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2020年5月新闻热词汇总

中国日报网 2020-05-31 10:00

5月,长征五号B运载火箭首次飞行任务取得圆满成功;2020珠峰高程测量登山队成功登顶珠穆朗玛峰;全国各类学校陆续开始复课;低风险地区中小学生在校不用戴口罩;欧洲各国开始逐步解除疫情防控封锁政策;全国两会胜利召开。


长征五号B运载火箭 Long March-5B carrier rocket

5月5日,长征五号B运载火箭首次飞行任务取得圆满成功,拉开了我国空间站在轨建造阶段飞行任务的序幕。

The China Manned Space Agency said the flight of the carrier rocket Long March-5B successfully verified the overall design and technologies of the new rocket and also marked the beginning of the third stage in China's manned space program, which aims to put a manned space station into orbit.
中国载人航天工程办公室表示,长征五号B运载火箭首飞成功,验证了新型火箭的总体设计和技术,同时也标志着我国载人航天工程第三阶段——空间站在轨建造——拉开序幕。

【知识点】

1992年,党中央作出实施载人航天工程“三步走”发展战略(three-step manned space program):

第一步,发射载人飞船(manned spaceship),建成初步配套的试验性载人飞船工程,开展空间应用实验。2013年神舟5号载人飞船任务顺利完成。

第二步,突破航天员出舱活动技术(extra-vehicular activity)、空间飞行器的交会对接技术(rendezvous and docking),发射空间实验室(space lab),解决有一定规模的、短期有人照料的空间应用问题。

2017年4月20日19时41分,天舟一号货运飞船(cargo spacecraft Tianzhou-1)成功发射。此次任务是中国载人航天工程空间实验室阶段(space laboratory stage of China manned space engineering)的收官之战,标志着中国载人航天工程胜利完成“三步走”战略中的“第二步”任务,为空间站建设任务奠定坚实技术基础。

第三步,建造空间站,解决有较大规模的、长期有人照料的空间应用问题(operate a permanent manned space station)。


按计划,我国空间站将于2022年前后完成建造,一共规划12次飞行任务。

After the maiden flight of the Long March-5B, the core module of the space station, named Tianhe, and two experiment capsules, named Wentian and Mengtian, will be sent into space.
此次任务后,将先后发射天和核心舱、问天实验舱和梦天实验舱。

During the construction of the space station, China plans to launch four Shenzhou manned spaceships and four Tianzhou cargo spacecraft to transport astronauts and supplement materials
其间,规划发射4艘神舟载人飞船和4艘天舟货运飞船,进行航天员乘组轮换和货物补给。

The assembly of the station's core module has been completed, and the two experiment capsules and the scientific payloads are under development.
目前,我国空间站核心舱已完成正样产品总装,问天实验舱和梦天实验舱正在开展初样研制,空间科学应用载荷已陆续转入正样研制。

The crewmembers to participate in the construction of the space station have been selected and are trained for the missions. China's third batch of reserve astronauts will be selected around July.
执行空间站建造阶段飞行任务的航天员乘组已经选定,正在开展任务训练。我国第三批预备航天员选拔工作也将于今年7月完成。


珠峰高程测量 measure the height of Mount Qomolangma

5月6日,2020珠峰高程测量登山队出发仪式在珠峰登山大本营举行。

 

A team of over 30 Chinese surveyors Wednesday left a base camp at Mount Qomolangma for a higher spot on their journey to the peak, as they endeavour to accomplish a mission to remeasure the height of the world's highest mountain.
30多名测量队员5月6日从珠峰大本营向更高海拔出发,开启珠峰高程登顶测量。珠穆朗玛峰是世界最高峰。

The team, consisting of professional climbers and surveyors from the Ministry of Natural Resources (MNR), will seize the current weather window and attempt for the summit at the optimal time.
此次测量登山队由专业登山运动员和自然资源部的测绘人员构成。队员们力争抓住近日的好天气窗口,择日登顶测量。

珠峰高程测量(measure the height of Mount Qomolangma)的核心是精确测定珠峰高度,这同时也是一项代表国家测绘科技发展水平的综合性测绘工程。

此次珠峰高程测量的成果可用于地球动力学板块运动(geodynamics)等领域研究。精确的峰顶雪深、气象和风速等数据(accurate data on snow depth, meteorology and wind speed at the summit ),将为冰川监测(glacier monitoring)、生态环境保护(environmental protection)等方面的研究提供第一手资料。

本次珠峰高程测量工作重点在以下五方面实现技术创新和突破:

一是依托北斗卫星导航系统(the BeiDou Navigation Satellite System),开展测量工作;

二是国产测绘仪器装备(homegrown surveying equipment)全面担纲本次测量任务;

三是应用航空重力技术(airborne gravimeter),提升测量精度;

四是利用实景三维技术(3D Interactive Virtual Reality),直观展示珠峰自然资源状况;

五是测绘队员登顶观测(take the measurement at the peak of the mountain),获取可靠测量数据。

Members of a Chinese surveying team reached Mt. Qomolangma summit at 11 am Wednesday.
5月27日上午11时整, 2020珠峰高程测量登山队成功登上珠穆朗玛峰峰顶。


500米以上建筑 buildings taller than 500 meters

住建部和国家发改委联合下发通知,要求严格限制各地盲目规划建设超高层“摩天楼”。

 

No buildings taller than 500 meters will be allowed unless their plans are approved by the two central government bodies following strict examinations, said the document.
通知指出,一般不得新建500米以上建筑,各地因特殊情况确需建设的,应进行严格审查后上报住建部和发改委复核。

Provincial housing and urban-rural development departments are authorized to approve construction of buildings over 250 meters in height, though plans for such buildings need to be registered at the ministry.
新建250米以上建筑由省级住房和城乡建设部门进行建筑方案审查,并报住房和城乡建设部备案。

Management will be intensified for construction of big public facilities, including stadiums, museums, exhibition halls and theaters, to prevent imitation in architecture designs.
各地要对体育场馆、展览馆、博物馆、大剧院等超大体量公共建筑进行严格管理,严禁建筑模仿、山寨行为。

同时,各地应加强自然生态、历史人文、景观敏感等重点地段城市与建筑风貌管理,健全法规制度,加强历史文化遗存(historical and cultural remains)、景观风貌保护,严格管控新建建筑,不拆除历史建筑(historical architecture)、不拆传统民居(traditional dwellings)、不破坏地形地貌、不砍老树。


免戴口罩政策 mask-free policy

国家卫健委、教育部日前制定《中小学校新冠肺炎疫情防控技术方案(修订版)》(以下简称《方案》)。

Primary and secondary school students no longer need to wear masks on campuses in areas with a low risk of COVID-19, according to the protocols.
《方案》明确,低风险地区校园内学生不需佩戴口罩。

Teachers of such schools are also allowed to go mask-free when giving class, while it is not recommended for infants and kids to wear masks in nurseries and kindergartens.
老师授课时不需戴口罩,同时,幼托机构幼童不建议戴口罩。

Janitors, sanitation workers and canteen workers are required to wear masks.
校门值守人员、清洁人员及食堂工作人员等应当佩戴口罩。


在控制校内人员密度方面《方案》要求:

Schools, where conditions allow, should ensure that students are seated at least one meter apart from each other.
有条件的学校,应保证每名学生前后左右间距保持1米。

The protocols advised that large classes be divided up into smaller ones, or that students of large classes go to school at staggered hours.
对学生人数较多的班级可分班教学或错时上学。

Dormitories of boarding schools should not be located in the basement, the protocols read, adding that there should be no more than six students allocated to each dorm room.
寄宿学校的宿舍不应位于地下室,同时,每间宿舍入住的学生不得超过6名。


出现疑似感染症状应急处置方面,《方案》要求:

Staff and students should report their health conditions and whereabouts in the last 14 days to the school before returning to campus. Also, schools are required to urge people with symptoms, including fever, fatigue, dry cough or diarrhea, to seek medical help.
教职工及学生返校前应报告健康状况及过去14天的活动轨迹,同时要求有发热、乏力、干咳或腹泻等症状的人员就医排查。

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