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中国共产党的历史使命与行动价值(双语全文)

新华网 2021-08-26 14:21

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二、为实现理想不懈奋斗
II. Realizing the Ideals of the Party


奋斗,是中国共产党的鲜明品质。中国的革命、建设、改革,是在复杂的内外环境中进行的,道路之险、挑战之多世所罕见。100年来,党遭遇过艰难险阻,经历过生死考验,付出过惨烈牺牲,但始终奋斗不止。党的百年发展史,就是在马克思主义指引下,坚定信念、勇于探索、百折不挠、顽强不屈的不懈奋斗史。
Struggle is a distinctive attribute of the CPC. In a complex domestic and international environment, China has encountered unprecedented difficulties and challenges in its revolution, reconstruction, and reform. Since it was founded a hundred years ago, the Party has never given up on the struggle, whatever hardships, existential trials, or bitter sacrifices it faced. These hundred years have seen the Party fight on, guided by Marxism, and buttressed by firm convictions, an enterprising spirit, and unyielding determination.

 

(一)坚持科学理论指导
1. Upholding Marxism


马克思主义是中国共产党的根本指导思想,是党的灵魂,是指引党不断前行的光辉旗帜。中国共产党为什么能,中国特色社会主义为什么好,归根到底是因为马克思主义行。党的奋斗历史,就是不断推进马克思主义中国化的历史,就是不断推进理论创新、进行理论创造的理论探索史。
Marxism is the single guiding ideology, the very soul of the CPC, and the banner under which it strives. Fundamentally, the strength of the Party and the strength of socialism with Chinese characteristics are attributable to the fact that Marxism works. The Party's history of struggle is a process of continuing to adapt Marxism to the Chinese context and to explore creative and innovative ideas.


把马克思主义写在自己的旗帜上。马克思主义深刻揭示了自然界、人类社会、人类思维发展的普遍规律,为人类社会发展进步指明了方向,极大推进了人类文明进程。马克思主义提出的共产主义、社会主义理想,与中华文明重民本、尚和合、求大同的理念相契合,与中国历代有志之士追求民富国强的梦想相适应,与近代以来中国先进分子救亡图存的愿望相一致。更为可贵的是,马克思主义不仅提出了共产主义的远大理想,而且指明了实现这个理想的方法和路径。马克思主义传入中国后,中国共产党的早期创立者,经过亲身实践、审慎思考、反复推求,选择了马克思主义。中国共产党人一旦选择了马克思主义,就一以贯之、坚定不移地坚持它、发展它、维护它,从来没有动摇过、改变过、放弃过。
Inscribing Marxism on its own banner. Marxism reveals the universal laws of the natural world, human society, and the human mind, pointing the direction for humanity and human civilization to progress. The communist and socialist ideals expounded in Marxism tally with Chinese cultural values such as a people-centered orientation, harmony, and unity in diversity. They are consistent with the dream pursued by noble and idealistic Chinese for generations – to build a strong and prosperous nation. And they accord with the aspiration of Chinese progressives, dating back to the Opium War, to rescue the nation from subjugation. A key feature of Marxism is that it not only defines the ideals of communism, but also specifies the ways and means by which they can be achieved. When Marxism was introduced to China, the founders of the CPC first reflected on it and conducted careful analysis, then gained hands-on experience, and finally chose to embrace it wholeheartedly. Since China's Communists chose Marxism, they have remained firm in upholding and developing it. Never have they wavered in their commitment, deviated from its goals, or abandoned it in favor of other options.


把马克思主义作为认识世界、把握规律、追求真理、改造世界的强大思想武器,而不是一成不变的教条。同实际结合,同群众结合,是中国共产党运用马克思主义解决中国问题具有的特点和优点。100年来,党不断推进马克思主义中国化时代化,不断开辟马克思主义新境界,产生了毛泽东思想、邓小平理论、“三个代表”重要思想、科学发展观,产生了习近平新时代中国特色社会主义思想,为党和人民事业发展提供了科学理论指导,为丰富和发展马克思主义作出重大原创性贡献。
Using Marxism as a powerful ideological weapon to seek the truth, understand the world and its laws, and transform it, rather than applying rigid dogma. Respecting reality and combining with the people are the characteristics and strengths of the CPC. Over the past hundred years, the CPC has continued to adapt Marxism to the Chinese context and the needs of the times. Mao Zedong Thought, Deng Xiaoping Theory, the Theory of Three Represents, the Scientific Outlook on Development, and Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era are the results. The Party has thus devised well-conceived theories for its own and the people's guidance, and made an enormous and original contribution to enriching Marxism.


中国共产党之所以在革命、建设、改革进程中不断取得胜利,根本在于掌握了有力的思想武器,能够运用马克思主义立场、观点、方法,正确认识问题,科学分析问题,有效解决问题。实践表明,中国共产党选择马克思主义是完全正确的。新的征程上,党以更加宽阔的眼界审视马克思主义在当代发展的现实基础和实践需要,坚持把马克思主义基本原理同中国具体实际相结合、同中华优秀传统文化相结合,用马克思主义观察时代、把握时代、引领时代,继续发展当代中国马克思主义、21世纪马克思主义。
At the fundamental level, the CPC's successes can be attributed to its mastery of powerful theoretical weapons to correctly understand, scientifically analyze, and effectively solve problems by applying the Marxist stance, viewpoint and methodology. Experience has proved that the CPC's choice of Marxism is correct. On the journey ahead, considering China's realities in contemporary times the Party will continue to adapt the basic tenets of Marxism to the best of China's traditional culture, and use Marxism to observe, understand, and steer the trends of our times in the 21st century.

 

(二)坚守理想信念
2. Firm Ideals and Convictions


中国共产党一经成立,就把为共产主义、社会主义奋斗作为自己的纲领。100年来,党始终坚守共产主义、社会主义的理想信念,领导人民向着奋斗目标坚定前行,不但建立了社会主义,而且维护和发展了社会主义,在世界上高高举起了中国特色社会主义伟大旗帜,展示了社会主义的生机活力和美好前景。社会主义没有辜负中国,中国也没有辜负社会主义。
From the outset, the CPC has championed the cause of socialism and communism. Over the past hundred years, standing firm in its ideals and convictions, it has led the people to press forward towards these goals. It has established, upheld and developed socialism, upheld the principles of socialism with Chinese characteristics, and demonstrated the vitality and bright prospects of socialism. The Party has remained true to socialism, and socialism has proved its worth to China.


在困顿逆境、挫折失败中奋起。革命战争年代,党多次面临困难和挫折,甚至濒临被敌人消灭的危险境地。大革命失败后,党由近6万人锐减到1万多人。第五次反“围剿”④失败后,党和红军的力量遭受极大削弱。长征⑤途中,湘江战役一战,中央红军从长征出发时的8.6万多人锐减至3万多人。在革命前途变得十分黯淡的时刻,党对自己的信念毫不动摇,在困境中发展壮大,在绝境中突出重围,在逆境中毅然奋起。新中国成立后,面对军事上、经济上、国际上的困难和挑战,党领导人民发扬“一不怕苦、二不怕死”的革命精神,坚定信心,克服困难,使社会主义中国巍然屹立在世界东方。上世纪80年代末90年代初,世界社会主义运动陷入低潮,党领导人民顶住逆流,排除干扰,沿着中国特色社会主义道路坚定前行。进入新时代,面对国内改革、发展、稳定的繁重任务,面对严峻的国际形势和外部压力,党领导人民进行具有许多新的历史特点的伟大斗争,把中国特色社会主义继续推向前进。100年来,困难、失败和挫折没有阻挡住中国共产党的前进,只是使它更加坚强、更加成熟。在重大历史关头和危难时刻,党坚守理想信念,不畏惧、不退缩,迎难而上、勇往直前,一次次彰显了党的力量,一次次增强了人民对党的信任和信心,一次次扭转了党和国家的前途命运,一次次把社会主义事业推向前进。
Rising through adversity and failures. In the years of revolutionary war, the CPC was repeatedly confronted with difficulties and setbacks, to the extent that its very survival was threatened. After the failure of the Great Revolution (1924-1927), the membership of the Party fell from around 60,000 to just over 10,000. After defeat in the fifth encirclement and suppression campaign by the KMT in 1934, [ This refers to the Central Red Army's fight against the fifth encirclement and suppression campaign launched by the KMT troops in the Central Revolutionary Base Area from September 1933 to October 1934. From 1930 to 1934, the KMT troops launched five largescale onslaughts against the Central Revolutionary Base Area headquartered in Ruijin, Jiangxi Province. The Red Army overcame the KMT forces in the first four campaigns, but after defeat in the fifth campaign, it made a strategic withdrawal.] the Party and the Red Army were seriously weakened. The Battle of Xiangjiang soon after the beginning of the Long March [ This was the strategic retreat of the main Red Army forces under the leadership of the CPC, and the trek from the Soviet Area south of the Yangtze River to the Shaanxi-Gansu border area during the period from October 1934 to October 1936, marking a great transition from defeat to victory for the Party and the Chinese revolution.] cost the Central Red Army more than 50,000 of its 86,000 troops. But for all that the situation was bleak, the CPC remained unshaken in its convictions. It shook off its pursuers, rose above adversity, and emerged stronger from the setbacks. After the founding of the PRC, the country faced testing military and economic challenges and hostility from abroad. Led by the CPC, and fearless of hardship and death, the people overcame these challenges. A new socialist China soon stood firm in the East. From the late 1980s to early 1990s, when the tide of world socialism was on the ebb, the CPC led the people to press forward on the path of Chinese socialism, heedless of all obstacles. In the new era, faced with the formidable tasks of reform, development and stability, and confronted by an unpromising external environment, the Party has led the people to continue the great historic struggle and to champion the cause of socialism with Chinese characteristics. Difficulties, failures and setbacks in the past hundred years have never prevented the CPC from forging ahead; they have only made it stronger and helped it mature. At critical historical junctures and in times of crisis, the Party has stood firm in ideals and convictions, rising undaunted to face challenges. This has demonstrated its strength, increased the people's trust and confidence, transformed its own prospects and those of the country, and advanced the cause of socialism.


在逆境中拼搏奋斗,在顺境中继续奋斗。面对胜利顺利,中国共产党力戒骄傲自满,保持奋斗精神。取得执政地位后,在进入繁华城市、执掌全国政权、从事和平建设的历史条件下,党继续保持了谦虚、谨慎、不骄、不躁的作风和艰苦奋斗本色,没有被糖衣炮弹打倒。改革开放后,党抵制住了资本主义和封建主义腐朽思想的影响和侵蚀。进入新时代,党和国家各项事业蒸蒸日上,党保持清醒认识,反复警醒全党绝不能有半点骄傲自满、固步自封,绝不能有丝毫犹豫不决、徘徊彷徨,居安思危,继续奋斗。100年来,党没有躺在功劳簿上沉湎过去,没有因为取得的成绩松弛懈怠,没有在喝彩声、赞扬声中丧失斗志,始终保持了昂扬奋进的精神状态。
Fighting in both favorable and unfavorable circumstances. After securing victory in its military campaigns, the CPC maintained its fighting spirit and strove to avoid complacency. After becoming the governing party of China, it continued to remain modest and prudent, never arrogant or impetuous. In leading reconstruction in the cities in peace time, it preserved the style of plain living and hard struggle and never fell victim to the desire for creature comforts. In the process of reform and opening up, the CPC endeavors to guard against the erosive influence of feudalist and capitalist decadence. Entering the new era, the CPC has never allowed itself to be carried away by the successes the Party and the state have achieved. It has warned all its members that they must never surrender to complacency or sclerotic thinking, never falter, never waver; rather, they must remain alert to dangers in times of peace and keep fighting. Over the past hundred years the Party has never rested on its laurels, slackened its efforts, or allowed flattery and praise to dilute its spirit and will to fight.


既锚定远大目标,又脚踏实地,一代人负起一代人的使命,不断向着奋斗目标前进。党追求的共产主义最高理想,只有在社会主义社会充分发展和高度发达的基础上才能实现。中国共产党人之所以为之前仆后继,是因为他们坚信,一代又一代人驰而不息、接续奋斗,崇高理想就一定能够实现。在中华民族伟大复兴的接力跑中,一代又一代中国共产党人,一代又一代中国人民,一棒接着一棒跑下去,奋力跑好自己这一棒,为下一代跑出好成绩。
Being firmly grounded while aiming high for the future. Every generation of Party members has fulfilled its respective missions and kept pressing forward. The ideals of communism can only be realized by the Party based on fully developed and highly advanced socialism. Communists in China believe that if they keep fighting for this with sufficient effort over generations it can be achieved. In the battle to realize national rejuvenation, the Party and the people will pass on the torch from one generation to the next, with each generation fulfilling its duties for the benefit of the next.


在奋斗行动中淬炼奋斗精神,用奋斗精神激励奋斗行动。中国共产党人弘扬伟大建党精神,顽强拼搏、不懈奋斗,涌现了一大批视死如归的革命烈士、一大批顽强奋斗的英雄人物、一大批忘我奉献的先进模范,形成了系列伟大精神,构建起中国共产党人的精神谱系。这些宝贵精神财富,深深融入中华民族的血脉之中,使中国人民的精神面貌发生巨大变化,为民族复兴提供了更持久、更深沉、更有力量的强大支撑。
Forging a fighting spirit in hard work and working hard to keep that spirit. Carrying forward its founding spirit, the CPC has fought hard and persevered. It has developed a set of inspiring principles which are manifested in the ranks of its revolutionary martyrs defiant in the face of death, its hard-working heroes, and its selfless and devoted models. This invaluable spirit has been distilled into the lifeblood of the Chinese nation, boosting the Chinese people's morale, and creating longer, fuller and stronger support for the rejuvenation of the Chinese nation.


100年来,党领导人民拼搏奋斗,在中国大地不仅建筑起遍地林立的高楼大厦,而且铸造了巍然耸立的中华民族精神大厦。
Over the past hundred years, led by the CPC, the Chinese people have changed the face of the country through their arduous efforts, and more importantly, reshaped China's national psyche.

 

(三)在不断探索中前进
3. Breaking New Ground


中国的革命、建设、改革,走的是前人没有走过的道路,没有现成经验可以照搬。面对前进道路上层出不穷的新情况新问题,中国共产党领导人民勇于探索、敢闯敢试,不断实现从未知到已知、从必然王国向自由王国的跨越,不断把社会主义事业推向前进。
China's revolution, reconstruction and reform are unprecedented undertakings, with no previous examples to serve as a guide. Facing new situations and new problems on the way forward, and employing indomitable courage and determination, the CPC has succeeded in blazing a new trail from the unknown to the realms of freedom. All its endeavors have advanced the cause of socialism in China.


把握世界大势,抓住和用好历史机遇。人类历史有其发展的大逻辑。100年来,党在历史前进的逻辑中前进,在时代发展的潮流中发展,因势而谋、应势而动、顺势而为,掌握了历史主动。中国共产党的诞生,社会主义中国的成立,改革开放的实行,都是顺应世界发展大势的结果。改革开放后,党把握和平与发展时代主题,加快推进改革开放和现代化建设;紧紧抓住世界科技迅猛发展机遇,提出“科学技术是第一生产力”的重要论断,集全国之力实施“863”计划、“973”计划、⑥国家重点研发计划等一系列科技计划,极大推动了原始创新能力提升和高技术及其产业发展;顺应经济全球化趋势,实施一系列对外开放重大举措,创办经济特区,开发开放上海浦东,实施“引进来”“走出去”战略,加入世界贸易组织,推动中国经济融入世界。进入新世纪,党抓住21世纪头20年的重要战略机遇期,集中精力,加快发展。进入新时代,党统筹中华民族伟大复兴战略全局和世界百年未有之大变局,作出“中国发展仍处于重要战略机遇期”“机遇和挑战之大都前所未有,总体上机遇大于挑战”的战略判断,顺应和平、发展、合作、共赢的时代潮流,顺应世界多极化和国际关系民主化大势,顺应经济全球化大势,对内推进高质量发展,把握新发展阶段、贯彻新发展理念、构建新发展格局;对外实行高水平开放,实施更大范围、更宽领域、更深层次的全面开放,促进合作共赢,在更好发展自己的同时更好贡献世界。
Recognizing the prevailing trends in the world, seizing and making the most of historic opportunities. There is an essential logic to the progress of human history. Over the past hundred years, the CPC has developed with this logic and kept pace with the trends of the times, constantly adjusting its strategies and policies in accordance with changing circumstances. The founding of the CPC, the founding of a socialist people's republic, and the launch of reform and opening up all followed underlying global trends. Based on its belief that peace and development were the themes of the times, the CPC pressed ahead with its plans for reform, opening up and modernization. It seized the opportunity of rapid advances in science and technology around the world, and applied the important proposition that "science and technology constitute a primary productive force". It mobilized the resources of the whole country in a series of key national science and technology research and development programs such as the 863 Program and the 973 Program [ The codename 863 refers to the National High-tech R&D Program implemented in accordance with a guideline issued by the CPC Central Committee and the State Council on November 18, 1986, while that of 973 is for the National Key Basic Research Program implemented in accordance with a decision by the National Science, Technology and Education Leading Group on June 4, 1997.]. All of this strengthened China's capacity for original innovation and resulted in significant progress in high-tech and key industries. The CPC followed the trend of economic globalization and initiated a set of major reform and opening-up measures, for example, creating special economic zones, opening up Shanghai Pudong New Area, implementing the strategies of "bringing in" and "going global", and acceding to the World Trade Organization, all of which helped the Chinese economy to integrate with the international economy. At the turn of the century, the CPC seized the first two decades as an important period of strategic opportunity to focus on development and promote more rapid growth. In the new era, the CPC has implemented the strategy of national rejuvenation within the context of global changes of a scale unseen in a century. It has judged that "China remains in an important period of strategic opportunity for development", and that "both opportunities and challenges are unprecedented in scale, with more opportunities than challenges in general". To tap into the trends of peace, cooperation, multi-polarity, economic globalization, and democracy in international relations, the Party places greater emphasis on the quality of growth. To this end, it has introduced and is implementing a new development philosophy and a new development dynamic as the country enters a new development stage. In external relations, the CPC pursues high-standard opening up and promotes win-win cooperation with more countries in more areas, on a larger scale, and in greater depth. The CPC is willing to contribute more to the world while promoting China's own development.


坚持独立自主,坚定不移走自己的路。在中国这样一个人口众多和经济文化落后的东方大国进行革命、建设、改革,道路问题是最根本的问题。新民主主义革命时期,党一开始想走苏联那样的中心城市暴动的道路,实践证明这条道路走不通,党通过总结经验教训、深化对国情的认识,找到了以农村包围城市、武装夺取政权的正确道路。新中国成立后,党一开始注重学习苏联,但后来发现苏联模式也存在问题,开始探索中国自己的社会主义建设道路。改革开放以来,党领导人民找到了、坚持了、拓展了符合中国国情的中国特色社会主义道路,沿着这条道路坚定不移地走了下来。在经济建设中,党始终坚持自力更生为主的方针,把发展的主动权牢牢掌握在自己手中,近年来,面对国际形势不确定不稳定因素增多,党作出加快构建以国内大循环为主体、国内国际双循环相互促进的新发展格局的重大战略部署,立足自身把国内大循环畅通起来,任由国际风云变幻,始终充满朝气地生存和发展下去。在科技领域,党领导人民自立自强,坚持独立自主、自力更生,依靠中国人自己的力量,建立了独立完整的学科体系和科研布局,走出一条具有中国特色的自主创新道路,实现了科技实力和创新能力的跨越式提升。从新中国成立初期连火柴、铁钉都要依靠进口,到量子通信、人工智能、5G等世界领先,再到“神舟”遨游太空、“祝融”探测火星、“天宫”空间站建造、“蛟龙”入海等,中国正在走向高水平科技自立自强。在社会主义现代化建设进程中,党领导人民推动物质文明、政治文明、精神文明、社会文明、生态文明协调发展,创造了中国式现代化新道路,创造了人类文明新形态,打破了只有遵循资本主义现代化模式才能实现现代化的神话。坚持独立自主,坚持中国的事情按照中国的特点、中国的实际来办,坚定不移走自己的路,是党取得胜利的一条基本经验。中国人民有骨气、有信心、有能力,做好自己的事,走好自己的路。
Following an independent path. To carry out revolution, reconstruction and reform in a poor and backward country with a large population, it is fundamental to choose the right path. During the New Democratic Revolution, the CPC initially opted to follow the Soviet example of insurrection in key cities. But that proved unsuccessful. It then reviewed the lessons learned, summarized the experience gained, and embarked on the correct path of encircling the cities from the countryside and seizing state power with military force. After the founding of the People's Republic, the CPC applied itself to learning from the Soviet Union. Encountering problems with the Soviet model, it began to explore its own path for building socialism. Since the beginning of reform and opening up, it has led the people in identifying, upholding, broadening, and committing to the path best suited to China's actual conditions – socialism with Chinese characteristics. In economic development, the Party has always adhered to the principle of self-reliance. To ensure that robust development continues amid mounting instability and uncertainties in the international environment, the Party has made the major strategic decision to accelerate the fostering of a double development dynamic, with the domestic economy and international engagement reinforcing each other, and the former as the mainstay. In the field of science and technology, the Party has led the people in independent and self-reliant development. With their own strength, the Chinese people have put in place a complete and independent system of academic disciplines and a comprehensive program of scientific research, paving the way for independent innovation with Chinese characteristics. All of this has carried forward the country's scientific and technological strength and capacity for innovation in leaps and bounds. In the early days of the People's Republic, even matches and iron nails had to be imported. China now leads the world in quantum communication, artificial intelligence and 5G technology. Its Shenzhou manned spacecraft and Tiangong space lab are orbiting the earth. The rover Zhurong has landed on Mars and is engaged in scientific exploration. Its manned submersible, Jiaolong, dived to the deep sea. All of these serve to demonstrate how China has significantly improved its independent scientific and technological capabilities. In the process of socialist modernization, the Party has led the people in realizing coordinated material, political, cultural, social and eco-environmental progress, pioneering a new and distinctively Chinese path to modernization, creating a new model for human progress, and refuting the myth that modernization can be achieved only by following the capitalist model. One of the basic reasons for the Party's success is its adherence to the principles of independence and self-reliance. It follows its own path in managing China's affairs in accordance with the country's own realities and characteristics. The Chinese people have the courage, confidence, and ability to manage their own affairs well.


解放思想,实事求是,敢闯敢试。不论是革命、建设还是改革,中国共产党都坚持一切从实际出发,不唯书、不唯上、只唯实,敢于突破条条框框和现成模式,不断探索新路。在领导经济建设的长期实践中,党既坚持马克思主义政治经济学的基本原理和方法论,又结合中国实际大胆创新,从单一公有制到公有制为主体、多种所有制经济共同发展和坚持“两个毫不动摇”⑦;从传统的计划经济体制到社会主义市场经济体制,从市场在资源配置中起基础性作用到市场在资源配置中起决定性作用、更好发挥政府作用,一系列新探索新实践,既确保了国民经济命脉牢牢掌握在党和人民手中,确保了经济发展服务人民利益、公共利益和国家利益,也提升了市场主体的自主性创造性,极大解放和发展了社会生产力。党的十八大以来,面对改革进入攻坚期和深水区,党以巨大政治勇气推进全面深化改革,革除制约和束缚发展的深层次弊端,推出2400多项改革举措,在重要领域和关键环节取得决定性成果,激活了发展动力,释放了发展活力。在推进改革的实践中,党既大胆探索创新,又把握正确方向,始终把基点放在坚持和完善中国特色社会主义制度上、放在推进国家治理体系和治理能力现代化上,既不走封闭僵化的老路,也不走改旗易帜的邪路,实现了改革、发展、稳定的有机统一、协同推进。
Emancipating the mind, seeking truth from facts and moving forward with unrelenting courage. In all of its endeavors in revolution, reconstruction and reform, the CPC has always proceeded from reality rather than placing its faith in books or established authority. It has constantly explored new paths, free from hidebound restrictions and proscriptive models. In its long-term leadership of economic development, the Party has adopted the basic principles of Marxist political economics and applied them in China's realities, shifting from a model of pure public ownership to a model where public ownership plays the dominant role alongside economic entities under diverse forms of ownership. It is committed to consolidating and developing the public sector of the economy, and to encouraging, supporting, and guiding the non-public sector of the economy. The economic system has been reformed from a traditional planned economy to a socialist market economy, so that the market can play a decisive rather than a supportive role in resource allocation, while the government can fulfill its role better. This has ensured that the lifelines of the Chinese economy remain firmly in the hands of the Party and the people, and that economic development serves the interests of the people and the country. Market entities can be more innovative, and the productive forces have been unleashed and allowed to develop. Since the 18th National Congress of the CPC, China's reform has entered uncharted waters and encountered new problems. The Party has shown tremendous political courage, enacting more than 2,400 measures to remove deep-rooted obstacles, and promoting further comprehensive reform. This has achieved decisive results in key areas and boosted the driving forces of development. In pursuing reform, the Party encourages bold experiments and innovation while making sure that progress continues in the right direction. The basis of reform has always been upholding and improving socialism with Chinese characteristics and modernizing the country's system and capacity for governance. Pressing ahead with reform and development while maintaining the stability of the country, it has rejected both the old and rigid closed-door policy, and any attempt to abandon socialism in favor of some erroneous path.


研究规律,把握规律,遵循规律。善于把握规律,按照客观规律办事,是马克思主义政党之所以先进的重要因素。党不断探索共产党执政规律、社会主义建设规律、人类社会发展规律,并把这些规律运用到实践当中,指导和校正自己的行动。在社会主义建设实践中,党对“什么是社会主义、怎样建设社会主义”“建设什么样的党、怎样建设党”“实现什么样的发展、怎样发展”“新时代坚持和发展什么样的中国特色社会主义、怎样坚持和发展中国特色社会主义”等重大问题的认识不断深化,提出一系列新观点新论断,进行一系列新探索新实践,丰富和发展了科学社会主义。从“贫穷不是社会主义,发展太慢也不是社会主义”,到“社会主义的本质是解放生产力,发展生产力,消灭剥削,消除两极分化,最终达到共同富裕”,再到“实现共同富裕是社会主义的本质要求”,党对社会主义本质的认识不断深化。从新中国成立后确立社会主义基本制度,到改革开放后探索建立中国特色社会主义制度,再到党的十八大以来坚持和完善中国特色社会主义制度,构建起包括根本制度、基本制度、重要制度在内的国家制度和治理体系的总体框架,使中国特色社会主义制度更加成熟更加定型,党对社会主义制度建设的认识不断深化。从“又快又好”到“又好又快”,从“经济增长方式”到“经济发展方式”,从高速增长到高质量发展,从加快发展到统筹好发展和安全两件大事,从全面、协调、可持续的发展观到创新、协调、绿色、开放、共享的新发展理念,党对经济社会发展规律的认识不断深化。党的十八大以来,党提出统筹推进“五位一体”总体布局⑧、协调推进“四个全面”战略布局⑨,提出“八个明确”⑩“十四个坚持”⑪,标志着党对共产党执政规律、社会主义建设规律、人类社会发展规律的认识提升到了新的高度。
Understanding, grasping and following the laws of development. The ability to grasp and follow the objective laws of development is an important skill for a progressive Marxist party. The CPC has continued to expand its understanding of governance by a communist party, the development of socialism, and the evolution of human society, and to apply them in practice as a guide for action.

In developing socialism, the Party has constantly asked and answered a series of key questions, such as:

•"What is socialism?"

•"How should we build socialism?"

•"What kind of a political party should the CPC be?"

•"How should we build the CPC?"

•"What kind of development should we pursue?"

•"How should we pursue this development?"

•"What is socialism with Chinese characteristics in the new era?"

• "How should we uphold and develop this socialism?"

It has given a series of new answers that have enriched and developed scientific socialism, and gained a much deeper understanding of the essence and nature of socialism, such as:

•"Poverty is not socialism. Development that is too slow is not socialism, either."

•"The nature of socialism is to release and develop the productive forces, eliminate exploitation and polarization, and achieve common prosperity."

•"Achieving common prosperity is the essential requirement of socialism."

The CPC has also gained a much deeper understanding of the process of building a socialist system, from establishing the basic socialist system in the early days of the PRC, through creating socialism with Chinese characteristics after the introduction of the reform and opening-up policy, to upholding and improving socialism with Chinese characteristics since the 18th CPC National Congress. Socialism with Chinese characteristics has matured with the completion of an overall framework of systems for state governance.

The CPC has also come to a deeper understanding of the laws of economic and social development, as reflected by its shift from "fast and sound growth" to "sound and fast growth", from "economic growth" to "economic development", from "high-speed growth" to "high-quality development", from "accelerating development" to "equal emphasis on development and security", from "the vision of comprehensive, coordinated and sustainable development" to "the vision of innovation-based, coordinated, green, open and shared development". Since its 18th National Congress, the CPC has initiated the Five-sphere Integrated Plan, the Four-pronged Comprehensive Strategy, the Eight Clarifications [ The Eight Clarifications:
•that the overarching task of upholding and developing socialism with Chinese characteristics is to realize socialist modernization and national rejuvenation, and on the basis of completing the building of a moderately prosperous society in all respects, a two-step approach should be taken to build China into a great modern socialist country that is prosperous, strong, democratic, culturally advanced, harmonious, and beautiful by the middle of the 21st century.
•that the principal challenge facing Chinese society in the new era is the gap between unbalanced and inadequate development and the growing expectation of the people for a better life, which requires further commitment to the people-centered philosophy of development, well-rounded human development, and common prosperity for everyone.
•that the overall plan for building socialism with Chinese characteristics is the Five-sphere Integrated Plan, and the overall strategy is the Four-pronged Comprehensive Strategy, with an emphasis on stronger confidence in the path, theory, system and culture of socialism with Chinese characteristics.
•that the overall goal of in-depth reform in every field is to improve and develop the system of socialism with Chinese characteristics and modernize China's system and capacity for governance.
•that the overall goal of comprehensively advancing law-based governance is to establish a system of socialist rule of law with Chinese characteristics and build a country of socialist rule of law.
•that the Party's goal of building a strong military in the new era is to build the armed forces of the people into world-class forces that obey the Party's command, can fight and win, and maintain excellent conduct.
•that major-country diplomacy with Chinese characteristics aims to foster a new type of international relations and build a global community of shared future.
•that the defining feature of socialism with Chinese characteristics is the leadership of the CPC; the greatest strength of the system of socialism with Chinese characteristics is the leadership of the CPC; the Party is the highest force for political leadership, setting forth the general requirements for strengthening the Party in the new era and underlining the importance of reinforcing the Party's political foundations.] and the Fourteen Imperatives" [ The Fourteen Imperatives are:
•ensuring Party leadership over all endeavors,
•people-centered development,
•comprehensive and in-depth reform,
•a new vision for development,
•the people running the country,
•law-based governance,
•core socialist values,
•improvement of the people's lives through development,
•harmony between humanity and nature,
•a holistic approach to national security,
•absolute Party leadership over the people's forces,
•the principle of One Country, Two Systems for national reunification,
•the building of a global community of shared future,
•the full and rigorous implementation of the Party's discipline. The Fourteen Imperatives form the fundamental guideline that underpins the endeavors to uphold and develop socialism with Chinese characteristics in the new era.], which exemplify the Party's new understanding of the nature of governance by a communist party, the development of socialism, and the evolution of human society.


社会主义好,就是要解决其他社会形态解决不了的问题,不断推进人的全面发展和实现共同富裕。中国社会主义只搞了几十年,还处在初级阶段。党对社会主义的认识和把握还非常有限,还面临很多没有弄清楚的问题和待解的难题,对许多重大问题的认识和处理还处于不断深化的过程之中。党将继续探索,更好把握中国特色社会主义发展趋势和规律,更好地把新时代中国特色社会主义不断推向前进。
Socialism can solve problems that other social systems cannot, and can achieve sustained, well-rounded human development and common prosperity. After several decades, socialism in China is still at the primary stage. The Party's understanding and practical experience of socialism with Chinese characteristics is still very limited, with many more questions to answer and many more problems to solve. The Party will continue to explore how best to advance socialism with Chinese characteristics in the new era by building a deeper understanding of its nature and laws.

 

(四)勇于战胜风险挑战
4. Defusing Risks and Overcoming Challenges


中国的革命、建设、改革,面临着党内和党外的、国内和国际的、传统和非传统的、人类社会和自然界的多种复杂严峻的风险挑战。党领导人民迎接挑战、从容应对,敢于斗争、敢于胜利,在应对挑战、化解风险中推动事业发展,取得并巩固了执政地位,保证了国家安全,保持了发展的连续性和稳定性。
China has carried out its revolution, reconstruction and reform against a backdrop of both conventional and exceptional risks and challenges, from both inside and outside the Party, from both within China and abroad, and from both human society and nature. The CPC has led the people in defusing these risks and meeting these challenges with courage, confidence and resilience, while promoting the cause of socialism. It has secured and consolidated its position as the governing party, guaranteed national security, and ensured continuous and consistent development.


保持忧患意识,始终居安思危。中国共产党在苦难中诞生、在斗争中成长,时刻牢记“安而不忘危,存而不忘亡,治而不忘乱”。革命战争年代,在残酷的斗争环境中,党时刻保持高度警惕,在与强大敌人的长期斗争中成长壮大。改革开放新时期,面对社会矛盾易发多发频发,面对世界社会主义出现严重曲折,党把增强抵御风险能力作为党的建设重大历史性课题,成功应对各种风险挑战。党的十八大以来,党清醒认识内外环境新的重大变化和面临的风险挑战,把增强忧患意识、做到居安思危作为治国理政必须坚持的重大原则,把保证国家安全作为巩固执政地位、坚持和发展中国特色社会主义的头等大事,从最坏处着眼,做最充分的准备,朝好的方向努力,争取最好的结果,掌握了应对风险挑战的战略主动。正是因为党在不同历史时期,保持清醒头脑,科学分析形势,下好先手棋、打好主动仗,在风险挑战来临时,能够遇变不惊、化险为夷、取得胜利。
The Party is always ready to protect against potential dangers even in times of peace. Founded in years of trial and tribulation and maturing in adversity, the CPC always keeps in mind the ancient wisdom that "One should be mindful of potential danger in times of peace, the risk of downfall in times of rise, and potential chaos in times of stability."In the years of revolutionary war, the CPC maintained a high level of vigilance during a life-and-death struggle, and grew in size and strength despite being menaced by formidable enemies.During reform and opening up, faced with frequent social conflicts and disputes, and major setbacks to world socialism, the CPC made it a priority to increase its ability to fend off threats, and successfully dealt with various risks and challenges.After its 18th National Congress, the CPC was fully aware of the major changes in the domestic and international environment. One of its major principles of governance is to be always on guard against potential dangers in times of peace. It has made national security its top priority in upholding and developing socialism with Chinese characteristics. Always alert to the worst possible scenarios, the Party adopts proactive strategies and strives for the best results.In every historical period, the CPC has remained vigilant and clearheaded about the situation, seizing the initiative on every occasion and ensuring success in defusing risks and overcoming challenges.

 

面对重大风险挑战,迎难而上,敢于胜利。对于危及党的执政地位、国家政权稳定,危害国家核心利益,危害人民根本利益,有可能打断中华民族复兴进程的重大风险挑战,党毫不犹豫、断然出手,坚决斗争、坚决胜利。新中国成立后,面对美帝国主义的威胁和挑衅,党以“不惜国内打烂了重新建设”的决心和气魄,作出抗美援朝、保家卫国的历史性决策,最终取得伟大胜利,粉碎了侵略者陈兵国门、进而将新中国扼杀在摇篮之中的图谋,使新中国真正站稳了脚跟。改革开放新时期,党领导人民经受住1989年政治风波考验,战胜亚洲金融危机、国际金融危机,战胜特大洪涝灾害,夺取抗击非典、汶川地震抗震救灾胜利,依法坚决平息和妥善处理拉萨、乌鲁木齐打砸抢烧严重暴力犯罪事件,抵制住一些外国政治势力对中国的孤立、打压、遏制。党的十八大以来,面对波谲云诡的国际形势、复杂敏感的周边环境、艰巨繁重的改革发展稳定任务,党统筹发展和安全,贯彻总体国家安全观,领导人民有效应对重大挑战、抵御重大风险、克服重大阻力、解决重大矛盾,在危机中育先机、于变局中开新局。推进供给侧结构性改革化解经济风险,果断应对美国单方面挑起的中美经贸摩擦,取得抗击新冠肺炎疫情斗争重大战略成果,采取一系列重大措施一举扭转香港乱局、实现重大转折,保持了经济持续健康发展和社会大局稳定。
The Party meets major risks and challenges head-on. It never hesitates in taking resolute action to address risks and challenges that threaten its position as the governing party, or endanger the stability of state power, the core interests of the country, the fundamental interests of the people, or the rejuvenation of the Chinese nation.Shortly after the founding of the PRC, in the face of threats and provocation by American imperialism, the CPC had the courage to resist US aggression and aid Korea, in defense of the motherland and at the cost of its own economic development. Victory in this war foiled the aggressors' attempt to suffocate the new-born PRC, and established a firm foothold for the country.After the launch of reform and opening up, the Party led the people through the political turbulence in 1989, the Asian financial crisis in 1997, the global financial crisis in 2008, and a succession of unprecedented natural disasters. It emerged victorious from the fight against the SARS epidemic in 2002 and the Wenchuan earthquake in 2008. It adopted resolute and lawful measures to quell the riots, robbery, arson and vandalism in Lhasa and Urumqi. It also resisted attempts to isolate, suppress and contain China by external political forces.Since 2012, faced with a sensitive and volatile international situation, and challenging tasks related to domestic reform, development and stability, the Party has placed equal emphasis on development and security, pursued a holistic approach to national security, and led the people in an effective response to major risks, challenges, obstacles and conflicts by exploring new opportunities and breaking new ground.It has promoted supply-side reform to stave off economic risks. It has implemented effective countermeasures in the economic and trade friction provoked by the US. It has won a strategic victory in the battle against the Covid-19 pandemic. It has taken a series of resolute measures to restore order in Hong Kong and ensure a turn for the better in the region. All of these actions have contributed to social stability in China and sound and sustained economic development.


中华民族伟大复兴,绝不是轻轻松松、敲锣打鼓就能实现的,前进道路上会出现各种可以预测和不可预测的困难和挑战。中国共产党是经过百年锤炼,具有长期丰富斗争实践经验的大党,具有抵御各种风险、驾驭各种复杂局面的能力。任何风险挑战,只要来了,党都将领导人民进行坚决斗争,毫不动摇,毫不退缩,直至取得胜利。
The rejuvenation of the Chinese nation will not be easily achieved. It cannot be achieved merely by beating drums and clanging gongs. There will be all kinds of foreseeable and unforeseeable difficulties on the way forward. The CPC is a major political party that has accumulated rich experience in the long-term struggle over the last hundred years, which has enabled it to withstand risks and address complex issues. No matter the difficulties, the Party will lead the people to final victory.


在百年奋斗征程中,中国共产党锤炼了不畏强敌、不惧风险、敢于斗争、敢于胜利的风骨和品质,这种风骨和品质,成为党鲜明的特质和特点。一切成就都是接续奋斗的结果,一切事业都需要在继往开来中推进。中国共产党以奋斗铸就历史,也必将以奋斗创造未来。
On its centennial journey, the CPC has tempered its character with the courage to vanquish formidable enemies, defuse risks, and overcome challenges. This has become the Party's defining quality. All of its achievements are the results of the hard work of generations of Party members, and the base on which the cause will continue to prosper. The success of the Party in the past equips it to face the future with full confidence.

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