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2020年8月新闻热词汇总

中国日报网 2020-09-01 14:18

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本月,北京迎入汛以来最强降雨,三峡水库迎来最大洪峰;新发地农产品批发市场分期复市;《新型冠状病毒肺炎诊疗方案(试行第八版)》印发;TikTok公司对美国政府行政令发起诉讼;创业板注册制首批18家企业在深交所上市;首都功能核心区控制性详细规划获批。

 

海底高铁隧道 undersea high-speed railway tunnel

The technical proposal for the Ningbo-Zhoushan Railway, China's first high-speed rail with an undersea segment connecting the Zhoushan Islands in East China's Zhejiang province with the mainland, has been completed, the local Ningbo Evening News reported on Saturday.
据《宁波晚报》8月1日报道,中国首条连接浙江舟山岛和大陆的跨海高铁工程——甬(宁波)舟(舟山)铁路项目的技术方案已经完成。

 

【单词讲解】
高铁是high-speed railway,而海底高铁隧道就是undersea high-speed railway tunnel。由于这条海底高铁隧道是甬舟铁路(Ningbo-Zhoushan railway)的一部分,所以翻译成high-speed rail with an undersea segment。

 

7月30日,历经2年多,由铁四院勘察设计的“隧道风险评估与金塘海底隧道关键技术方案”,通过了以中国工程院院士钱七虎为组长的专家组评审(passed assessment from a panel of experts headed by Qian Qihu),标志着这条世界最长海底高铁隧道(world's longest undersea high-speed railway tunnel)的技术方案已准备就绪。

 

作为甬舟铁路工程的一部分,金塘海底隧道全长16.2公里,海底盾构段长10.87公里,最大埋深78米,直径14米(at a maximum optimal depth of 78 meters with a diameter of 14 meters, the undersea tunnel's shield will reach 10.87 kilometers in length upon completion),是国内首条海底高铁隧道,建成后将成为世界最长海底高铁隧道。甬舟铁路全长77公里,设计时速250公里,主体工程采用桥+隧组合,被誉为“铁路版港珠澳大桥”。宁波北仑至金塘岛,设计为海底隧道;金塘岛至舟山岛,设计为主跨1488米的特大桥。

 

港珠澳大桥越海隧道全长6.7公里,属沉管公路隧道(submerged highway tunnel/immersed tunnel for road traffic),而金塘隧道是高铁盾构隧道(high speed shield railway tunnel),16.2公里占全线五分之一里程,都将沉在东海,技术难度极大。

 

甬舟铁路建成后,将结束舟山群岛不通火车的历史,届时从宁波到舟山只要30分钟,从杭州至舟山只需80分钟(it will shorten travel time between Ningbo to Zhoushan to 30 minutes and to one hour and 20 minutes between Hangzhou to Zhoushan)。专家表示,该项目的建设,将使我国隧道、桥梁设计水平提升到一个新高度。

 

直播带货 livestream marketing

A regulation on managing livestreaming hosts of different levels and classifications is being drafted in China as a move to improve the cultural taste of online content and keep the development of the industry in order, the Cyberspace Administration said on its official website Tuesday.
中国国家互联网信息办公室8月4日在官方网站表示,将研究制定主播账号分级分类管理规范,提升直播平台文化品位,规范行业发展。

 

【单词讲解】
现在很火的网络直播的英文表达就是livestreaming,主播就是livestreaming host,直播带货就是sell products through livestreaming platforms,而限时秒杀的表达则是time-limited sec-killing。

 

国家网信办负责人表示,将研究制定主播账号分级分类管理规范(regulation on managing livestreaming hosts of different levels and classifications),明确直播行业打赏行为管理规则(clarify how to give tips to livestreaming hosts),将内容供给导向、打赏金额标准、主播带货资格与直播账号分级分类紧密关联(how many tips a livestreaming host can be given and who is allowed to sell products through livestreaming platforms will also be regulated, depending on the host's level and classification),建构激励高质量信息内容供给的直播账号信用评价体系(credit evaluation system for livestreaming accounts)。

 

国家网信办负责人介绍,专项整治开展两个月来,各部门依法处置158款违法违规直播平台(illegal livestreaming platforms),挂牌督办38起涉直播重点案件。督促平台清理有害账号及信息(clear up harmful accounts and information),封禁一批违法违规网络主播(ban streamers violating laws and regulations),明确直播打赏作为平台和主播履行服务合同的法律性质,规范管理工作稳步推进。


宿舍型公租房 dormitory-style public rental housing

Dormitory-style housing will be provided for migrant workers in Shanghai by the end of this year, according to Wang Zhen, director of the Shanghai Housing Administration Bureau.

上海市房管局局长王桢表示,年底前将为上海民工提供宿舍型公租房。

 

【单词讲解】

宿舍型公租房的英语表达就是dormitory-style public rental housing,是将普通公租房拆套后提供合租(flatsharing)的房源,目的是解决环卫工人、公交司机、家政服务人员、快递小哥等基础服务行业人群的住房问题。

 

At least one public rental housing neighborhood in each district will provide dormitory-style accommodations for a minimum of 200 migrant workers in this pilot project, according to Wang Zhen.

王桢表示,每个区公租房中将至少落实1处可入住人数不少于200人的宿舍型或拆套合租试点项目。


Some 177,000 apartments have been provided in the public rental housing neighborhoods throughout Shanghai, with nearly 627,000 individuals and families benefiting from the service by the end of May.

截至今年5月底,上海全市公租房累计建设筹措房源17.7万套,累计享受保障62.7万户。


It is estimated that at least 5,000 migrant workers who work in these key public service areas will be accommodated in this housing by the end of the year, a rise of more than 60 percent from the previous year.

预计到今年底,上海市筹、区筹公租房保障公共服务类重点行业企业职工户数达到5000户左右,比2019年底大幅增长60%以上。


上海市房管局还鼓励用人单位尽责,通过补贴部分租金(pay part of employees' public rental housing bills)等方式,进一步减轻入住职工租金负担。


放宽新能源汽车限购 relax curbs on new energy vehicle purchases

In the second half of 2020, the country will take key measures, such as relaxing curbs on new energy vehicle purchases, to spur domestic consumption, Ning Jizhe, vice-minister of the National Development and Reform Commission, said in an interview with China Central Television.
国家发改委副主任宁吉喆在央视专访中表示,2020年下半年,我国将采取关键措施来刺激国内消费,比如放宽新能源汽车限购。

 

【单词讲解】

放宽新能源汽车限购的英文表达是relax curbs on new energy vehicle purchases,限购就是curb the purchase或purchase restrictions。实行汽车限购政策的地区每年将设定汽车购买配额(vehicle purchase quotas),通过车牌摇号(a lottery for license plates)来分发配额。

 

下半年,我国将加快推动智慧零售(smart retail)、在线教育(online education)等新型消费高质量发展,推动汽车和家电消费转型升级,鼓励限购城市适当增加汽车购置限额(encourage cities that have restrictions on car purchases to increase the number of car registrations as appropriate),放宽新能源汽车限购,对购置新能源汽车等给予适当补贴(offer subsidies for the purchase of new energy vehicles)。

 

"In the second half of this year, China will further improve the environment for private investment and adopt more supportive policies to encourage private sector engagement in epidemic response, public health, logistics, emergency stockpiles and other weak links. More efforts are also needed to facilitate bank lending for the private sector," Ning said.
宁吉喆还称,下半年我国将进一步完善民间投资的环境,加大政策支持力度,支持民间资本参与应对疫情、公共卫生、仓储物流、应急储备等短板领域的建设,同时要引导银行推出适应民营企业特点的信贷产品。

 

Ning said the country will push ahead with major investment in new infrastructure, new-type urbanization and key projects for national development such as transport and water infrastructure, and focus on weak links in fields such as public health, emergency medical supplies, transportation and energy.
宁吉喆表示,将在投资方面重点推进新型基础设施新型城镇化,交通水利等重大工程、“两新一重”建设,加大公共卫生应急物资储备,交通能源等领域补短板力度。

 

“夜游长城”night tours of the Badaling Great Wall

A two-month-long Great Wall cultural festival opened in Beijing Saturday, which allows tourists to visit the Badaling section of the ancient wall on weekend nights.
为期两个月的长城文化节8月8日在北京启动,文化节期间,公众可在周末夜游八达岭长城。

据介绍,八达岭长城“夜游长城”(night tours of the Badaling Great Wall)旅游项目是京范儿(FUN)消费季重要组成部分,旨在推动北京消费季夜间经济(nighttime economy)发展,丰富长城文化带建设内容。文化节期间,该活动每周五、周六将定期面向公众开放,开放时间为7时30分至9时30分。中秋节、国庆节还将单独开放。

An evening gala of the Mid-Autumn Festival, a cultural fair on Chinese traditional costumes and online lectures including one about cultural heritage protection that is co-organized by the Hadrian's Wall of Britain, are also scheduled during the festival.
中秋晚会、华服节日文化市集,以及与英国哈德良长城联合组织的文化遗产在线讲座等活动也将在文化节期间举行。

长城于1987年被列入联合国教科文组织《世界遗产名录》(UNESCO World Heritage Site),成为我国第一批成功入选的世界遗产。长城北京段(Beijing sections of the Great Wall)全长520公里,八达岭长城是游客到访最多的一段。

为了控制游客数量,八达岭长城景区管理部门从2019年6月1日起实行全网络实名制售票( real-name online ticketing ),每日游客总量控制在6.5万人次。

 

制裁美方人员 sanctions against US officials

China on Monday announced sanctions against 11 US officials with egregious records on Hong Kong affairs, according to Chinese Foreign Ministry spokesperson Zhao Lijian at a press briefing. According to Zhao, China's decision stems from the wrongdoings of the US side. The sanctions, effective from Monday, are applied to US officials, including Senators Marco Rubio, Ted Cruz, Josh Hawley, Tom Cotton and Pat Toomey, Representative Chris Smith, and Carl Gershman, President of the National Endowment for Democracy, Derek Mitchell, President of the National Democratic Institute, Daniel Twining, President of the International Republican Institute, Kenneth Roth, Executive Director of Human Rights Watch, and Michael J. Abramowitz, President of Freedom House.
外交部发言人赵立坚8月10日在例行记者会上表示,针对美方错误行径,中方决定即日起对在涉港问题上表现恶劣的美联邦参议员卢比奥、克鲁兹、霍利、科顿、图米,联邦众议员史密斯,以及美国国家民主基金会总裁格什曼、美国国际事务民主协会总裁米德伟、美国国际共和研究所总裁特温宁、“人权观察”执行主席罗斯、“自由之家”总裁阿布拉莫维茨实施制裁。

【单词讲解】

这里的egregious是一个意思表达很强烈的形容词,读音是[ɪˈgri:dʒiəs],多表示“极其恶劣的,极坏的”等意思,比如,an egregious lie(弥天大谎),egregious violation of rules(严重违反规定), egregious acts of brutality(极其野蛮的行为)等。


赵立坚表示:

Since Hong Kong's return to the motherland, "one country, two systems" has enormous success. Hong Kong residents enjoy unprecedented democracy and rights and freedoms in all accordance with law. This is an objective fact no unbiased people will deny. In the meantime, there are new risks and challenges in the implementation of "one country, two systems", the most prominent of which is heightened national security risk.
香港回归祖国以来,“一国两制”取得举世公认的成功,香港居民依法享有前所未有的民主权利,依法充分行使各种自由。这是任何不带偏见的人都无法否认的客观事实。同时,“一国两制”实践过程中也面临着新的风险和挑战,突出问题就是香港特区的国家安全风险日益凸显。


When national security in Hong Kong is undermined and confronted with real threats and the SAR government had difficulty in completing national security legislation on its own, the central government took decisive measures to establish and improve at the state level a legal system and enforcement mechanisms to safeguard the Hong Kong SAR's national security. The Law on Safeguarding National Security in Hong Kong targets a small number of criminals who gravely jeopardize national security and protects the law-abiding Hong Kong residents, who represent the vast majority.
在香港特区国家安全受到现实威胁和严重损害、特区政府难以自行完成维护国家安全立法的情况下,中国中央政府采取果断举措,从国家层面建立健全了香港特区维护国家安全的法律制度和执行机制。香港国安法惩治的是极少数严重危害国家安全的犯罪分子,保护的是绝大多数守法的香港居民。


Hong Kong is part of China and its affairs are entirely China's internal affairs which allow no foreign interfere. We urge the US to grasp the situation, correct its mistake, and immediately stop meddling in Hong Kong affairs and China's internal affairs.
香港是中国的香港,香港事务纯属中国内政,任何外部势力无权干涉。中方敦促美方认清形势,纠正错误,立即停止插手香港事务、干涉中国内政。


环比 month on month

In June, China's civil aviation industry handled an average of 10,820 flights daily, up 14.1 percent from that in May, statistics from the Civil Aviation Administration of China (CAAC) showed. In July, the industry handled a total of 370,000 flights, or an average of 11,941 flights daily. More than 36.99 million air passenger trips were made in July, a rise of 20.35 percent from June.
民航总局的数据显示,6月,民航日均航班量10820班,环比上升14.1%;7月,共保障各类飞行37万班,日均航班量为11941架次;共完成旅客运输量3699余万人次,环比增长20.35%。

 

【单词讲解】

在一些统计类的报道中,我们经常会看到“环比”、“同比”这样的表述,这两种比较方式的区别在于:环比,就是跟上一个周期比;同比,就是跟去年同期比。比如,上面的报道中,6月的日均航班量跟5月的日均航班量相比,就是“环比”,除了报道中的表述方式以外,我们还可以用形容词形式month-on-month或者副词形式的month on month来表示,那么上文的句子就可以改写为“In June, China's civil aviation industry handled an average of 10,820 flights daily, an increase of 14.1 percent month-on-month (up 14.1 percent month on month)”。

如果用今年5月的数据跟去年5月的数据相比就是“同比”,英文用形容词year-on-year或者副词短语year on year表示,比如:There were 2.95 million delivery staff at Meituan Dianping at the end of June, an increase of 16.4 percent year-on-year(今年6月底,美团点评共有外卖人员295万,同比增加了16.4%)。In July, the share price has grown 20% year on year.(7月份,股票价格同比上涨了20%)。


民航总局表示,当前民航疫情防控工作面临的形势和任务依然复杂严峻,要完善常态化防控机制。


Continuous efforts should be made in response to the epidemic situation in the coming autumn-winter season to prevent a resurgence of the epidemic, the CAAC said.
要做好秋冬季疫情防控准备,切实采取有效措施防止疫情反弹。


The CAAC will strictly enforce the reward and suspension mechanism and adjust flights in a scientific manner to prevent imported cases through the civil aviation sector.
严格执行熔断和奖励机制,科学动态调整航班,扎实做好外防输入各项工作,严防疫情通过民航途径传播。


最强降雨 the heaviest downpour

Beijing experienced the heaviest downpour since the start of this year's flood season on Wednesday evening after a day of on-again, off-again downpours that saw flights canceled, parks closed, homestay hotels shut and city workers on standby for floods and other emergencies.
经过白天断断续续的降雨之后,8月12日夜间,北京遭遇今年入汛以来最强降雨。此次降雨导致航班取消、公园和民宿关闭,市政洪涝应急响应工作人员待命。

【单词讲解】

这里的on-again, off-again是一个形容词短语,表示“时断时续的”,比如: on-again, off-again relationship(分分合合的恋情),on-again, off-again fads(起起伏伏的时尚潮流)等。


针对此次强降雨过程,8月11日至12日,北京六预警齐发(issue six alerts),先后发布了暴雨黄色(后升级橙色)、地质灾害(geological disaster)黄色、山洪灾害(flash flood disaster)风险、洪水蓝色、雷电黄色、大风(gale)蓝色(后升级黄色)等预警。

 

By 5 am on Thursday, total rainfall in four districts-Haidian, Fengtai, Shijingshan and Changping-could exceed 100 millimeters, as measured starting at 11 am on Wednesday, according to the municipal meteorological station.
北京市气象台表示,8月12日11时至13日5时,海淀、丰台、石景山以及昌平四个区的累计降雨量超过100毫米。

截至13日零时,全市平均降雨量(average precipitation)达59.3毫米;城区平均降雨量达89.7毫米,城区最大降雨量(the highest precipitation)在海淀香山,达152.8毫米;全市最大降雨量在昌平沙河水库,达155.0毫米。全市平均降雨量达暴雨级别。


【知识点】

按照气象学的概念,不同级别的降雨是按照24小时内的降雨量(precipitation)来划分的。具体划分标准如下:

小雨(light rain):1d(或24h)降雨量小于10mm者。

中雨(moderate rain):1d(或24h)降雨量10~25mm者。

大雨(heavy rain):1d(或24h)降雨量25~50mm者。

暴雨(torrential rain):1d(或24h)降雨量50~100mm者。

大暴雨(downpour):1d(或24h)降雨量100~200mm者。

特大暴雨(heavy downpour):1d(或24h)降雨量在200mm以上者。

Drizzle和rain的区别主要看雨滴(water droplet)大小,雨滴直径在0.2到0.5毫米之间的叫drizzle(细雨,毛毛雨),雨滴直径在0.5毫米以上的就都是rain了。

Shower则是个另类,指的是在不同时间段、在不同地区出现的间歇性的“阵雨”,从这个“阵”字我们可以看出,这个shower可能短时间在某地降雨强度很大,但是持续时间一般不会太长。如果说部分地区有“零星阵雨”,我们就可以用scattered shower来表示。


At least 291 flights have been canceled at the city's two airports, Beijing Capital International Airport and Daxing International Airport, on Wednesday, according to airport authorities.
机场方面表示,8月12日,北京首都国际机场和北京大兴国际机场至少有291个航班被取消。

Up to 191 sightseeing areas in Beijing's mountain districts were closed to the public, 5,490 homestay hotels were told to stop taking in guests, and 192 bus routes suspended operation,according to the city's flood control office.
市防汛办表示,当日北京关闭191个山区景区,5490个民宿,公交线路停运192条。

Some 110,000 staff members in different departments in Beijing were on standby for any problems arising from the rainstorms.
北京市各部门防汛备勤人员11万余人。

【单词讲解】

这里的on standby表示“随时待命、随叫随到”,比如:Five ambulances are on standby at the port.(港口有5辆救护车待命)。I'll be on standby over Christmas.(圣诞节期间我随时待命)。此外,on standby也可以表示出行前等待退票的“候补”状态,比如: The passenger is waiting on standby for an available seat.(那位乘客正在等待候补席位)。

 

新发地市场 Xinfadi market

8月13日,北京市第164场新冠肺炎疫情防控工作新闻发布会召开。会上表示,新发地农产品批发市场将于8月15日起分期复市,9月10日前全面复市。

Xinfadi market, source of a cluster of COVID-19 infections in Beijing in June, will reopen to the public on Saturday but only as a wholesale operation, a municipal government official said on Thursday. Zhou Xinchun, deputy head of Fengtai district, where the market is located, said the authority has upgraded its operations to make all buyers, vehicles and goods traceable after it reopens to the public.
丰台区政府常务副区长周新春表示,新发地市场将于8月15日起复市,但是只开展批发业务。管理部门已经升级了该市场的运营系统,市场重新开放后,买方、车辆以及货物全部实现可追溯。新发地市场是6月份北京市新冠肺炎聚集性疫情的发生地。

【单词讲解】

在商务类英语中,我们经常会遇到retailer、wholesaler、distributor、outlet这一类词汇,他们有什么区别呢?总体来说,这四个词可以分成两组,一组是 retailer 和 outlet,均与“零售”有关,另一组是 wholesaler 和 distributor,多与“批发”有关。Retailer 作为“零售商”规模可大可小,公交车站旁边的报刊亭也算 retailer;outlet 可指某个品牌的专营店,也可指折扣店,对于后面的这个意思,可能很多人都比较熟悉,各类“奥特莱斯”outlets 其实就是各种名牌商品折扣店的聚集地;distributor 指的是某些公司产品的“分销商”,而 wholesaler 作为“批发商”并不仅限于代理某一种产品。比如:furniture wholesaler 可以是各个不同品牌家具的代理批发商。


根据安排,复市后,新发地市场严格实行批零分离,主市场不再面向个人零售(the market will not serve individuals)。市场的批发环节采用“卖方注册制、买方会员制”。

Buyers and sellers need to register before they trade in the market. All buyers and sellers have to make reservations, provide information including vehicle license plates, trading area, time and gates where their vehicles' enter before each trade.
买卖双方都需先通过登记注册后才能进入市场采购。每次交易前,买卖双方均需预约,并提供车辆牌照、所在交易区、交易时间以及车辆进场入口等信息。

Only the vehicles of vendors and buyers will be allowed to enter the market. Anyone coming into the market must first pass a facial recognition system as well as temperature checks.
市场只允许买卖双方的车辆进入。所有进入市场人员均须进行人脸识别及体温检测。

周边设立便民菜市场

A nearby convenience vegetable market of 1,000 square meters opened to public on July 31. It has 22 stands selling vegetables, fruit, oil and eggs. Neighborhoods nearby are the main customers.
在新发地市场外部新设立了一个1000平方米的便民菜市场,满足周边老百姓的生活需求。据了解,该菜市场已于7月31日对外正式营业,共有22个摊位,零售果蔬、粮油、蛋类等。

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