时获得疫苗,为国际社会早日战胜疫情作出应有的贡献。

【单词讲解】

简单说一下due的用法,在make their due contributions中,due表达的是“ satisfying or capable of satisfying a need, obligation, or duty”,即“满足需要,尽义务”。

这个词常见的一个搭配是due to,相当于because of(因为,由于),比如:The bus was delayed due to heavy snow(公交车因为大雪延误了);但是,如果句子中出现的是be due to do,则是“(在某个特定的时间)将要,即将发生”,比如:The present chairman is due to retire next month(现任主席下个月就退休了);此外,due还可以表示不同语境下“到期的”意思,比如:When is the baby due?(预产期什么时候),The rent is due at the end of the month(月底该交房租了)。

Due还可以用作名词,表示某人“应得的东西”,复数形式dues则通常用来表示缴纳的“会费”等,比如:give him his due(把他应得的给他),Party membership dues(党费)等。

 

中国向多个发展中国家提供疫苗援助

In the early hours of Feb 1, a batch of inactivated COVID-19 vaccines donated by the Chinese government to Pakistan arrived in Islamabad. It was the first batch of vaccine aid provided by the Chinese government to another country.
2月1日凌晨,中国政府向巴基斯坦捐赠的一批新冠病毒灭活疫苗运抵巴基斯坦首都伊斯兰堡,这是中国政府对外提供的第一批疫苗援助。


Apart from Pakistan, China is also providing vaccine aid to Brunei, Nepal, the Philippines, Myanmar, Cambodia, Laos, Sri Lanka, Mongolia, Palestine, Belarus, Sierra Leone, Zimbabwe and Equatorial Guinea, altogether 13 developing countries. Going forward, we will also assist another 38 developing countries with vaccines.
除巴基斯坦外,中方还正在向文莱、尼泊尔、菲律宾、缅甸、柬埔寨、老挝、斯里兰卡、蒙古、巴勒斯坦、白俄罗斯、塞拉利昂、津巴布韦、赤道几内亚等13个发展中国家提供疫苗援助,下一步将向其他38个有需要的发展中国家援助疫苗。


China supports Chinese companies in conducting joint vaccine R&D and production with foreign partners. Vaccines made by Sinopharm and Sinovac have been exported to countries including the UAE, Morocco, Indonesia, Turkey, Brazil and Chile where clinical studies have been conducted.
中方支持国内企业同国外的合作伙伴开展疫苗联合研发和合作生产,已经向阿联酋、摩洛哥、印尼、土耳其、巴西、智利等临床试验国家出口了国药集团和科兴公司的疫苗。


China supports relevant companies in exporting vaccines to countries in urgent need that have approved Chinese vaccines and authorized their emergency use. For instance, Serbia has started vaccination with recently imported Chinese-made vaccines. More and more countries are approving the domestic use of Chinese vaccines.
中国支持有关企业向急需获取疫苗、认可中国疫苗、已授权在本国紧急使用中国疫苗的国家出口疫苗。例如,中国企业向塞尔维亚出口的疫苗已于不久前运抵,当地已开始接种。目前,已有越来越多的国家批准中国疫苗在当地使用。

 


北京冬奥会、冬残奥会火炬 2022 Olympic torch

2月4日,在北京2022年冬奥会开幕倒计时一周年(the one-year countdown to the opening of the Games)之际,北京冬奥会、冬残奥会火炬“飞扬(Flying)”正式发布。

 

The 2022 Olympic torch spirals upward to resemble two overlapping fluttering ribbons. The inner red ribbon evokes rising flames, with the outer one plated in silver to produce a striking contrast.
2022年冬奥会火炬旋转上升,如双色“飞舞丝带”重叠,内部的红色丝带如火焰升起,与外部的银色丝带形成强烈的反差效果。


As the torch turns, the whirling red line hidden in the crack seems to stretch endlessly, representing mankind's relentless pursuit of brightness, peace, excellence and the values promoted by the Olympic Movement.
红色线条随火炬转动,似无限延伸,表达了人类生生不息、向往光明与和平、追求卓越的期望和奥林匹克运动的力量。

The torch features the Beijing 2022 emblem and the Olympic rings etched on its section, with patterns of clouds and snowflakes painted from the bottom up to the flame.
火炬上刻有北京2022年冬奥会会徽及奥运五环,自下而上从云纹逐渐过渡到雪花图案,最后呈现为火焰。


Beaming with dynamism and vitality, the two-tone torch presents a metaphor of ice and fire, symbolizing how it will bring light and warmth to the winter sports gala.
双色火炬外形极具动感和活力,象征冰火相约,照亮冰雪,温暖世界。

【词汇讲解】

在介绍火炬的象征意义的时候,英文报道经常用到symbolize或represent,这两个词都有“象征”的意思,在这个语境下可以替换使用,比如:A lion symbolizes/represents courage。二者的区别在于,symbolize只有“象征”这一层意思,而represent的意思用法要广得多。我们最熟悉的一个意思就是“to speak, act, or be present officially for another person or people”,即“代表”,比如:I sent my husband to represent me at the funeral(我让我丈夫代表我去参加葬礼),Women were poorly represented at the conference(参会的女性很少),大家选出来代表某个群体的“代表”就是representative;represent还有“体现,描绘”的意思,比如:This new report represents the current situation in our schools(这份新报告描述了我们学校当前的形势),He represents himself as an expert, but he knows nothing(他把自己描述成一个专家,但他什么都不知道)。

 

Sharing the same structure and patterns, the torch for the 2022 Paralympic Winter Games features a different color scheme of gold and silver. The bottom of the torch is engraved with Beijing 2022 Paralympic Winter Games in Braille.
2022年冬残奥会火炬与冬奥会火炬结构与样式相同,采用金色与银色,火炬最下方刻有“北京2022年冬残奥会”全称的盲文。

The design allows both torches to lock into each other at the top when one bearer passes the flame to another during the Torch Relay, symbolizing Beijing 2022's vision to promote mutual understanding and respect between different cultures.
火炬交接时,两支火炬的顶部可以紧密相扣,体现出让不同文明更加相知相融的北京 2022 年冬奥会愿景。

 

To honor Beijing's status as the world's first city to host both the Summer and Winter Olympics, the 2022 torch features a similar design to the 2008 Games' main cauldron, which resembled a giant scroll, highlighting the legacy of the Olympic spirit in the Chinese capital.
北京即将成为奥运历史上首座“双奥之城”,北京2022年冬奥会和冬残奥会火炬整体外观与北京2008年奥运会开幕式主火炬塔的巨型卷轴形态相呼应,体现了双奥之城的传承与发扬。

环环相扣黑科技

Using a combustion system developed by the China Aerospace Science and Technology Corp, the torch's flame, fueled by eco-friendly hydrogen, was designed and has undergone rigorous testing to burn reliably in all weather conditions and to withstand strong winds and extreme, low temperatures.
火炬采用中国航天科技集团研发的氢燃料点火装置,凸显环保属性,经过大量测试,可在各类天气条件下稳定燃烧,可抗强风和极端低温天气。

【单词讲解】

这里的-friendly作为后缀,通常用在名词后面,表示“对...友好的”,比如:user-friendly interface(用户友好的界面)、environment-friendly/eco-friendly(对环境友好的/环保的)。

 

The torch is made of carbon-fiber materials developed by Sinopec and is light in weight and resistant to high temperatures.
火炬由中国石化研制的碳纤维材料制成,重量轻、耐高温。

【单词讲解】

这里的resistant to表示“对...有抵抗力的”,比如:These plants are resistant to cold temperatures(这些植物能耐低温),如果用来形容人,经常表示“抗拒的”,比如:Why are you so resistant to change?(你为什么这么抗拒改变呢);resistant还经常作为后缀,与其他名词构成合成形容词,表示“抗...的,耐...的”,比如:wrinkle-resistant clothes(不易起皱的衣服),fire-resistant material(耐火材料)。


2020年9月22日,经过北京冬奥组委多轮评审,从182个全社会有效征集方案(182 entries in a global competition)中,确定了现在的火炬设计方案。


2020年12月7日,国际奥委会执委会(the International Olympic Committee's Executive Board)审议通过了北京2022年冬奥会火炬设计方案。

 

 

反垄断指南 anti-trust guidelines

2月7日,国务院反垄断委员会制定发布《国务院反垄断委员会关于平台经济领域的反垄断指南》。

 

The State Council, China's cabinet, unveiled anti-trust guidelines on the country's platform economy to ensure fair market competition and promote the innovative and healthy development of the sector.
国务院发布平台经济领域的反垄断指南,旨在保障公平市场竞争,促进平台经济创新健康发展。

【单词讲解】

这里的anti-trust有时候也写作antitrust,中文最开始直译为“反托拉斯”,后来多译为“反垄断”,一般指“involving laws or actions that are intended to make business competition fair and to prevent any company from being a monopoly”,即“意在促进公平竞争,防止个别公司形成垄断的”(法律、法规),新闻报道中也会用anti-monopoly来与其替换使用,比如:China issues new anti-monopoly rules targeting its tech giants(中国针对科技巨头发布新的反垄断规定)。

Anti-这个前缀经常用来表示“反...”,比如,某个明星的粉丝是fans,那么ta的“黑粉”就是anti-fans;在军事领域,anti则经常表示“抗击,对抗”,比如:antimissile(反导弹的)、antiaircraft(放空中袭击的;高射炮)等。


《指南》界定平台、平台经营者、平台内经营者及平台经济领域经营者等基础概念。

平台,本指南所称平台为互联网平台(online/internet platforms),是指通过网络信息技术,使相互依赖的双边或者多边主体在特定载体提供的规则下交互(interdependent bilateral or multilateral entities interact under the rules provided by a particular carrier),以此共同创造价值的商业组织形态。

平台经营者(platform operators),是指向自然人、法人及其他市场主体提供经营场所(marketplace)、交易撮合(business brokering)、信息交流(information exchange)等互联网平台服务的经营者。

平台内经营者(merchants on internet platforms),是指在互联网平台内提供商品或者服务(以下统称商品)的经营者。

平台经济领域经营者(operators in the sector of platform economy),包括平台经营者、平台内经营者以及其他参与平台经济的经营者。


针对社会各方反映较多的“二选一”“大数据杀熟”等热点问题,指南明确:

To identify market dominance abuse behaviors in the sector, it is usually necessary to define the relevant market and analyze whether a platform operator has a dominant position in the market, according to the guideline.
认定平台经济领域滥用市场支配地位行为,通常需要先界定相关市场,分析经营者在相关市场是否具有支配地位。

【单词讲解】

Abuse这个词可以用作动词或名词,均表示“滥用,虐待”等意思,比如:power abuse/to abuse power(滥用职权)、child abuse/to abuse a child(虐待儿童)、drug abuse/abuse drugs(药物滥用)、verbal abuse/verbally abuse someone(语言暴力)等。实施这些行为的人就是abuser。


Specific case analysis should be further completed to decide whether the operator abuses its market dominance, says the guideline.
根据个案情况分析经营者是否构成滥用市场支配地位行为。

 

滥用市场支配地位行为表现形式

It specifies behaviors that constitute abusing market dominance, such as unfair pricing, sales below cost, refusal-to-deal, restricted trading, tie-in sales, attaching unreasonable trading conditions and differential treatment.
《指南》逐一细化滥用市场支配地位行为表现形式,如不公平价格行为、低于成本销售、拒绝交易、限定交易、搭售或者附加不合理交易条件差别待遇等。

 

劣迹艺人 tainted celebrity

2月5日,中国演出行业协会发布新制定的《演出行业演艺人员从业自律管理办法》,业内首次明确劣迹艺人惩戒和复出程序。

Chinese celebrities could face permanent bans from television, film, livestreaming, and offline events if they fail to comply with the “self-discipline” guideline.
违反自律管理办法的演艺人员或将在电视、电影、直播及线下活动等各平台面临永久抵制。

【词汇讲解】

这里的fail to经常用来表示“试图做某事,但是没做成”或者“别人期待你做某事,但是你没有做到”,比如:She failed to reach the Wimbledon Final this year(她今年没能进温网决赛)。对学生党来说,fail则更多的是表示“考试挂科”,但是在具体用法上英式英语和美式英语略有不同,比如“我历史考过了,但是化学挂科了”在英式英语中是“I passed in history but failed in chemistry”,但是在美式英语中是“I passed history but failed chemistry”。


自律管理办法列出了15条艺人不得出现的行为,其中包括:

illegal acts such as driving under the influence of alcohol or drugs
酒驾、毒驾等违法行为

undermining the sovereignty, unification and territorial integrity of China
危害国家统一、主权和领土完整

jeopardizing social morality
危害社会公德

harming outstanding cultural traditions
损害民族优秀文化传统

fooling audience with lip-syncing in commercial performances
在营业性演出中以假唱等手段欺骗观众

undermining China's ethnic unity
破坏民族团结

engaging in obscene and pornographic activities
参与、宣扬涉及淫秽、色情等活动

defaming revolutionary heroes
侮辱、诽谤革命英雄

 


自律管理办法规定:

Offenders of the guideline will face a "joint industry boycott" for one, three, five years or for good, depending on the severity of the circumstances and degree of harm.
根据演艺人员违反从业规范情节轻重及危害程度,分别实施1年、3年、5年和永久等不同程度的行业联合抵制。

【单词讲解】

这里的短语for good就是for ever的意思,即“永久,永远”,比如:She's gone for good(她再也不会回来了)。再补充一个常用的短语,do someone good(对某人有好处),比如:You can't work all the time - it does you good to go out and enjoy yourself sometimes.(你不能一直工作,时不时出去放松一下对你有好处)。


Offenders must also submit an application to an "ethics construction commission" three months before their penalty term ends for permission to return to the limelight.
受到联合抵制的演艺人员应当在联合抵制期限届满前3个月内向道德建设委员会提出申请,经同意后才可继续从事演出活动。

【单词讲解】

这里的“return to the limelight”字面意思是“回到聚光灯下”,其实就是“重回舞台(演出)”的意思,the limelight(聚光灯)在中英文语境中都经常被用来指代公众人物所处的环境,即“大众的关注”,比如:She's been in the limelight recently, following the release of her new film(新电影上映之后,她最近一直颇受公众关注)。


自律管理办法指出,对符合复出条件的演艺人员,由中国演出行业协会向会员单位和个人通报,取消联合抵制措施,并监督引导其参与行业培训、职业教育(professional education)、公益项目等活动,改善社会形象(rehabilitate their image)。

 

 

世卫组织专家组 WHO team of experts

中国—世界卫生组织新冠病毒溯源研究联合专家组2月9日在武汉举行新闻发布会,通报共同开展新冠病毒全球溯源中国部分的工作情况。

A sudden outbreak of the novel coronavirus occured in Wuhan at the end of 2019. China took prompt action, actively released epidemic information, and adopted the most comprehensive and strict prevention and control measures, achieving notable results.
2019年底,新冠肺炎疫情在武汉市暴发,中国迅速采取行动,主动通报疫情信息,采取最全面最严格的防控措施,疫情防控取得显著成效。


According to an agreement between China and the WHO in July 2020, an international expert WHO team arrived in Wuhan on Jan 14. They formed a joint body with Chinese experts for the Chinese part of the global study on the novel coronavirus origins.
按照中国与世卫组织2020年7月商定的工作任务书,世卫组织派出国际专家组2021年1月14日抵达武汉,与中方专家组成联合专家组,共同开展全球溯源中国部分工作。


The team studied a massive amount of epidemic-related data and visited nine facilities, including Wuhan Jinyintan Hospital, Huanan seafood market, and the Wuhan Institute of Virology, under the Chinese Academy of Sciences. The team conducted extensive exchanges with local medical workers, lab researchers, scientists, and market managers. They also interviewed social workers, community workers, residents, recovered patients, and families of medical workers who lost their lives in the epidemic.
联合专家组共同研究了大量的疫情相关数据资料,现场考察了包括金银潭医院、华南海鲜市场、中科院武汉病毒研究所在内的9家单位,与医务人员、实验室人员、科研人员、市场管理人员及商户、社区工作者、康复患者、牺牲医务人员家属、居民等进行广泛交流。


联合研究成果已基本形成,主要包括:


A coronavirus with high similarity to the novel coronavirus in gene sequences occurs in bats and pangolins. But the similarity is still not enough to make it a direct ancestor of the novel coronavirus. Bats, pangolins, weasels, cats, and other species all could be potential natural hosts.
在蝙蝠和穿山甲中发现了与新冠病毒基因序列具有高度相似性冠状病毒,但相似度尚不足以使其成为新冠病毒的直接祖先;蝙蝠、穿山甲或者鼬科、猫科动物,以及其他物种都可能是潜在的自然宿主。


The virus was found in environmental tests at the Huanan seafood market after its closure, especially in its aquatic product stalls. The coronavirus at the market might have been introduced through channels such as infected people, contaminated cold chain products, and animal products, but it is still uncertain.
华南海鲜市场关闭后的环境检测普遍发现新冠病毒污染,其中水产摊位尤为明显,华南海鲜市场新冠病毒可能通过感染者、被污染的冷链产品、动物产品等途径引入,但尚无法确定。


No positive results occurred in large-scale testing of animal products in the market. No novel coronavirus was found either in samples of bats in Hubei province or large numbers of livestock, poultry, and wild animals across China.
对该市场的动物产品大规模检测未发现阳性,对湖北省蝙蝠以及中国各地大量的家畜家禽、野生动物采样监测均未发现新冠病毒。


In December 2019, the novel coronavirus spread among people on a certain scale in Wuhan, with most cases occurring in the second half of the month. A study on the early ones showed that as there were novel coronavirus cases in the market, there were also such cases in other areas of Wuhan at the same time.
2019年12月,武汉市人群中发生了新冠病毒一定规模传播,大部分病例集中在下半月。早期病例搜索及分析显示,华南海鲜市场出现病例的同时,武汉市其他地方也有病例发生。


The experts identified four hypotheses for the source of the transmission of the novel coronavirus to the human population, including direct zoonotic spillover, the cold-chain food, an intermediary host species, and a laboratory-related incident.
联合专家组对新冠病毒从自然宿主直接传播和通过冷链食品、中间宿主、实验室等四种引入人类途径的可能性进行了科学评估。


评估结论分为“极不可能(extremely unlikely)”“不可能(unlikely)”“可能(likely)”“比较可能(most likely)”“非常可能(very likely)”5个层级。


专家组认为:


Introduction through an intermediary host species is "the most likely" passway.
新冠病毒“比较可能”是经中间宿主引入人类。


Direct transmission or introduction through cold-chain food is also likely.
“可能”是直接传播或者通过冷链食品引入人类。


A laboratory incident is "extremely unlikely" as the cause of COVID-19.
“极不可能”是通过实验室引入人类。


联合专家组还对下一步全球溯源工作提出了建议。

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