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“十四五”规划和2035年远景目标重要概念汉英对照(一)

中国外文局 2021-08-25 11:00

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2021年初,第十三届全国人大四次会议审议通过了《中华人民共和国国民经济和社会发展第十四个五年规划和2035年远景目标纲要》(以下简称《纲要》)。

中国外文局、中国翻译研究院组织各语种中外专家进行全文翻译,经研商审定,形成汉英、汉法、汉俄、汉日、汉西、汉德、汉阿、汉葡、汉韩等9个汉外对照文版。

目前汉英、汉日对照版已发布,其他语种将陆续推出。现将《纲要》专栏内容形成汉英对照,供业界及相关人员参考使用。

 

(一)“十四五”时期经济社会发展主要指标
Major indicators of economic and social development during the 14th Five-Year Plan Period



经济发展
Economic development

1.国内生产总值(GDP)增长
GDP growth rate

2.全年劳动生产率增长
Annual labor productivity growth

3.常住人口城镇化率
Permanent urban residents

 

创新驱动
Innovation-driven

1.全社会研发经费投入增长
Growth of total R&D spending

2.每万人口高价值发明专利拥有量
Number of high-value patents per 10,000 people

3.数字经济核心产业增加值占GDP比重
Value-added from core industries in digital economy as a proportion of GDP

 

民生福祉
People’s livelihood and welfare

1.居民人均可支配收入增长
Growth of per capita disposable income of residents

2.城镇调查失业率
Surveyed urban unemployment rate

3.劳动年龄人口平均受教育年限
Average schooling years of working-age population

4.每千人口拥有执行(助理)医师数
Number of practicing physicians (physician assistants) per 1,000 people

5.基本养老保险参保率
Basic old-age insurance coverage rate

6.每千人口拥有3岁以下婴幼儿托位数
Nursery capacity for children under 3 years per 1,000 people

7.人均预期寿命
Average life expectancy

绿色生态
Ecological conservation

1.单位GDP能源消耗降低
Reduction of energy consumption per unit of GDP

2.单位GDP二氧化碳排放降低
Reduction of CO2 emission per unit of GDP

3.地级及以上城市空气质量优良天数比率
Proportion of days with good air quality in cities at and above prefectural level

4.地表水达到或好于III类水体比例
Proportion of surface water of Grade III or better quality

5.森林覆盖率
Forest coverage rate

 

安全保障
Security & Safety

1.粮食综合生产能力
Overall grain output (100 million tons)


2.能源综合生产能力(亿吨标准煤)
Overall energy production capacity (100 million tons of standard coal)

 

 

(二)科技前沿领域攻关
Tackling key problems in frontier science and technology


1. 新一代人工智能
New generation of artificial intelligence

前沿基础理论突破,专用芯片研发,深度学习框架等开源算法平台构建,学习推理和决策、图像图形、语音视频、自然语言识别处理等领域创新。

Make breakthroughs in advanced basic theories, research and develop dedicated chips, build platforms for open-source algorithms such as deep learning framework, innovate in learning reasoning and decision-making, images and graphics, voice and video, natural language recognition and processing, and other fields.

 

2. 量子信息
Quantum information

城域、城际、自由空间量子通信技术研发,通用量子计算原型机和实用化量子模拟机研制,量子精密测量技术突破。
Research and develop metropolitan, intercity, and free space quantum communication technology, research and produce general quantum computer prototypes and practical quantum simulators and make breakthroughs in quantum precision measurement technology.

 

3. 集成电路
Integrated circuits

集成电路设计工具、重点装备和高纯靶材等关键材料研发,集成电路先进工艺和绝缘栅双极型晶体管(IGBT)、微机电系统(MEMS)等特色工艺突破,先进存储技术升级,碳化硅、氮化镓等宽禁带半导体发展。
Research and develop integrated circuit design tools, key equipment, and key materials such as high-purity targets, make breakthroughs in advanced integrated circuit technology and characteristic processes such as insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) and micro electromechanical system (MEMS), upgrade advanced storage technology, and develop wide bandgap semiconductors such as silicon carbide and gallium nitride.

 

4. 脑科学与类脑研究
Brain science and brain-like intelligence technology


脑认知原理解析,脑介观神经联接图谱绘制,脑重大疾病机理与干预研究,儿童青少年脑智发育,类脑计算与脑机融合技术研发。

Analyze brain cognition principles, map the mesoscopic brain connectome, research mechanisms and interventions for major brain diseases and brain intelligence development of children and adolescents, research and develop brain-like computing and brain computer fusion technology.

 

5. 基因与生物技术
Genes and biotechnology


基因组学研究应用,遗传细胞和遗传育种、合成生物、生物药等技术创新,创新疫苗、体外诊断、抗体药物等研发,农作物、畜禽水产、农业微生物等重大新品种创制,生物安全关键技术研究。

Research and develop genomics applications, conduct technological innovation in genetic cells and genetic breeding, synthetic biology and biological medicine, research and develop innovative vaccines, in vitro diagnosis and antibody drugs, create new major varieties of crops, livestock and poultry, aquatic products, and agricultural microorganisms, and conduct research on key biosafety technologies.

 


6. 临床医学与健康
Clinical medicine and health


癌症和心脑血管、呼吸、代谢性疾病等发病机制基础研究,主动健康干预技术研发,再生医学、微生物组、新型治疗等前沿技术研发,重大传染病、重大慢性非传染性疾病防治关键技术研究。

Conduct basic research on the pathogenesis of cancers and cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, respiratory, and metabolic diseases, conduct R&D on active health intervention technology and pioneering technologies such as regenerative medicine, microbiome, and new treatment, and conduct research on key technologies for prevention and treatment of major infectious diseases and major chronic non-infectious diseases.

 

7. 深空深地深海和极地探测
Deep space, deep earth, deep sea, and polar explorations


宇宙起源与演化、透视地球等基础科学研究,火星环绕、小行星巡视等星级探测,新一代重型运载火箭和重复使用航天运输系统、地球深部探测装备、深海运维保障和装备试验船、极地立体观监测平台和重型破冰船等研制,探月工程四期、蛟龙深海二期、雪龙探极二期建设。

Conduct research on the origin and evolution of the universe, deep earth and other areas of basic science and technology, make inter-planetary explorations such as the Mars orbit and asteroid inspection, develop a new generation of heavy carrier rockets and reusable space transportation systems, deep earth exploration equipment, deep sea operation and maintenance support and equipment test ships, three-dimensional polar observation and monitoring platforms and heavy icebreakers, and push ahead with the lunar exploration project (Phase IV), Jiaolong deep sea project (Phase II), and Xuelong polar exploration project (Phase II).

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