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2018年是“有毒的”!《牛津词典》年度词汇出炉 'Toxic' beats 'gammon' and 'cakeism' to win Oxford Dictionaries' word of 2018

中国日报网 2018-11-16 13:20

如果让你用一个词总结2018年,你会怎么选择?2018年是“有毒的”!《牛津词典》这样说。

2018 was toxic.

2018年是“有毒的”。

That's the view of the esteemed Oxford Dictionaries. It has chosen the word as its annual "Word of the Year".

这是著名的《牛津词典》的看法。《牛津词典》近日将toxic这个词选为其2018年度词汇。

Defining the word as “poisonous”, Oxford said it had become a “descriptor for the year’s most talked about topics”. The dictionary pointed to a 45% rise in the number of times the word has been looked up on its website, and said it best captured “the ethos, mood, or preoccupations” of 2018.

《牛津词典》表示,“有毒的”(toxic)已经成为“2018年最热议话题的主题词”。“有毒的”在牛津词典网站的搜索次数增加了45%,精准地体现出2018年的“气质、情绪或关注焦点”。

First appearing in English in the mid-17th century, from the medieval Latin toxicus, “toxic” has also been used to describe workplaces, schools, relationships, cultures and stress over the last year.

“Toxic”来源于中古拉丁文toxicus,在17世纪中期首次出现在英语里,在过去一年还被用来描述工作场所、学校、人际关系、文化和压力。

It said the #MeToo movement "put the spotlight on toxic masculinity" while in politics the word has been applied to the "rhetoric, policies, agendas and legacies of leaders and governments around the globe."

《牛津词典》表示,“我也是”(MeToo)运动让人们关注到“有毒的男性气概”。而在政界,这一词汇用来形容“某些领导人和政府的花言巧语、政策、议题和政治遗产”。

However, the word was most associated with the word “chemical”, appearing most frequently in discussions about the environment, including “toxic substance”, “toxic gas”, “toxic waste” and “toxic air”.

然而,这个词汇应用最广泛的含义还是“化学的”,它最频繁地出现在有关环境的讨论中,比如“有毒物”、“毒气”、“有毒废料”和“有毒的空气”。

The debate fostered by the Brexit vote has also been described as a toxic environment, said the dictionary, while social media platforms “have come under fire for the toxic impact they have on our mental health”.

《牛津词典》表示,英国脱欧公投引发的讨论也被形容为“有毒的环境”,社交媒体平台也因为“对人们的心理健康产生的‘有毒的影响’而遭到抨击”。

Last year's word of the year was 'youthquake', defined as ‘a significant cultural, political, or social change arising from the actions or influence of young people.’

去年,《牛津词典》选择的年度词汇是“青年冲击”,指的是“年轻人的行为或影响带来的重要的文化、政治或社会变化”。

Last week Collins Dictionary chose the term “single-use”, referring to products made to be used once and then thrown away, as its word of the year.

上周,《柯林斯词典》选择“一次性的”作为其年度词汇,指的是用后即弃的一次性产品。

一起来看看入选《牛津词典》年度词汇的还有哪些:

Cakeism  蛋糕主义

Primarily a word used in the UK, cakeism is the belief that it is possible to enjoy or take advantage of both of two desirable but mutually exclusive alternatives at once.

主要在英国使用,指的是相信有可能同时享受或利用到两种同样令人满意但又互斥的方案。

 

Gammon  腌猪腿

Typically used in the UK as a derogatory term for an older middle-class white man whose face becomes flushed due to anger when expressing political (typically right-wing) opinions.

主要在英国使用,是一个贬义词,指的是在表达政治观点(通常是右翼)时由于愤怒脸涨得通红的年龄较大的中年白人男性。

 

Gaslighting  “煤气灯”

The action of manipulating someone by psychological means into accepting a false depiction of reality or doubting their own sanity.

通过心理手段让别人接受错误信息,或者怀疑自己失去理智,从而操控别人的行为。

 

Incel  非自愿独身者

Incel, short for ‘involuntarily celibate’, is used as a self-descriptor by members of an online subculture who typically deem themselves chronically unable to attract romantic or sexual partners. They hold views that are hostile towards to women and to men who are sexually active.

Incel是“非自愿独身者”的缩写,是网络上一些亚文化人群的自我描述用语。他们认为自己一直无法恋爱,也没有性伴侣。他们对女性和性生活活跃的男性都抱有敌视态度。

 

Orbiting  网魂不散

Orbiting is the action of abruptly withdrawing from direct communication with someone while still monitoring, and sometimes responding to, their activity on social media.

网魂不散指的是突然切断与某人的直接联系,但却又在社交媒体上关注、甚至有时回应某人的行为。

 

Overtourism  过度旅游

An excessive number of tourist visits to a popular destination or attraction, resulting in damage to the local environment and historical sites and in poorer quality of life for residents.

前往一个受欢迎的旅游目的地或景点的游客人数过多,导致当地环境和历史遗迹遭到破坏, 当地居民的生活质量下降。

 

Techlash  技术抵制

A strong and widespread negative reaction to the growing power and influence of large technology companies, particularly those based in Silicon Valley.

对大型科技公司日益增长的权力和影响的强烈且广泛的抵制,特别是对在硅谷的大公司。

 

英文来源:卫报CNN每日邮报

翻译&编辑:yaning

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