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2021年3月新闻热词汇总

中国日报网 2021-04-01 09:10

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3月热词有:全国两会胜利召开,十三届全国人大四次会议将审议通过全国人大常委会关于提请审议《全国人民代表大会关于完善香港特别行政区选举制度的决定(草案)》的议案;我国新冠疫苗接种人数超过1亿;中美高层战略对话;三星堆遗址出土文物“上新”;建党百年庆祝活动标识等。


单针接种疫苗 single dose vaccine

2月25日,由中国工程院院士、军事科学院军事医学研究院研究员陈薇领衔的团队研发的我国重组新冠病毒疫苗(腺病毒载体新冠疫苗),获国家药品监督管理局附条件批准(conditional market approval)上市注册申请。

The vaccine, called Ad5-nCoV, has an efficacy rate of 65.7 percent at preventing symptomatic cases and is 90.9 percent effective in preventing severe disease with a single injection, according to interim analysis of late-stage human trials released in February.
今年2月发布的三期人体试验中期结果显示,这款名为Ad5-nCoV的疫苗单针接种后,对抗轻症的有效性为65.7%,对重症的有效性为90.9%。

【知识点】

疫情发生以来,国务院联防联控机制科研攻关组专门设立疫苗研发专班,按照灭活疫苗(inactivated vaccines)、重组蛋白疫苗(recombinant protein vaccines)、腺病毒载体疫苗(adenovirus vector vaccines)、减毒流感病毒载体活疫苗(vaccines using attenuated influenza virus as vectors)、核酸疫苗(nucleic acid vaccines)5条技术路线共布局12项研发任务。


中国疫苗行业协会会长封多佳介绍,重组新冠腺病毒载体疫苗和我们熟知的新冠灭活疫苗在原理、制备方法等方面都不相同,但最终的免疫效果是一样的。腺病毒载体疫苗(adenovirus vector vaccines)本质上是核酸疫苗的一种,就是将病毒的核酸片段装到经过安全处理的腺病毒(genetically modified adenovirus)身上,再注射到人体内,这样可以最大限度地发挥病毒核酸的抗原活性,激发身体的免疫作用(induce an immune response)。灭活疫苗(inactivated vaccines)则是将病毒杀死,消除致病性,保留免疫性,同样是为了激发身体的免疫作用。


Targeting people aged above 18, the vaccine can be transported and stored at a temperature ranging from 2 to 8 degrees Celsius.
该疫苗接种对象为18岁以上人群,可在2至8摄氏度间运输和存储。

 


腺病毒载体疫苗单针保护期至少6个月

陈薇院士接受央视采访时表示:

Data shows a single dose should provide protection for six months, and there is no need to take an additional shot during the six-month period.
数据显示,单针接种产生的保护期为6个月,6个月内无需再接种。


We also created booster shots for inoculation after six months, and with a single booster, we can increase the immune response by 10 to 20 times. Based on available data, we estimate two shots can provide protection for two years.
我们也做了6个月以后的加强针,再打一针,免疫反应可以有10倍、20倍的增高。根据数据,我们推测在两针之后,达到两年的免疫持久性。

 


年产能可达5亿剂


陈薇院士表示:

China is capable of producing 500 million doses of the vaccine annually, which can cover 500 million people.
我国年产能可达到5亿剂,相当于是5亿人的接种。

 

宁愿备而不用,不能用而不备

In regards to the vaccine's efficacy against mutated strains of SARS-CoV-2, the virus responsible for COVID-19, Chen said they are keeping a close eye on the situation and have begun developing vaccines for these new variants. "We may not need these vaccines, but we cannot be caught unprepared."
至于该疫苗对变异毒株的有效性,陈薇表示,他们团队在密切关注相关情况,且早已启动针对变异株的疫苗研发,这个疫苗不一定用得上,但宁愿备而不用,不能用而不备。

 

国家综合立体交通网 national comprehensive transport network

中共中央、国务院印发《国家综合立体交通网规划纲要》(以下简称《规划纲要》)。

Amid efforts to optimize the country's comprehensive transport layout, the total scale of the national comprehensive transport network will reach about 700,000 km by 2035, excluding the mileage of overseas sections of international land passages, air and sea routes and postal routes. Among them, there will be about 200,000 km of railways, 460,000 km of highways and 25,000 km of high-grade waterways, with 27 major coastal ports, 36 major inland ports, about 400 civil-transport airports and about 80 postal express-delivery hubs, the guidelines said.
《规划纲要》提出,优化全面交通布局,到2035年,国家综合立体交通网实体线网总规模合计70万公里左右(不含国际陆路通道境外段、空中及海上航路、邮路里程)。其中铁路20万公里左右,公路46万公里左右,高等级航道2.5万公里左右。沿海主要港口27个,内河主要港口36个,民用运输机场400个左右,邮政快递枢纽80个左右。

【单词讲解】

这里用来表示“布局”的名词layout来源于动词短语lay out,表示“规划,部署,设计,展示”等意思,比如:The layout of the apartment was good, but the kitchen was too small(这个房子的格局不错,就是厨房太小了),She designed the page layout for the new magazine(新杂志的页面设计是她做的),She laid out her plans for the new house(她展示了对新房子的布局规划)。

 

《规划纲要》提出的发展目标包括:

By 2035, the country's transport network should be convenient, cost-effective, green, intelligent and safe.
到2035年,基本建成便捷顺畅、经济高效、绿色集约、智能先进、安全可靠的现代化高质量国家综合立体交通网。


The transport network should feature higher domestic and international connectivity, multi-channel access to major cities, and effective coverage of county-level regions.
实现国际国内互联互通、全国主要城市立体畅达、县级节点有效覆盖。


China should be at the global forefront in terms of the quality, intelligence and green levels of transport infrastructure.
交通基础设施质量、智能化与绿色化水平居世界前列。


By the middle of the century, a modern, high-quality and comprehensive national transport network will be built in an all-round way, with a world-class transport infrastructure system.
到本世纪中叶,全面建成现代化高质量国家综合立体交通网,拥有世界一流的交通基础设施体系。


其中提出“全国123出行交通圈”和“全球123快货物流圈”两个概念。


“全国123出行交通圈(1-2-3 travel range)”指:都市区1小时通勤(1-hour commuting in urban aresa)、城市群2小时通达(2-hour travel time between city clusters)、全国主要城市3小时覆盖(3-hour travel time between major cities)。

“全球123快货物流圈(1-2-3 logistics range)”指:国内1天送达(domestic 1-day delivery)、周边国家2天送达(2-day delivery to neighboring countries)、全球主要城市3天送达(3-day delivery to major cities around the world)。

 

《规划纲要》还提出:

China will work to build a national comprehensive transport-hub system that consists of integrated transport-hub clusters, hub cities and hub ports, the guidelines said, stressing faster construction of about 20 international comprehensive transport-hub cities and about 80 national ones.
我国将建设综合交通枢纽集群、枢纽城市及枢纽港站“三位一体”的国家综合交通枢纽系统。加快建设20个左右国际性综合交通枢纽城市以及80个左右全国性综合交通枢纽城市。

 


两会 two sessions

3月4日下午,全国政协十三届四次会议(the fourth session of the 13th National Committee of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference)开幕。3月5日,十三届全国人大四次会议(the fourth session of the 13th National People's Congress)开幕。

今年是中国共产党建党100周年,也是“十四五”规划开局之年(the start of the 14th Five-Year Plan period)。处于重要历史交汇点上的中国,将如何擘画新阶段的发展方向与路径?今年两会期间这些议题值得期待和关注。

* 经济发展目标 economic development goals

2021年的中国发展,挑战与机遇并存,特别是疫情和国际环境依然存在诸多不确定性。

Amid the COVID-19 pandemic, China was the only major economy in the world to register positive growth in 2020, with its GDP expanding 2.3 percent to hit 101.6 trillion yuan (about 15.7 trillion US dollars) in the year.
受新冠肺炎疫情影响,中国2020年国内生产总值达到101.6万亿元,增长2.3%,是全世界唯一一个实现经济正增长的主要经济体。


Last year, no specific GDP growth figure was set in the government work report due to the uncertainty brought by COVID-19 and the world economic and trade environment.
去年,考虑到新冠肺炎疫情的不确定性以及全世界经济贸易整体环境,《政府工作报告》中没有设定明确的GDP增长数值。


国务院发展研究中心宏观经济研究部研究员张立群认为,

China's economy is resilient, has potential and will maintain sustained growth in 2021. But the primary goal of economic development is not to seek a nice-looking GDP figure but to raise the quality of the growth and ensure people's well-being.
在“十四五”开局之年,中国经济有潜力、有韧性保持一定增长速度。同时,他也表示,核心目的不是为了追求数字好看,而是强调经济质量的提升与百姓福祉的保障。

 

* 双循环 dual circulation

党的十九届五中全会提出了“加快构建以国内大循环为主体、国内国际双循环相互促进的新发展格局”(the new development paradigm featuring dual circulation, in which domestic and overseas markets reinforce each other, with the domestic market as the mainstay)的重大战略部署。


The 14th Five-Year Plan will further clarify how China will implement the dual circulation strategy and achieve high-quality development.
“十四五”规划将进一步明确双循环战略实施以及实现高质量发展的具体实施方式。

北京大学国家发展研究院名誉院长林毅夫表示:

Dual circulation is seen as a strategic and win-win choice for China to reshape its international cooperation and new competitive edge.
双循环是重塑我国国际合作和竞争新优势的战略抉择,也是共赢的选择。

* 科技创新 sci-tech innovation

《中共中央关于制定国民经济和社会发展第十四个五年规划和二〇三五年远景目标的建议》提出的2035年远景目标其中一条就是:

Making major breakthroughs in core technologies in key areas, China will become a global leader in innovation.
关键核心技术实现重大突破,进入创新型国家前列。


National legislators and political advisers, many of whom are scientists and Big Tech executives, are expected to discuss the ways to build China's sci-tech strength and create an enabling environment for innovation.
人大代表和政协委员中有很多都是科学家或大型科技公司的老总,期待他们就增强中国科技实力以及创造鼓励创新的环境等问题展开讨论。


* 绿色发展 green development

2020年9月的第七十五届联合国大会一般性辩论到12月举行的气候雄心峰会,我国多次表示,二氧化碳排放力争于2030年前达到峰值(peak carbon dioxide emissions by 2030),努力争取2060年前实现碳中和(achieve carbon neutrality by 2060)。

中央经济工作会议将做好碳达峰、碳中和工作列入2021年要抓好的8大重点任务之一(one of eight policy priorities)。


In January, Minister of Ecology and Environment Huang Runqiu said China has begun formulating an action plan to peak carbon dioxide emissions before 2030 and will accelerate the transformation toward green and low-carbon development across China's society over the next 10 years.
今年1月,生态环境部部长黄润秋表示,我国已经开始编制2030年前碳排放达峰行动方案,未来10年将加快全社会向绿色低碳发展转型。

 

* 立法 legislation

2015年以来,全国人大常委会已连续6年提请全国人代会审议重要法律。

In 2019, the NPC session adopted the Foreign Investment Law. Last year, the milestone Civil Code was adopted.
2019年,全国人民代表大会通过了《外商投资法》;2020年,通过了《民法典》。

今年将提请十三届全国人大四次会议审议的,是全国人大组织法修正草案(draft amendment to the organic law)和全国人大议事规则修正草案(draft amendment to the procedural rules of the NPC)。

全国人大组织法颁布施行于1982年,全国人大议事规则颁布施行于1989年,两部法律是最高国家权力机关依法行使职权(exercise functions and powers)的重要制度保障,施行30多年来还没有进行过修改。

专家表示,全国人大及其常委会在立法(legislation)、监督(supervision)、代表(representation)等方面的工作都取得重要进展,形成了不少新经验新成果,需要在法律中予以体现。

 

关于完善香港特区选举制度的决定 decision on improving the electoral system of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (HKSAR)

十三届全国人大四次会议3月4日晚举行新闻发布会,大会发言人张业遂就会议议程和人大有关工作回答了中外记者提问。

The 13th National People's Congress (NPC), China's top legislature, will deliberate a draft decision on improving the electoral system of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (HKSAR) during its fourth annual session, according to the agenda unveiled Thursday.
3月4日发布的议程显示,十三届全国人大四次会议将审议全国人大常委会关于提请审议《全国人民代表大会关于完善香港特别行政区选举制度的决定(草案)》的议案。


在回答有关香港问题时,张业遂说,

The NPC has both the power and the responsibility to make the decision at the constitutional level to improve the electoral system of the HKSAR.
全国人民代表大会从宪制层面对完善香港特别行政区选举制度作出决定,既是全国人民代表大会的权力,也是全国人民代表大会的责任。


Calling the electoral system of the HKSAR an important part of its political structure, Zhang said what happened in recent years has proven the need to improve the system in steps with the times in order to provide a sound institutional guarantee for fully and faithfully implementing "one country, two systems" and fully implementing the principle of "patriots governing Hong Kong."
香港特别行政区选举制度是特别行政区政治体制的重要组成部分。近年来的情况表明,香港特别行政区选举制度需要与时俱进作出完善,为全面准确贯彻“一国两制”方针,全面落实“爱国者治港”原则提供健全的制度保障。

 

香港特区政府强调,要确保“一国两制”实践行稳致远,必须始终坚持“爱国者治港”。

香港特区政府发言人表示,

To ensure the steadfast and successful implementation of "one country, two systems", we must always adhere to the principle of "patriots governing Hong Kong". This principle is fundamental to national sovereignty, security, development interests, as well as the long-term prosperity of Hong Kong.
要确保“一国两制”实践行稳致远,必须始终坚持“爱国者治港”。这是事关国家主权、安全和发展利益,事关香港长期繁荣稳定的根本原则。


"Only through ‘patriots governing Hong Kong’ can the central government's overall jurisdiction over the HKSAR be effectively implemented, the constitutional order as set out by the Constitution and the Basic Law be effectively safeguarded and the long-term stability and safety of Hong Kong be achieved," he added.
只有做到“爱国者治港”,中央对特别行政区的全面管治权才能得到有效落实,宪法和香港基本法确立的宪制秩序才能得到有效维护,香港才能实现长治久安。


The spokesman said matters concerning the political system of the HKSAR “are the prerogative of the central government.”
政治体制问题是中央事权。

【单词讲解】

这里的prerogative,读作[prɪˈrɒɡətɪv],表示“独有的权利(或权力),特权”,比如:Alex makes all the big decisions - that's his prerogative as company director.
(所有重大决定都是由亚历克斯作出的——这是他作为公司主管的特权。)


“The central government has the authority and responsibility to improve the electoral system in Hong Kong. The HKSAR government respects that the central government is taking the lead and will render its full co-operation,” he said.
中央有权有责修改完善香港的选举制度。特区政府尊重中央在完善政治体制方面的主导权,并将全面配合。

 


英语主课地位 English as a core subject

今年两会,全国政协委员、九三学社中央委员许进建议改革义务教育阶段英语的必修课地位。这一建议在网上引发了热议。

 

In the proposal, Xu said that English should not be a core subject like Chinese and math during compulsory education and more course hours should be given to improving students' skills in physical education, music and art.
许进在建议中表示,义务教育阶段,英语等外语课程不再设为与语文和数学同等的主课,增加体育、音乐、艺术等素质教育课程占比。

【单词讲解】

Compulsory这个词我们都很熟悉,表示“强制的,义务的,必须做的”意思,除了表示“义务教育(compulsory education)”以外,学校里设置的“必修课”是compulsory courses,再比如,It is compulsory for all motorcyclists to wear helmets.(所有骑摩托车的人都必须戴头盔。)


Xu said English and other foreign languages should also not be included as compulsory subjects for the national college entrance exam.
不再将英语(或外语)设为高考必考的科目。


许进的解释是:

While English takes up about 10 percent of class hours, less than 10 percent of university graduates use the language at work, he said.
英语教学课时约占学生总课时的10%,但英语只对不到10%的大学毕业生有用。


Moreover, smart translation devices can offer sophisticated translation services and in the age of artificial intelligence, translators will be among the top 10 professions to be eliminated, he added.
此外,现在的翻译机可以提供口语翻译服务,技术十分成熟。在人工智能时代,翻译职业位居即将被淘汰职业的前10名。


这番话立即引发网友热议。有些网友认为这一建议值得商榷。


不过,也有网友表示,花了很多时间学英语,日常生活中却用不到,确实有点浪费时间。

According to a online poll by China Youth Daily, more than 110,000 respondents opposed the proposal and said English should be taught early at schools to enable China to compete with other countries. However, around 100,000 people supported the proposal and said it would be better to spend more time learning Chinese language and culture.
《中国青年报》一项在线调查显示,参与调查的人当中,有超过11万反对这项建议,并表示学校应该早开英语课,提升中国在全世界的竞争力。约有10万人支持该建议,认为应该花更多时间学习中文和文化。

 

许进3月4日在接受采访时进一步解释称,

"I'm not saying that we shouldn't learn English. I'm saying that we shouldn't let the whole population learn the language while only a few can use it, and this just doesn't make sense. According to data released in 2019, there are about 40 million students learning English in preschool and compulsory education, but probably less than 4 million will use it at work. They learn English for nine years and in the end only 1/10 of them will use the language. It is a waste of educational resources to make children shoulder such a heavy burden and ask them to learn a course that they may not use in the future."

“我不是说不要学英语,我是说不要让全民都去学而只有少数人能用到英语,这个就不合理了。根据2019年数据,学前教育和义务教育阶段约有4000万学生学英语,但工作后用得到英语的可能还不到400万。义务教育阶段学9年,最后只有1/10的人有用,让孩子背负那么重的负担,让孩子学一门未来可能用不上的课程,是对教育资源的浪费。”

 

学英语到底是不是浪费时间?


北京外国语大学教授张连仲此前接受采访时表示,

The Ministry of Education made English a compulsory course from third grade in 2001. The decision had proved to be a smart one as hundreds of millions of Chinese students have broadened their horizons and improved their cultural awareness and critical thinking ability through learning the language.
教育部2001年决定从小学三年级开始将英语设为必修课,事实证明这是一个明智的决定,让近亿的孩子开始接触英语,对开阔学生视野,培养文化意识、思维训练等起到良好的作用。

 

21世纪教育研究院院长熊丙奇表示,

The key is to reform China's exam-oriented education system so that English teaching will focus on improving students' language skills, not exam-taking ability.
关键是要改革应试教育体制,让英语教学专注于提升学生的语言水平,而不是考试能力。


Removing English as a core subject will only result in greater imbalances between urban and rural students in English proficiency as urban students will more likely resort to costly after-school training to learn the language.
如果取消英语主课地位,只会导致城乡学生英语水平更大的差异,因为城市学生很有可能会花钱报课外培训班学英语。

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