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2021年6月新闻热词汇总

中国日报网 2021-07-01 09:23

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6月,神舟十二号载人飞船发射成功,我国三名航天员进入空间站核心舱;中共一大纪念馆正式开馆;反外国制裁法正式公布实施;华为正式发布鸿蒙智能手机操作系统;教育部新成立校外教育培训监管司;中国共产党成立100周年纪念币发行;我国首次颁授“七一勋章”;中央网信办开展饭圈乱象治理行动等。

 

三孩政策 three-child policy

中共中央政治局5月31日召开会议,听取“十四五”时期积极应对人口老龄化重大政策举措汇报,审议《关于优化生育政策促进人口长期均衡发展的决定》。

The meeting unveiled a policy that would allow all couples to have up to three children, in a bid to cope with an increasingly aging society. It also pledged stronger support for families.
会议提出,实施一对夫妻可以生育三个子女政策及配套支持措施,以应对人口老龄化程度加深问题。

【知识点】

党的十八大以来,党中央根据我国人口发展变化形势,先后作出一系列重大决策部署。

2013年,十八届三中全会决定启动实施“单独二孩”政策(夫妻中有一方为独生子女的可生育两个孩子,two-child policy for couples of which one partner is an only child)。

2015年,十八届五中全会决定实施“全面二孩政策”(the universal two-child policy),积极开展应对人口老龄化(aging population)行动,促进人口均衡发展(improve the balanced development of population)。

 

实施三孩政策,有哪些配套措施?

They stressed the need for unified policymaking in terms of marriage, births, parenting and education, with stronger measures to guide young adults on issues related to marriage and family values and to target unhealthy social conduct during wedding ceremonies and excessive betrothal gifts.
要将婚嫁、生育、养育、教育一体考虑,加强适婚青年婚恋观、家庭观教育引导,对婚嫁陋习、天价彩礼等不良社会风气进行治理。

【知识点】

彩礼(betrothal gifts)是我国婚礼习俗中的一部分,指婚前男方送给女方的礼金和聘礼,送彩礼代表婚约正式缔结,若有反悔,彩礼一般要退回。彩礼一般分为礼金(gift money)和实物(gift items)两部分。与彩礼对应的是女方出嫁时娘家准备的“嫁妆”(dowry)。


The level of services to ensure good prenatal and postnatal care must be improved, and a child care service system that benefits all families will be established.
提高优生优育服务水平,发展普惠托育服务体系。


The meeting called for greater equality in education and an enhanced supply of high-quality education resources to reduce families' education expenditure.
推进教育公平与优质教育资源供给,降低家庭教育开支。


More incentives in taxes and housing will be rolled out and the legitimate interests of women in the job market will be safeguarded.
加强税收、住房等支持政策,保障女性就业合法权益。

【词汇讲解】

Roll out something或者roll something out都表示“首次推出、发布(服务、产品、政策等)”,比如:The company plans to roll out the new product across Europe in the coming months.(公司计划未来几个月在欧洲发布这款新产品)。其名词形式为rollout,表示某个产品或服务经过试用后逐步扩大供应至更多人群,比如:rollout of COVID-19 vaccines(新冠疫苗供应)。此外,英语里还有一个固定短语roll out the red carpet for (someone),字面意思是“为某人铺红毯”,其实也是“欢迎某人,盛情款待”的意思,比如:The city council decided to roll out the red carpet for the visit of the foreign prince.(该市议会决定为这位外国王子举办盛大的欢迎仪式)。

 

China should continue to implement its current reward and assistance system as well as preferential policies for families with one child and rural families with only two daughters who were born before the implementation of the two-child policy.
对全面两孩政策调整前的独生子女家庭和农村计划生育双女家庭,要继续实行现行各项奖励扶助制度和优惠政策。


The nation will establish and improve various policies for such families under the family planning policy.
要建立健全计划生育特殊家庭全方位帮扶保障制度。


The meeting urged efforts to deepen the national medium- and long-term population development strategy and regional population development planning to promote long-term and balanced population development.
要深化国家人口中长期发展战略和区域人口发展规划研究,促进人口长期均衡发展。

 

 

校外培训机构 off-campus training institutions

The State Administration for Market Regulation (SAMR) slapped fines amounting to 36.5 million yuan on 15 tutoring firms on Tuesday for false advertising and pricing frauds.
市场监管总局6月1日宣布,15家校外培训机构因虚假宣传、价格欺诈被处以总计3650万元的罚款。

【词汇讲解】

Fraud这个词既可以指“欺诈”这个行为或罪名,也可以表示某个人是“骗子”或某件事是“骗局”,比如:That diet book is a fraud and a waste of time(那本烹饪书就是骗人的,纯属浪费时间),credit card fraud(信用卡诈骗),He claims to be a doctor, but he's just a fraud without a medical licence.(他自称是医生,但其实是一个没有医师执照的骗子)。

 

The SAMR inspection found that 15 training institutions had indulged in false advertising, while 13 resorted to pricing frauds.
市场监管总局检查发现,15家机构有虚假宣传行为,13家机构存在价格欺诈行为。

【词汇讲解】

校外培训机构可以统称为after-school/off-campus training institutions,其中针对在校课程的“补习班”可以用cram session或者tutoring class表示,而根据孩子们的兴趣爱好开设的“兴趣班”则可以用hobby class表示。


The regulator found that academic qualifications of some tutors at the firms were fabricated or exaggerated.
市场监管总局发现部分培训机构虚构或夸大教师资质。


市场监管总局价监竞争局局长袁喜禄表示,

The tutoring industry should not develop for profiteering, and disorderly expansion should be forestalled.
校外培训不是逐利的风口,不是圈钱的工具,不能无序发展,不能盲目扩张。

【词汇讲解】

Profiteer这个词以profit开头,所以这个词表达的意思与“利润,利益”有关,profiteer可以用作动词或名词,表示“牟取暴利”或“牟取暴利的人、投机商人”等,比如:a war profiteer(战时投机商)。Profiteering也是名词,表示“牟取暴利(行为)”,比如:We will not tolerate profiteering on food aid that is supposed to be free.(我们不能容忍用免费的援助食物牟取暴利的行为)。


The malpractices of false advertising and pricing fraud have damaged the legitimate rights and interests of students and their parents and disrupted the orderly market competition.
虚假宣传、价格欺诈等违法违规行为不仅损害了家长和学生的合法权益,还严重扰乱了行业竞争秩序。


对于校外培训机构乱象,群众反映日益强烈

The first quarter of 2021 saw surging complaints about the tutoring industry, with the total number of complaints filed by consumers via the online service platform "12315" topping 47,100, up 65 percent from a year earlier.
今年一季度,12315在线平台的教育培训服务投诉举报达4.71万件,同比增长65%。


持续加大校外培训市场监管力度

Market regulators will build a long-term mechanism of oversight and improve the code of conduct and supervision principles.
市场监管部门将构建长效监管机制,完善校外培训机构的行为规范和监管原则。

 

鸿蒙操作系统 HarmonyOS 2

Chinese telecom giant Huawei on Wednesday officially launched its operating system HarmonyOS 2 for smartphones, providing customers worldwide with a competitive alternative that works on a diverse range of devices.
6月2日,中国通讯巨头华为正式发布鸿蒙智能手机操作系统,该系统可搭载多个系列的产品,为全球用户提供了一个颇具竞争力的替代品。

【知识点】

“鸿蒙”在汉语词典里的解释是:古人认为天地开辟之前是一团混沌的元气,这种自然的元气叫做鸿蒙。但鸿蒙系统的英文名却并没有直接采用汉语拼音HongMeng,而是取名Harmony。余承东是这样解释的:“‘鸿蒙’中文有‘开天辟地’的意思,最接近的英语单词就是Genesis(读作['dʒenəsɪs])。用汉语拼音太难发音了,所以我们取名Harmony,希望给世界带来更多和平(peace)、方便(convenience)。”

这里的OS是operating system的简写形式,比如苹果的操作系统就是iOS,安卓的操作系统就是Android OS。


HarmonyOS, or Hongmeng in Chinese, is an open-source operating system designed for various devices and scenarios. It first launched on Internet-of-Things (IoT) devices, including wearables and tablets, in August 2019.
鸿蒙是一个开源操作系统,可用于多个设备和场景。2019年8月,鸿蒙操作系统发布,主要用于可穿戴设备和平板等物联网设备。

 

鸿蒙操作系统有什么特点?

As a next-generation operating system for smart devices, HarmonyOS provides a common language for different kinds of devices to connect and collaborate, providing users with a more convenient, smooth, and secure experience.
鸿蒙系统是新一代智能终端操作系统,为不同设备的智能化、互联与协同提供统一的语言。鸿蒙更便捷、更流畅、更安全。


武汉大学计算机学院助理教授赵小刚表示,

Zhao called HarmonyOS a "mega-terminal" that enables more streamlined and efficient cross-device connectivity.
鸿蒙创造出了“超级终端”,使多设备互联更加简化、高效。

【词汇讲解】

Streamline这个词用作动词表示“to improve the effectiveness of an organization such as a business or government, often by making the way activities are performed simpler”,即“通过简化办事流程来提高企业或政府机构的效率”,比如,streamline administration and delegate power就是时政类报道中经常提到的“简政放权”,The cost-cutting measures include streamlining administrative procedures in the company(降低成本的措施包括简化公司的行政流程)。


"HarmonyOS greatly enhances the interactive speed between devices and improves the efficiency of their computing power, thus providing customers with a more optimized cross-device user experience," said Zhao.
鸿蒙大大提升了多设备的交互速度,提高了设备算力的利用率,从而提供了一个更加优化的多设备用户体验。

 

华为常务董事、消费者业务CEO余承东表示:

"We are surrounded by more and more smart devices these days, and are now in a world where all things are connected," said Yu. "Every single one of us is a part of this fully connected world, as is every device. We look forward to working with more partners and developers to build a thriving HarmonyOS ecosystem," he said.
随着每个人身边的智能设备越来越多,我们已步入万物互联时代。没有人是一个孤岛,每个人、每个设备都是万物互联大陆的一部分。我们希望与更多合作伙伴、开发者共同繁荣鸿蒙生态。

市场反馈

Chinese industries, including home appliances, sports and fitness, travel, entertainment, and education, have welcomed the launch of HarmonyOS.
覆盖家电家居、运动健康、出行、娱乐、教育等领域的中国产业界对鸿蒙系统及其产业生态表现出积极态度。


In May, Midea Group, a leading Chinese home appliances maker, announced that it would roll out some 200 new products running on HarmonyOS by the end of this year.
今年5月,中国家电业巨头美的集团宣布计划在年内推出近200款搭载鸿蒙系统的产品进入市场。


Huawei expects the number of devices equipped with HarmonyOS to reach 300 million by the end of 2021, including more than 200 million for Huawei devices.
华为计划在2021年实现将鸿蒙系统覆盖3亿台设备,其中2亿台为自有设备。

 

中共一大纪念馆 the memorial of the first National Congress of the Communist Party of China

6月3日,位于上海市的中国共产党第一次全国代表大会纪念馆(the memorial of the first National Congress of the Communist Party of China)开馆。

 

The memorial includes the site of the first CPC National Congress, an oath-taking hall, and a newly-built exhibition area.
中共一大纪念馆由中共一大会址、宣誓大厅、新建展馆等部分组成。

【词汇讲解】

说到“纪念馆”或“纪念碑”,我们会想到对应的是memorial和monument这两个词。在具体使用的时候,两个词稍有区别:memorial可以指“纪念堂、纪念馆,纪念物、纪念碑”等各类用以缅怀逝去的人们或者纪念某个重要事件的建筑物,比如:chairman Mao memorial hall(毛主席纪念堂),Beichuan Earthquake Memorial(北川地震纪念馆)等,同时,memorial也可以直接表示“纪念(悼念)仪式”,可以跟memorial service/ceremony替换使用,比如:Thousands of people attended a memorial to victims of the accident.(数千人参加了这次事故遇难者的悼念仪式)。

Monument更多地用来指代实物的“纪念碑、纪念馆”等具有历史意义的建筑,一般用来纪念有重大影响的人物、事件等,比如:the Monument to the People's Heroes(人民英雄纪念碑),Washington Monument(华盛顿纪念碑),法国的Arc de Triomphe(凯旋门)也属于monument。固定短语be a monument to sth表示“是...的丰碑,是...的不朽成果”,比如:The annual arts festival is a monument to her vision and hard work.(一年一度的艺术节是她开阔的视野及辛勤创作的成果)。The hotel is a monument to mass tourism.(这家旅馆是大众旅游热潮的见证)。

More than 1,100 selected items that highlight the Party's history have been displayed in the exhibition area spanning 3,400 square meters.
展厅面积3400平方米,展出1100多件精选出来的党史文物。


The exhibition area is divided into seven sections that chronicle the founding of the CPC as well as the Party's efforts and achievements over the past 100 years.
展览共7个板块,生动体现中国共产党的诞生和百年奋斗历程。

【词汇讲解】

Chronicle做名词的时候表示“编年史”,一般强调按事件发生的顺序记载,比如:a chronicle of the French Revolution(法国革命编年史),用作动词的时候就表示“详细记录某件事的发生经过”,比如:His one-man show chronicles the life of Mark Twain.(他的单人秀生动展现了马克吐温的一生)。

 

Exhibits including relics, photos and literature cover major events such as the New Culture Movement, the May Fourth Movement, the establishment of early CPC organizations and early CPC national congresses.
建党文物集中展示新文化运动、五四运动、共产党早期组织的成立,以及早期中国共产党全国代表大会等事件的珍贵文献、照片、实物等。


A total of 72 versions of The Communist Manifesto are also on display.
《共产党宣言》72种版本全部展出。

 


“联合国生态系统恢复十年”倡议 the UN Decade on Ecosystem Restoration


Amidst the triple environmental threat of biodiversity loss, climate disruption and escalating pollution, United Nations Secretary-General Antonio Guterres on Friday launched the UN Decade on Ecosystem Restoration on the eve of World Environment Day.
6月4日,联合国秘书长古特雷斯宣布启动“联合国生态系统恢复十年”行动计划,以应对生物多样性丧失、气候破坏和污染加剧的三重环境威胁。

【知识点】

“联合国生态系统恢复十年”倡议(the UN Decade on Ecosystem Restoration)是一项全球性号召,致力于推动世界各地对生态系统进行保护和修复(a rallying call for the protection and revival of ecosystems all around the world),从而造福人类和自然。它旨在制止生态系统的退化(halt the degradation of ecosystems),并对其进行修复,以实现全球目标。只有拥有健康的生态系统,我们才能改善人民生计,抵御气候变化,阻止生物多样性丧失(Only with healthy ecosystems can we enhance people’s livelihoods, counteract climate change, and stop the collapse of biodiversity)。


联合国生态系统恢复十年从2021年持续到2030年,这也是实现可持续发展目标的最后期限(the deadline for the Sustainable Development Goals)和科学家们认定的防止灾难性气候变化的最后机会(the timeline scientists have identified as the last chance to prevent catastrophic climate change)。


“联合国生态系统恢复十年”由联合国环境规划署(the UN Environment Programme,UNEP)和联合国粮食及农业组织(the Food and Agriculture Organization,FAO)共同领导,旨在重构、重建、重塑生态系统( re-imagine, recreate and restore ecosystems)。


联合国秘书长古特雷斯在行动计划在线启动仪式上发表视频讲话说,

The planet was rapidly reaching a "point of no return," cutting down forests, polluting rivers and oceans, and ploughing grasslands "into oblivion."
地球正迅速接近“不可逆转的临界点”。砍伐森林、污染河流和海洋、开垦草原导致自然资源正在“消失殆尽”。

【词汇讲解】

单词oblivion本意是“完全被遗忘”,常见的搭配是fade/slide/sink into oblivion,均表示“慢慢淡出别人的记忆”,比如:These toys will be around for a year or two, then fade/slide/sink into oblivion(这些玩具在手边玩一两年以后就会被冷落在一旁了)。此外,oblivion还表示“被彻底摧毁”,比如:The planes bombed the city into oblivion(飞机轰炸把这座城市夷为平地)。


"We are ravaging the very ecosystems that underpin our societies," the UN chief warned.
我们正在破坏支撑我们社会的生态系统。


"Our degradation of the natural world is destroying the very food, water and resources needed to survive, and already undermining the well-being of 3.2 billion people -- or 40 percent of humanity," said the top UN official.
自然界的退化正在破坏人类赖以生存的食物、水和资源,而且已经危及全球40%的人口(32亿人)的生存。


But fortunately, the Earth is resilient and "we still have time to reverse the damage we have done," he added.
幸运的是,地球是有恢复能力的,我们还有时间扭转自己造成的破坏。

【词汇讲解】

时政类报道中经常提到的“经济有韧性”一般会翻译为resilience in economic development或者resilient economic growth。所谓的“韧性”就是指经历过挫折和困境以后还能恢复到原先活力状态的能力,形容词resilient和名词resilience都可以用来表达这个意思。此外,形容词resilient和名词resilience也表示“弹性好的,能复原的,适应力好的”等意思,比如:Life is hard there, but the people are resilient.(那里生活艰难,但是人们都坚韧不拔),上文中the Earth is resilient也是这一层意思。This rubber ball is very resilient and immediately springs back into shape.(这个橡皮球弹性非常好,很快就恢复了原状)。


By restoring ecosystems, he said that "we can drive a transformation that will contribute to the achievement of all the Sustainable Development Goals."
通过恢复生态系统,可以推动一场变革,这将有助于实现所有可持续发展目标。


"Accomplishing these things will not only safeguard the planet's resources. It will create millions of new jobs by 2030, generate returns of over 7 trillion US dollars every year and help eliminate poverty and hunger."
做好有关工作,不仅能保护地球资源,而且到2030年,这场变革将创造数百万新的就业机会,每年产生超过7万亿美元的回报并帮助消除贫困和饥饿。


He pointed out that the next 10 years are "our final chance to avert a climate catastrophe, turn back the deadly tide of pollution and end species loss."
未来十年是避免气候灾难、扭转致命污染浪潮、终结物种丧失的最后机会。

 

 

新冠疫苗紧急使用 emergency use of COVID-19 vaccines

China is expected to administer COVID-19 vaccines to at least 70 percent of the target population by the end of this year, an official from the National Health Commission confirmed, as the country continues to ramp up its inoculation drive to approve the emergency use of COVID-19 vaccines for those aged between 3 and 17 years old.
我国继续推进新冠疫苗接种工作,已批准将3-17岁人群纳入新冠疫苗紧急使用年龄范围。国家卫健委相关负责人表示,预计到今年年底前,我国将完成至少70%的目标人群接种。

【知识点】

我国已有21个新冠疫苗进入临床试验阶段(21 COVID-19 vaccines entering different stages of clinical trials)。目前有4个疫苗在国内获批附条件上市(conditional market approval for public use),3个疫苗在国内获批紧急使用(emergency use authorization),8个疫苗在国外获批开展Ⅲ期临床试验(launch Phase-3 clinical trials),1个mRNA疫苗在国外获伦理批准(pass ethics evaluation overseas),实现了境外临床试验灭活疫苗(inactivated vaccines)、重组蛋白疫苗(recombinant protein vaccines)、腺病毒载体疫苗(adenovirus vector vaccines)、核酸疫苗(nucleic acid vaccines)技术路线的全面覆盖。


Preliminary results from Phase I and II clinical trials showed the vaccine could trigger immune response in three to 17 year-old participants, and most adverse reactions were mild.
Ⅰ/Ⅱ期临床试验初步结果显示,疫苗能够触发3到17岁接种者体内的免疫反应,多数不良反应轻微。


Following approval by relevant authorities, vaccination will be open to people in this age group based on the epidemic prevention and control situation .
经国家有关部门批准后,会根据疫情防控需要在这一人群中推动接种。


年龄最大接种者超过100岁

Over 763 million doses of COVID-19 vaccines had been administered across China as of Saturday, NHC figures showed.
国家卫健委发布的数据显示,截至6月5日,我国新冠疫苗接种已超过7.63亿剂次。


The oldest vaccine recipients in China's vaccination campaign, open to people aged over 18, are more than 100 years old.
目前我国新冠疫苗接种面向18岁以上人群,其中年龄最大的接种者超过100岁。


China is also making headway in creating nasal spray and inhaled COVID-19 vaccines as clinical trials of them are underway, and experts will study their safety and efficacy after completing the collection of relevant data.
我国在鼻喷雾式 / 吸入型新冠疫苗研发方面也有新进展,目前这种疫苗正在进行临床试验。相关数据收集完成后,专家将对其安全性和有效性展开研究。

【词汇讲解】

固定搭配make headway表示“move forward or make progress”(前进或有进步),比如:The boat made little headway against the strong current(海浪太大,船几乎没怎么动);We're gradually making headway with the project(我们的项目在慢慢推进)。

 

长江流域生态环境保护 ecological protection in the Yangtze River basin

6月7日,国务院关于长江流域生态环境保护工作情况的报告提请十三届全国人大常委会第二十九次会议审议。

China has made notable progress in improving water quality, restoring aquatic biodiversity and controlling pollution in the Yangtze River basin, according to the report.
报告显示,长江流域在水质提升、水生物种多样性修复以及污染防控方面均取得明显成效。

 

Water quality of 96.7 percent of Yangtze River segments reached Level III standard or above in 2020, 13.3 percentage points higher than the national average and 14.9 percentage points higher than the 2015 figure. For the first time, the water quality of the main stream of the Yangtze River reached Level II standard or above in 2020, the report notes.
2020年,长江流域水质优良(Ⅲ类以上)断面比例为96.7%,高于全国平均水平13.3个百分点,较2015年提高14.9个百分点,干流首次全线达到Ⅱ类水质。

【知识点】

根据国家环保总局与国家质量监督检验检疫总局联合发布的《地表水环境质量标准》,依据地表水(surface water)水域环境功能和保护目标(the utilization purposes and protection objectives),按功能高低依次划分为五类:

Ⅰ类(一类地表水 Class I) 主要适用于源头水(source water)、国家自然保护区(national nature reserves);

Ⅱ类 (二类地表水 Class II)主要适用于集中式生活饮用水地表水源地一级保护区(first-class protected areas for centralized sources of drinking water)、珍稀水生生物栖息地(protected areas for rare aquatic animals)、鱼虾类产场(spawning fields of fishes and shrimps)、仔稚幼鱼的索饵场等;

Ⅲ类 (三类地表水 Class III)主要适用于集中式生活饮用水地表水源地二级保护区、鱼虾类越冬场、洄游通道(migration pathways)、水产养殖区(aquatic breeding areas)等渔业水域及游泳区;

Ⅳ类(四类地表水 Class IV) 主要适用于一般工业用水区及人体非直接接触的娱乐用水区(water areas for industrial use and entertainment which is not directly touched by human bodies);

V类(五类地表水 Class V) 主要适用于农业用水区及一般景观要求水域(water bodies for agricultural and landscape use)。

此外,水污染治理中提到的“劣Ⅴ类”(below Class V),是指质量低于V类的水,甚至无法用于工业和灌溉用途(unusable even for industrial or irrigation purposes),被描述为“黑臭”水体("black and stinky" water)。

 

落实长江“十年禁渔”

Provinces and municipalities along the Yangtze River have effectively implemented the 10-year fishing ban, with 228,000 fishermen on 110,000 boats relinquishing their nets, says the report, adding that there have been more frequent sightings of flagship species, such as the Yangtze finless porpoise, after the ban.
沿江省市落实长江“十年禁渔”,累计退捕渔船11万艘、渔民22.8万人。禁捕后,长江江豚等旗舰物种的出现频率增加。

【词汇讲解】

这里的relinquish表示“放弃(某种责任或权力;手中持有的东西)”,比如:relinquish one's claim to the throne(放弃王位),relinquish control of the family business(放弃家族生意),以及上文中的relinquish nets(放下渔网),也就是“退捕”,不再打鱼了。

加强污染治理

Amid pollution control efforts, 558 hazardous chemical production enterprises in densely populated urban areas of the Yangtze River Economic Belt have been relocated or transformed, accounting for 97.2 percent of the total number, says the report.
在污染治理方面,完成长江经济带城镇人口密集区危险化学品生产企业搬迁改造558家,完成率97.2%。


Measures have been taken to curb agricultural non-point source pollution, says the report, adding that efforts have been strengthened to prevent shipping pollution, promoting the use of new and clean energy by ships in ports along the Yangtze River Economic Belt.
加强农业面源污染防治,同时,加强航运污染治理,持续推进长江经济带港口船舶使用新能源、清洁能源。


推动绿色发展

2021年是全面贯彻落实长江保护法(the Yangtze River conservation law)的第一年。要全面贯彻落实长江保护法,依法推动长江流域生态环境保护。

More efforts will be made in promoting green development, preventing and controlling pollution, carrying out ecological restoration, and establishing and improving relevant systems and mechanisms, the report notes.
要扎实推动绿色发展,深入开展污染防治,持续开展生态修复,建立健全制度机制。

 


全球经济增长预期 global economic projection


6月8日,世界银行发布最新一期《全球经济展望》报告。

China's economic growth is expected to accelerate to 8.5 percent this year, faster than projected in January, supported by buoyant exports and release of pent-up demand amid effective control of the COVID-19 outbreak, the World Bank said in the report.
世界银行在报告中指出,受活跃的出口贸易以及新冠疫情有效控制后被压抑的需求得到释放等因素支撑,今年中国经济增速有望提升至8.5%,高于今年1月的预估。

【词汇讲解】

很多人看到project这个词,第一反应就是“项目、工程”,但是在经济展望的报道里,project通常用作动词,表示“to estimate for the future based on information already known”,即“(根据已知信息)预测、预估”,比如:Government spending is projected to rise by three percent next year(预计明年政府支出将增加3%),其名词形式就是projection,比如上文中的“faster than projected in January”也可以改写为“higher than the January projection”。


In addition to China, the strong rebounds from a few major economies, including the United States whose growth is projected at 6.8 percent, will propel the global economy to expand by 5.6 percent this year, the fastest post-recession pace in 80 years, according to the report.
报告指出,除中国以外,得益于美国等少数几个主要经济体强劲反弹支撑,今年全球经济增长预期为5.6%,将成为80年来全球在经济衰退后的最快增速。美国经济预计将增长6.8%。


Despite the recovery, global output will be about 2 percent below pre-pandemic projections by the end of this year, the report showed. Per capita income losses will not be unwound by 2022 for about two-thirds of emerging markets and developing economies.
报告表示,尽管出现复苏,但到今年年底全球产出将比疫情前预测低2%左右。约三分之二新兴市场和发展中经济体的人均收入损失在2022年之前将难以恢复。

【词汇讲解】

这里的unwound是动词unwind(读作 /ʌnˈwɑɪnd/)的过去分词形式,表示“to change or remove the effects of something”(改变或消除某事的影响),比如:Financial markets believe that these imbalances can be unwound gradually, allowing the economy to land softly(金融市场认为,这些失衡现象会逐步消除,让经济得以软着陆)。其实,unwind就是动词wind(读作 /wɑɪnd/)的反义词,wind表示“拧,转”等意思,“给钟表上发条”常用wind (up) a clock or watch表示,与之相反,wind down或unwind就可以表示“松开发条,放松”,相当于relax,比如:The facility was built as a place where workers could go and unwind after their shifts(这个地方就是让工人们换班以后放松休息的地方)。

 

世行行长马尔帕斯表示,

While there are welcome signs of global recovery, the pandemic continues to inflict poverty and inequality on people in developing countries around the world.
虽然出现全球复苏的可喜迹象,但疫情持续给世界各地发展中国家的人民带来贫困和不平等。


First and foremost, expanding vaccine distribution and deployment, especially to developing countries, is a precondition to economic recovery.
首要任务是扩大疫苗分配和供给,特别是对发展中国家的供应,这是经济复苏的前提条件。


Globally coordinated efforts are essential to accelerate vaccine distribution and debt relief, particularly for low-income countries.
在加快疫苗分配和减债进程中,全球范围的协调工作至关重要,对低收入国家而言尤其如此。


As the health crisis eases, policymakers will need to address the pandemic's lasting effects and take steps to spur green, resilient, and inclusive growth while safeguarding macroeconomic stability.
随着健康危机逐渐消退,政府决策者需要着手解决疫情的持久性影响,采取措施促进绿色、有韧性和包容性的增长,同时维护宏观经济稳定。

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