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chinadaily.com.cn 2022-12-05 16:07


> China's export tax refund and exemption reach 1.64t yuan

A staff member introduces the tax refund policies to an enterprise manager at the government service center in Haikou, Hainan province on March 21, 2022. [Photo/VCG]


China's tax department continued to accelerate the export tax refund this year, offering powerful support for the steady growth of foreign trade, Securities Times reported. From the beginning of this year to Nov 10, the total tax refund, as well as tax exemption, reached 1.64 trillion yuan ($227.84 billion), up 14.9 percent year-on-year.


The State Taxation of Administration said it has released a series of new policies to improve the tax refund efficiency, further relieving enterprises' pressure. For example, companies can apply for the export tax refund online, with 430,000 paper documents streamlined for 49,000 companies, as of Nov 10.


The average tax refund time has been reduced to six working days this year, and for some credit-worthy enterprises, that time has been further cut to three working days. Cai Zili, chief auditor of STA, said tax losses of 33.43 billion yuan have been retrieved since the beginning of this year.


> Gene mutation provides resilience to cold



Skeletal muscle comprises fast-twitch muscle fibers that fatigue quickly and slow-twitch muscle fibers that are more resistant to fatigue. The protein α-actinin-3, which is found only in fast-twitch muscle fibers, is absent in almost 20 percent of people — almost 1.5 billion individuals — due to a mutation in the gene that codes for it.


Researchers at Karolinska Institute in Sweden now show that more of the skeletal muscle of these individuals comprises slow-twitch muscle fibers, which are more durable and energy-efficient, and provide better tolerance to low temperatures than fast-twitch muscle fibers. The results are published in the American Journal of Human Genetics.


"This suggests that people lacking α-actinin-3 are better at keeping warm and, energy-wise, at enduring a tougher climate, but there hasn't been any direct experimental evidence for this before," says Håkan Westerblad, a professor of cellular muscle physiology at the Department of Physiology and Pharmacology.


For the study, 42 healthy men between 18 and 40 were asked to sit in cold water (14 °C) until their body temperature dropped to 35.5 °C. During cold water immersion, researchers measured muscle electrical activity with electromyography (EMG) and took muscle biopsies to study the protein content and fiber-type composition.


The results showed that the skeletal muscle of people lacking α-actinin-3 contains a larger proportion of slow-twitch muscle fibers. On cooling, these individuals were able to maintain their body temperature in a more energy-efficient way. Rather than activating fast-twitch muscle fibers, which results in overt shivering, they increased the activation of slow-twitch muscle fibers that produce heat by increasing baseline contraction.


"The mutation probably gave an evolutionary advantage during the migration to a colder climate, but in today's modern society, this energy-saving ability might instead increase the risk of diseases of affluence, which is something we now want to turn our attention to," says Westerblad.


Marius Brazaitis, a scientist at the Lithuanian Sports University says,"It is our hypothesis or assumption at this point that people with the gene variant who consume more calories and are physically inactive could be at a higher risk of obesity, type-2 diabetes, and other metabolic disorders."


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