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中国共产党的历史使命与行动价值(双语全文)

新华网 2021-08-26 14:21

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四、始终保持旺盛生机和活力
IV. Maintaining Vigor and Vitality


革命者永远是年轻。党历经百年风雨仍然走在时代前列、保持青春活力,在于党不但能够领导人民进行伟大的社会革命,也能够进行伟大的自我革命,始终坚持党要管党、全面从严治党,与时俱进推进自我净化、自我完善、自我革新、自我提高,始终保持肌体健康和生机活力。
Forever young are the revolutionaries. The CPC has always been able to maintain vigor and vitality and stand at the forefront of the times despite the many hardships it has endured in the past hundred years. This is because it has constantly engaged in significant self-reform while leading the people in a great social revolution. To maintain its health and vigor, it exercises effective self-supervision, practices strict self-discipline in every respect, consistently pursues improvement, and advances with the times.

 

(一)坚持党内民主
1. Upholding Intra-Party Democracy


中国共产党倡导民主、推行民主,首先在党内实行民主。党不断探索党内民主的实现形式,激发全党的活力和创造力,努力营造又有集中又有民主、又有纪律又有自由、又有统一意志又有个人心情舒畅生动活泼的政治局面。
The CPC's advocacy and promotion of democracy is demonstrated first in its application within the Party. To achieve intra-Party democracy and create a political model characterized by centralism and democracy, by discipline and freedom, and by unity of will and individual initiative, the Party mobilizes all its members' dynamism and creativity in exploring the optimum models.


不断发展党内民主。党在成立之初就对党员条件、党的各级组织和党的纪律作出具体规定,体现了民主集中制原则。新中国成立后,党在健全民主集中制、实行党务公开、建立党代会常任制、保护和扩大党员民主权利等党内民主建设方面作出重要决定,促进了党内民主的健康发展。改革开放后,党提出“党内民主是党的生命”的重要论断。党的十八大以来,党大力推进党内民主建设,从党中央做起,以上率下、层层推动,党内民主的好作风好传统得到传承和发展,党内民主空气越来越浓厚;民主决策进一步发展,中央委员会、中央政治局、中央政治局常委会作出重大决策部署之前,深入开展调查研究,广泛听取下级党组织和广大党员意见和建议;党的代表大会报告、党的全会文件、党的重要文件和重大决策、重大改革发展举措等,都在党内一定范围内征求意见,有的多次征求意见;严肃党内政治生活,中央政治局带头落实民主生活会制度,认真开展批评与自我批评;党的领导层在政策上和工作上的一些不同意见,能够通过党内正常的讨论,取得意见的协调或认识的一致。在党中央带动下,各级党组织党内民主不断推进,党内生活更加积极健康,领导干部的民主作风不断增强。
Advancing intra-Party democracy. Upon its founding the CPC specified provisions on criteria for full Party membership, Party organizations at all levels and Party discipline, which all embodied the principle of democratic centralism.

Some of the major decisions made by the CPC after the founding of the PRC included improving democratic centralism, making Party affairs transparent, establishing a system of Party congresses with a fixed term, and protecting and expanding Party members' democratic rights.

After the launch of reform and opening up, the Party made an important judgment – that "intra-Party democracy is the Party's lifeline".

Since its 18th National Congress, the CPC has stepped up efforts to strengthen intra-Party democracy.

The CPC Central Committee leads by example in passing on the Party's finest traditions and work styles and developing them at every level. It has created a more favorable environment for intra-Party democracy.

Democratic decision-making has been extended. The CPC Central Committee and the Political Bureau and its Standing Committee carry out in-depth research and solicit opinions from subordinate Party organizations and Party members before making major decisions and plans.

Reports to the Party congresses, documents of the plenary sessions of the Central Committee, other important documents and major decisions of the Party, and key measures for reform and development are drafted and issued after appropriate intra-Party consultations, in some cases amounting to several rounds.

A vigorous campaign has been conducted to regulate political activities and conduct within the Party. The Political Bureau takes the lead in holding meetings for criticism and self-criticism. Differences of opinions among Party leaders on policy and work can be discussed in pursuit of consensus.

With the Central Committee leading by example, intra-Party democracy in Party organizations at all levels has been constantly improved, intra-Party activities are more vigorous, and officials have taken the lead in practicing democracy in their work.


尊重党员主体地位,保障党员民主权利。党员是党内民主的主体。所有党员,不论从事何种社会职业,担任何种职务,入党时间长短和年龄大小,在党内政治生活中都处于平等地位,享有平等权利。党员有参加党的有关会议,阅读党的有关文件,接受党的教育和培训的权利;有在党的会议上和党报党刊上,参加关于党的政策问题的讨论的权利;有对党的工作提出建议和倡议的权利;有行使表决权、选举权的权利,有被选举权;等等。在党内,民主渠道是畅通的,党员在党的会议上能够畅所欲言,能够讲真话、讲实话、讲心里话,不同意见的平等争论是受到鼓励的,基层的许多真实情况是通过畅通的民主渠道充分反映的。真实的、广泛的党内民主,增强了党员参加党内事务的积极性、主动性、创造性,使广大党员的聪明才智得到充分发挥。
Respecting the principal position of Party members and protecting their democratic rights. Party members play a principal role in intra-Party democracy. All Party members, regardless of occupation, position, Party standing and age, enjoy equal status and equal rights in political activities within the Party. They have the right to attend relevant Party meetings, read relevant Party documents, and benefit from Party education and training, to participate in discussion on questions concerning Party policy at Party meetings and in Party newspapers and periodicals, to make suggestions and proposals regarding the work of the Party, and to participate in voting and stand for election.

Within the Party, democratic channels are open and unimpeded. Party members can express their views freely, frankly and honestly at Party meetings. Arguments over differences of opinions are encouraged. Much information from the grassroots is accurately conveyed to the upper levels through unblocked democratic channels. Genuine and extensive intra-Party democracy increases Party members' enthusiasm, initiative, creativity, and will to participate in intra-Party affairs, and pools their wisdom and ingenuity.


把党内民主贯彻到民主选举、民主决策、民主管理、民主监督之中。党的重大决策部署,在党内广泛征求意见。党坚持集体领导制度,各级委员会实行集体领导和个人分工负责相结合的制度形式,对于党内的重大问题,按照集体领导、民主集中、个别酝酿、会议决定的原则,由集体讨论、按少数服从多数作出决定。建立并不断完善党内选举制度,党的各级代表大会的代表和委员会,全部由选举产生,体现选举人的意志。以党的各级领导机关和领导干部,特别是各级领导班子的主要负责人为重点,不断加强党内监督。干部选拔任用中,民主推荐、民主测评已经成为必经程序和基础环节。基层党内民主形式丰富多彩,基层党组织大多实行了直接选举。
Applying intra-Party democracy in elections, decision-making, management and oversight. The Party's major decisions and plans are made after soliciting opinions from a wide range of Party members. The Party upholds collective leadership. Party committees at all levels combine collective leadership with individual responsibility based on the division of work. Decisions on major issues are made after discussion in accordance with the principles of collective leadership, democratic centralism, pre-meeting reflection, and meeting-based decision-making, with the minority deferring to the majority.

The intra-Party election system has been improved. Delegates to Party congresses and members of Party committees at all levels are elected, and reflect the will of the electorate.

Continuous efforts have been made to strengthen internal oversight, focusing on leading Party organs and Party members in leadership positions, and particularly those holding principal positions in leadership teams.

In the selection and appointment of officials, democratic recommendation and appraisal is a basic step and an essential requirement. Intra-Party democracy at the grassroots is practiced in many forms, and direct elections are held by most primary-level Party organizations.


作为执政党,中国共产党党内民主的发展,对于国家政治、经济和社会领域产生重要的积极影响。党的各级领导干部和广大党员,把在党内树立的民主观念、养成的民主习惯、培养的民主作风、形成的民主传统带到各自工作岗位,模范遵守人民民主的法律和制度,影响和带动自己工作领域中的民主风气,增强身边群众的民主意识,有力带动和促进了人民民主的发展。
As the CPC is the governing party, its progress in intra-Party democracy exerts an important and positive influence on the state's politics, and on society and the economy. Party officials at all levels and Party members have vigorously advanced people's democracy by applying democratic ideas, habits, conduct and traditions fostered within the Party, influencing others and nurturing a democratic atmosphere in their own fields, enhancing the sense of democracy around them, and strictly abiding by the law and regulations.

 

(二)勇于修正错误
2. Correcting Mistakes


中国共产党在领导人民取得革命、建设、改革伟大成就的同时,也经历过失误和曲折。但是,党能够正视自身的问题,勇于坚持真理、修正错误,不断战胜自我、超越自我,领导人民继续前进。
In the course of leading China's revolution, reconstruction and reform to great success, the CPC has made mistakes and experienced setbacks. It has faced up to its problems and mistakes, and corrected them by upholding the truth. Through trial and error, it has grown stronger and better, and continues to lead the people forward.


对待问题和错误坚持正确态度,不遮掩,不回避。中国共产党是全心全意为人民服务的政党,有缺点、有错误不怕别人批评指出,敢于为人民利益坚持正确的、改正错误的。“大跃进”⑳后,毛泽东同志对“大跃进”造成的工作失误主动承担了责任,党的其他领导人向民主党派和无党派人士说明“大跃进”时期国内工作的缺点错误责任在中国共产党,主要责任在党中央,并作了诚恳的自我批评。一个马克思主义政党对自己的错误所抱的态度,是衡量这个党是否真正履行对人民所负责任、是否真正有力量的重要尺度。面对错误,党始终体现出马克思主义政党和一个大党应有的格局、风范和担当,实事求是,襟怀坦白,赢得了人民的理解和拥护。
The CPC openly confronts its shortcomings and errors. As a party in service of the people, it is not afraid of criticism of its shortcomings. It always retains what is right and corrects what is wrong, all in the best interests of the people. After the Great Leap Forward [ This refers to the socialist movement from the winter of 1957 to early 1960 that set unrealistic goals for industry and agriculture, with an overemphasis on speed. It reflected the people's urgent need for development, but failed to respect basic economic laws.], Mao Zedong offered to take responsibility for the mistake. The Party leadership explained to the other political parties and non-affiliates that the CPC and particularly its Central Committee should take the main responsibility for the error, and offered sincere self-criticism. The attitude of a Marxist party towards its mistakes is an important means to gauge whether it can fulfill its responsibilities towards the people, and whether it is truly a capable organization. In the case of the CPC, as a large Marxist party it always acts in ways commensurate with its character, breadth of vision, and sense of responsibility. Seeking truth from facts, it remains open to criticism and suggestions, and this has won understanding and support from the public.


实事求是地总结教训,在修正错误中继续前进。人民至上的深厚情怀、对党的事业的高度责任感、民主集中制的根本组织原则、批评与自我批评的有力武器,使得党既有敢于面对错误的勇气,也有认识错误、修正错误的能力。党对自己包括领袖人物的失误和错误,历来采取郑重的态度,一是敢于承认,二是正确分析,三是坚决纠正,从而使失误和错误连同党的成功经验一起成为宝贵的历史教材。新民主主义革命时期,党从大革命失败和第五次反“围剿”失败的错误中汲取教训,领导中国革命走上正确的道路。社会主义革命和建设时期,党纠正“大跃进”和“文化大革命”㉑的错误,深刻全面地总结教训,为开辟中国特色社会主义道路奠定了基础。党在与“左”的和右的两种错误倾向长期斗争过程中,全面系统地总结经验教训,先后作出《关于若干历史问题的决议》《关于建国以来党的若干历史问题的决议》,深刻分析所犯错误根源,对重大历史事件和重要历史人物作出实事求是的评价,统一了全党思想,维护了全党团结,为党继续前进提供了重要保证。
The CPC learns from its mistakes, and, while correcting them, presses on. It has the courage to do this precisely because it has a deep love for the people and a strong sense of its cause. It applies the fundamental principle of democratic centralism, and employs the powerful weapon of criticism and self-criticism. Honestly acknowledging its problems and mistakes, including those of its leaders, the CPC has always conducted careful analysis of root causes and taken resolute measures to correct them. Its mistakes, failures, and lessons, together with its successes, all serve as an invaluable textbook.

During the New Democratic Revolution, the CPC drew lessons from the failed Great Revolution and from its defeat in the KMT's fifth encirclement and suppression campaign. It subsequently led the Chinese revolution onto the correct path.

During socialist revolution and reconstruction, the Party corrected the mistakes of the Great Leap Forward and the Cultural Revolution [ This refers to the tumultuous political movement from May 1966 to October 1976 initiated by Mao Zedong and manipulated by two counter-revolutionary cliques under Lin Biao and Jiang Qing. It caused great harm to the Party, the nation, and the people.], and conducted a comprehensive, in-depth review of the hard lessons it had learned, thus laying the groundwork for socialism with Chinese characteristics.

In the long-term fight against both Leftist and Rightist tendencies, the Party has made its position clear in the Resolution on Certain Issues in the History of the CPC (released in 1945) and the Resolution on Certain Questions in the History of the CPC Since the Founding of the People's Republic of China (released in 1981). The two resolutions document grave problems and mistakes in the history of the Party. They analyze the root causes and draw objective conclusions regarding important historical events and figures. In this way the whole Party has come to a clear consensus on its past and thus grown stronger in unity.


没有一个政党是不犯错误的,重要的是能否从错误中学习,取得教训。中国共产党是伟大、光荣、正确的党,并不是因为从来不犯错误,而是因为能够正确认识错误,从错误中学习,通过错误的教训提高对客观规律的认识,进而纠正错误,使错误成为正确的先导。坚持真理、修正错误,永远是党坚持为人民服务、坚持人民至上而恪守的态度。
Every political party makes mistakes. What matters most is whether it can learn from its mistakes and improve itself. The CPC is a great and glorious party that charts the correct course. This does not mean that it never errs, but that it adopts the correct approach to its mistakes, corrects them, and learns from them. To uphold truth and correct any mistake is the Party's approach to always serving the people and putting people first.

 

(三)保持肌体健康
3. Protecting the Party's Health


在革命、建设、改革中,中国共产党面临着形形色色的考验。外部世界的各种诱惑,管党治党的松懈松弛,党员思想行为的不良变化,都会对党的肌体造成侵害。党坚决同影响党的先进性、弱化党的纯洁性的各种现象作斗争,不断医治病症,坚决铲除毒瘤,保持肌体健康。
In revolution, reconstruction and reform, the CPC has been and will be confronted with all kinds of tests, including temptations from the outside world. Any slackness in enforcing Party self-discipline or any negative shift in its members' thinking and behavior will erode its health. With that in mind, the Party takes resolute measures against all phenomena that may undermine its integrity and progressive nature. It treats any signs or symptoms of disease as soon as they appear and promptly removes any virus or tumor identified in order to protect its health.


保持党员队伍活力。党员是党的活动的主体。党高度重视党员队伍建设,在增加数量的同时提升质量,把党员锻造成为一个个坚强个体,党的队伍越来越团结、越来越强大。在不同历史时期,党都注重结合时代特点,最广泛地吸收社会各方面的先进分子,补充新鲜血液,使党始终代表最广大人民的根本利益。虽然不同时期入党条件和程序有一些变化,但对党员的要求都很高,入党程序都很严格。成为共产党员,没有身份、学历、财富等要求,但有着十分严格的政治和道德要求。申请入党要履行严格手续、经过认真教育和严格考察后才能成为正式党员。党始终重视加强党员队伍教育管理,使得来源不同的党员在党的大熔炉里,锤炼成为坚定的共产主义战士。党员不论职务高低,都必须编入党的一个支部、小组或其他特定组织,参加党的组织生活,接受党内外群众的监督,开展批评和自我批评。在加强日常教育管理的同时,党还围绕一个时期面临的形势任务,针对党员队伍存在的突出问题,开展党内集中教育。党高度重视作风建设,把它作为关系人心向背、关系党的生死存亡的重大问题,通过坚决有力的措施,防止和惩治脱离人民、侵害人民利益的各种行为,始终保持党同人民群众的血肉联系。党的主体由健全的坚强的分子组成,但也不可避免地掺杂不坚定分子、变节分子、异己分子和腐败分子。对不合格党员,党及时提出警告、促其改正,严重者坚决清理出党。
Maintaining the vitality of Party members. As Party members play the primary role in implementing CPC programs and activities, the Party attaches great importance to strengthening its membership in both quantitative and qualitative terms and making them a strong and united contingent of staunch Communists. In all historical periods, in the light of changing circumstances, the Party has given particular attention to replenishing its ranks by admitting progressive people from all sectors of society, so that it always represents the fundamental interests of the people. Although the eligibility and procedures for Party membership have varied in different periods, the requirements for Party members always remain high and procedures for joining the Party always remain rigorous. Personal status, level of education and financial background are irrelevant to qualification for CPC membership, but political and moral requirements are strict. An applicant must go through stringent procedures and undergo rigorous education and observation for a probationary period before becoming a full member.

The CPC considers it imperative to strengthen the education and management of its members, regardless of their origins and background, to forge resolute Communists. Every Party member, irrespective of position, must join a branch, group, or other given unit of the Party. They must participate in the regular activities of the Party organizations, place themselves under the scrutiny of people both within and outside the Party, and engage in criticism and self-criticism.

In addition to regular education and day-to-day management, the CPC also carries out themed education programs focusing on the situations and tasks that it faces in any given period, and on the prominent problems that confront its members. The Party gives priority to improving its conduct and regards this as a major issue that has a direct impact on its prospects of winning or losing public support and on the very survival of the Party. To forever maintain its close ties with the people, it applies resolute and effective measures to prevent or punish any action that creates barriers between the Party and the people or infringes on their interests.

The Party is mostly composed of sound and committed members, yet it is inevitable that some of them may become fainthearts, dissidents, corrupt elements, or traitors. To its underperforming members the Party sounds a warning and instructs them to rectify their conduct in a timely manner; it resolutely expels those with serious failings.

 

 

加强对权力的制约和监督。中国共产党的权力是人民赋予的,只能用来为人民谋利益,党对此始终保持清醒认识。党创立伊始,就指出地方委员会的财政、活动和政策应受中央执行委员会的监督。抗日战争时期,党提出只有让人民来监督政府,政府才不敢松懈。新中国成立后不久,党成立了中央及地方各级纪律检查委员会,成立国家行政监察部门,加强对领导干部特别是高级干部的监督。改革开放新时期,党积极推进党和国家领导制度改革,健全完善党委内部的议事和决策机制,建立健全决策权、执行权、监督权既相互制约又相互协调的权力结构和运行机制。党的十八大以来,党把加强对权力的制约和监督作为全面从严治党重要内容,围绕“把权力关进制度的笼子里”,突出“一把手”和领导班子这个“关键少数”,以巡视工作条例、党内监督条例等为重点健全党内监督法规体系,锻造巡视利剑并组织开展大规模巡视,实现向中央一级党和国家机关全面派驻纪检机构,深化国家监察体制改革,把党内监督同国家机关监督、民主监督、司法监督、群众监督、舆论监督贯通起来,让权力在阳光下运行。
Strengthening checks and scrutiny over the exercise of power. The mandate of the CPC comes from the people and must be exercised in the interests of the people. The Party is always soberly aware of this. Upon its founding, the Party stipulated that the finances, activities and policies of local committees would be supervised by the Central Executive Committee. During the War of Resistance Against Japanese Aggression, the Party made it clear that only under public scrutiny could a government be clean and efficient. Soon after the founding of the PRC, the Party set up commissions for disciplinary inspection and the state established supervisory departments at the central and local levels to bring officials under closer scrutiny, especially those in senior positions. Since the beginning of reform and opening up, the Party has actively pressed forward with reform of the system of Party and state leadership, improving the mechanisms for deliberation and decision-making within Party committees, and establishing and improving a framework for the exercise of power under which decision-making power, executive power and supervisory power are mutually exclusive but are coordinated with each other. Since its 18th National Congress, the CPC has been strengthening checks on and scrutiny over the exercise of power as an important part of its full and strict self-discipline.

Focusing on confining the exercise of power in an institutional cage, the Party gives prominence to scrutiny of the "key few" – the principal members of the leadership teams at all levels. It is improving its regulatory system for internal oversight, the priorities being the introduction of provisions on tours of disciplinary inspection and the regulations on internal scrutiny. While strengthening the deterrent role of disciplinary inspection, the Party has launched massive inspection campaigns and dispatched resident disciplinary inspection agencies to the central-level departments of the Party and the government. It works to extend reform of the national supervision system and integrates intra-Party oversight with oversight by state organs, democratic oversight, judicial oversight, public oversight, and oversight by the media, to ensure that power is exercised under public scrutiny.


坚决反对腐败。腐败问题是关系党的生死存亡的重大问题。中国共产党深知腐败之害,与腐败水火不容。党成立之初就提出对腐化分子混入党内的现象必须高度警惕,要求坚决清洗不良分子,和不良倾向斗争。新中国成立初期,在党政机关工作人员中开展反对贪污、反对浪费、反对官僚主义的“三反”运动,特别是判处在革命战争中有过功劳但堕落成为大贪污犯的刘青山、张子善死刑,在全党引起震动。党的十八大以来,面对一段时间内党内腐败问题比较严重的状况,党以“得罪千百人,不负十四亿”的意志,以猛药去疴、重典治乱的决心,以刮骨疗毒、壮士断腕的勇气,坚持反腐败无禁区、全覆盖、零容忍,坚定不移“打虎”“拍蝇”“猎狐”,以雷霆之势、霹雳手段惩治腐败,持续形成强大震慑,同时,坚持系统施治、标本兼治,一体推进不敢腐、不能腐、不想腐,反腐败斗争取得压倒性胜利并全面巩固。在解决腐败这个古今中外治国理政的顽疾方面,党不仅有鲜明态度,更有实际行动。
Resolutely combating corruption. Corruption is a major threat to the Party's survival. The CPC is fully aware of the harm that corruption can do and tolerates no corruption. At its very beginning, the Party cautioned that it must stay keenly alert to the entryism of corrupt elements, and vowed to resolutely expel bad elements and fight against negative trends. In the early years of the PRC, the Party launched the campaign against the "three evils" of corruption, waste and bureaucratism within Party and government institutions. In particular, the death penalties imposed on Liu Qingshan and Zhang Zishan, both of whom had performed with great merit in the revolutionary war but later degenerated into major embezzlers, sent a shockwave through the whole Party.

Since its 18th National Congress, facing a situation where corruption had been a growing problem in the Party for some time, the CPC has demonstrated its commitment to resolute action. It would rather offend a few thousand corrupt officials than fail to live up to the expectations of 1.4 billion Chinese people. It has remained firm in its determination and demonstrated great courage in combating corruption. Just as heavy doses of medicine are needed to treat serious disease, stringent measures must be applied to address serious corruption. To this end, the Party has allowed no safe haven, left no ground unturned, and shown no tolerance in fighting corruption. It has taken firm action to "take out tigers", "swat flies", and "hunt down foxes". [ Tigers and flies respectively refer to high-ranking and petty officials guilty of corruption, while foxes refer to corrupt officials who have fled abroad. – Tr.] To form a powerful deterrent it has punished corruption with decisive measures and overwhelming severity. At the same time it has taken a systemic approach to addressing both the symptoms and root causes of corruption, ensuring that officials do not dare to be, are denied the opportunity to be, and have no wish to be corrupt. As a result, a crushing victory has been won in the anti-corruption campaign and the success has been consolidated. In resolving the issue of corruption, a persistent problem in governance at all times and across the globe, the Party has adopted an uncompromising attitude and taken concrete actions.


坚决防止在党内形成特权阶层。中国共产党深刻汲取古今中外治党不严、治国不力的深刻教训,刀刃向内,从严治党,从党中央严起、从党的高级干部严起,严下先严上、严人先严己。革命战争年代,从党的领袖、党的领导人到各级领导干部,与普通士兵和广大群众同甘共苦,形成了无坚不摧的战斗力。新中国成立后,党采取有力措施加强对党的高级干部的监督。改革开放初期,党对高级干部生活待遇作出若干规定,强调高级干部必须带头发扬党的优良传统。党的十八大以来,党中央以身作则、以上率下,严格执行中央八项规定㉒,并把反“四风”㉓、反腐败与反特权思想和特权现象相结合,在干部办公用房、公务用车、秘书配备、公务消费等方面出台了一系列整治措施,严格规范领导干部特别是高级领导干部的工作和生活待遇,带动了全党全社会风气整体转变,凝聚了党心民心,提升了党在人民心中的形象和威信。
Preventing the formation of an entitled elite in the Party. The CPC has drawn profound lessons from examples of failure or ineffective leadership of political parties or states throughout history and across the world. It is always strict with itself, with its Central Committee, and with its senior officials. In the years of revolutionary war, the Party's top leaders and other officials at all levels stood together with the rank and file through thick and thin, forming an invincible force. After the founding of the PRC, the Party adopted rigorous measures to bring senior officials under closer scrutiny. In the early years of reform and opening up, it set out provisions delimiting the legitimate privileges of senior officials, and emphasizing that they must take the lead in carrying forward the Party's fine traditions. Since the 18th CPC National Congress, the Central Committee has played a model role in strictly observing its Eight Rules [ The Eight Rules were set by the Political Bureau of the 18th CPC Central Committee to urge all officials to improve their ways of doing things and maintain close ties with the people. They are summarized as follows: improving investigation and fact-finding trips, streamlining meetings and other activities, reducing documents and briefings, standardizing arrangements for visits abroad, improving security procedures, improving news reports, imposing restrictions on publishing writings, and practicing diligence and frugality.]. It opposes corruption and the Four Malfeasances [ The Four Malfeasances refer to the practices of favoring form over substance, bureaucratism, hedonism, and extravagance.], as well as any sense of entitlement and the inclination to act on it. It has issued a series of rectifying measures on the assignment of offices, official vehicles, and immediate staff, and on spending in the performance of official duties, with the goal of strictly delimiting the privileges of officials, especially senior officials. All of this has led to a complete change in the whole ethos of the Party and society. As a result, the Party has boosted the faith of its members and the people, and enhanced its image and authority in their hearts.

 

(四)注重学习总结
4. Promoting Study and Review


中国共产党是有本事的党。100年来,党领导人民创造了以少胜多、以弱胜强的战争奇迹,创造了经济快速发展奇迹和社会长期稳定奇迹,一次次让不可能成为可能。党之所以能够站在时代潮头、引领风气之先,能够应对复杂形势、完成艰巨任务,一个关键因素在于党注重学习总结和吸收借鉴,不断增强进行革命、建设、改革所需要的实际本领。
The CPC is a capable party. Over the past hundred years, it has led the people to numerous great achievements: defeating the many and strong with the few and weak in war, maintaining rapid economic growth and lasting social stability, and turning the impossible into the possible again and again. The reasons that the Party has been able to stand in the forefront of the times, respond to complex circumstances, and complete arduous tasks, are twofold. One is its emphasis on study and review; the other its commitment to drawing on good experience from other countries to strengthen its own capability for revolution, reconstruction and reform.


中国共产党是学习型政党。党的性质和担负的使命,要求党必须注重学习、善于学习、不断学习。面对不断发展变化的形势任务,党始终甘当小学生,向群众学、向实践学、向历史学、向别人学。革命战争年代,党靠着学习,找到了中国革命的正确道路。新中国成立初期,党靠着学习,迅速恢复国民经济,使国内外那些怀疑共产党能够搞好经济的人们也不能不表示赞佩。改革开放后,党靠着学习,探索出中国特色社会主义道路。进入新时代,面对现代信息技术的迅猛发展和复杂的国内外环境,党提出建设学习型、服务型、创新型马克思主义执政党的重大任务,在全党大兴学习之风,执政能力和执政水平显著提升。党重视抓好领导干部特别是高级领导干部的学习,培养了一支治党治国治军的中坚力量。中共中央政治局建立集体学习制度㉔,为全党起到了重要的带头示范作用。建立党委(党组)理论学习中心组学习制度,各级党委(党组)领导班子成员定期围绕不同主题进行学习。在全党定期或不定期开展形势政策教育。依托中央和地方各级党校(行政学院),开展大规模多层次培训。重视学习、善于学习,使得党能够适应不断发展变化的形势,树立新观念,掌握新本领,解决新问题。党依靠学习赢得过去,也将依靠学习赢得未来。
The CPC is a learning party. Its nature and mission require it to devote attention to learning, be adept at learning, and continue to learn. Facing developments and changes in its circumstances and tasks, the Party has always been modest, learning from the people, from experience, from history and from other countries.

In the years of revolutionary war, it was by learning that the Party found the correct path for the Chinese revolution. After the founding of the PRC, it was by learning that the CPC was able to quickly restore the economy, winning praise and respect from those doubting its ability. After the launch of reform and opening up, it was by learning that the Party opened up the path of socialism with Chinese characteristics. In the new era of surging modern information technology and a complex domestic and international landscape, the Party has set a major task – to develop itself into a learning, service-oriented, and innovative Marxist governing party, launching campaigns to encourage learning within the Party to strengthen its ability in governance.

The CPC gives priority to learning by officials, particularly those in leading positions, through which it has cultivated a strong contingent of individuals capable of leading the Party, governing the country, and commanding the military. The Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee has a system of regular group study sessions [ Under this system, the general secretary presides over each session and delivers a speech, and all members of the Political Bureau attend the session. Experts and academics are invited to give lectures on issues relating to the economy, politics, history, culture, society, science and technology, military affairs, foreign relations, and other subjects. The Political Bureau of the 18th CPC Central Committee held 43 group study sessions. By July 30, 2021, the Political Bureau of the 19th CPC Central Committee had held 32 group study sessions.], playing an exemplary and leading role for the whole Party. There is also a system of study groups for leading officials, under which Party committees and Party leadership groups at all levels hold study sessions on different topics on a regular basis. Various activities are organized to educate Party members on the current situation and the Party's targeted policies. Training on a large scale and at multiple levels is conducted by central and local Party schools or schools of governance. This requirement for learning and being able to learn has enabled the Party to adapt to changing circumstances, foster new ideas, acquire new skills and solve new problems. It is through learning that the Party has succeeded in the past, and it is through learning that it will succeed in the future.


中国共产党是靠总结经验成长起来的。不论是革命战争年代还是和平建设时期,从党中央到基层组织,完成阶段性工作和重大任务后,都要进行总结,发扬优点,克服缺点,继续前进,做到打一仗进一步。勤于总结、善于总结,已经成为党重要的思想方法和工作方法。党既重视总结成功经验,更重视从失败中学习。自己犯的错误特别是大错误,暴露出的问题、揭示出的规律往往更加深刻,更值得总结。历史上,党每次都能从大的错误中总结教训,使党的事业有一个大的推进。党在探索、总结、提高的螺旋式上升中,实现了重要经验的提炼升华,实现了具有重要意义的历史转折。当代中国是历史中国的延续和发展。党高度重视历史的学习,反复强调学习中国历史,学习党史、新中国史、改革开放史、社会主义发展史,在汲取历史经验中不断前进。党以史为鉴,既注重从中华优秀传统文化中汲取治国理政的智慧和营养,也深刻汲取历代政权更迭和各种政治力量衰败的教训,反复警醒全党,避免重蹈覆辙。党不仅注重总结汲取自身和本国历史的经验,还注重总结汲取世界政党特别是世界社会主义运动的经验教训,以其为镜鉴,反思和改进党的工作,不断提高执政能力和拒腐防变能力。
The CPC has grown strong by reviewing experience and summarizing the lessons learned. Whether in times of war or peace, Party organizations, from the top-level Central Committee to the grassroots, produce a review after completing a project or major task, so that they can identify successes, remedy shortcomings, and move forward. Being diligent in and adept at reviewing experience has become an important part of the Party's theoretical and practical work. In addition to summing up successful experience, the CPC attaches great importance to drawing lessons from and learning from failures. Problems and mistakes – particularly serious ones – and the requirements revealed by such mistakes and problems are often worth summarizing. Throughout its history, the CPC has been able to draw lessons from every major error, in order to advance its cause. From this progressive spiral of review, summary, and action the CPC has extracted important experience, and gone on to make changes of historic significance.

Contemporary China is the extension and development of China in the past. The CPC pays close attention to learning from history and constantly emphasizes the significance of such learning. By studying its own history and the history of China, including the PRC, reform and opening up, and the development of socialism, the Party has been able to move forward based on historical experience. To learn from history the CPC draws on wisdom and nutrients from the best of traditional Chinese culture, and at the same time learns lessons from the rise and fall of previous regimes or political powers. It reminds the whole Party not to commit the same errors. The CPC also sums up experience and lessons from other political parties around the world and from the world socialist movement, to reflect on and improve its work, reinforce its ability to govern the country, and combat corruption.


中国共产党是开明开放的政党。对于人类文明的一切优秀成果,党从来都是结合实际,以开放态度积极吸收借鉴。新中国成立后,党借鉴苏联经验开展社会主义革命和建设,对于恢复和发展国民经济,推动社会主义改造和工业化发展,发挥了重要作用。改革开放后,党积极吸收和借鉴世界各国包括发达资本主义国家的一切反映现代社会化生产规律的先进经营方式、管理方法和科学技术,显著提升了中国的现代化建设水平。党的十八大以来,党积极推动文明交流互鉴,深化与其他政党治国理政经验交流,加强多种形式、多种层次的国际政党交流合作,通过政党间协商合作促进国家间协调合作,推动共同发展,实现互利共赢。
The CPC is an open-minded party. Proceeding from China's realities, the Party absorbs and draws on all the excellent achievements of human civilization. After the founding of the PRC, it learned from the Soviet Union how to carry out socialist revolution and how to build socialism, which helped it to restore and develop the economy and advance socialist transformation and industrialization.

After the launch of reform and opening up, it drew on advanced operating models, managerial experience, and technologies that embody the laws of modern socialized production. What the Party learned from the rest of the world, including developed capitalist countries, helped advance China's modernization.

Since its 18th National Congress, the CPC has promoted exchanges and mutual learning between civilizations, expanded the sharing of experience with political parties from other countries, and strengthened communication and cooperation in many forms and at multiple levels with political parties around the world. Through consultation and cooperation with other political parties, the CPC has strengthened China's ties with other countries in pursuit of common development and mutual benefit.


100年来,中国共产党历经千锤百炼而朝气蓬勃,一个很重要的原因就是勇于自我革命。未来路上,党仍然面临着精神懈怠危险、能力不足危险、脱离群众危险、消极腐败危险,仍然面临着执政考验、改革开放考验、市场经济考验、外部环境考验。但是,经过百年磨砺,党具有自我革命的勇气和能力,能够经受住各种挑战和考验,不变质、不变色、不变味,始终保持旺盛生机和活力。
Over the past hundred years, the CPC has remained robust and vibrant despite having undergone so many trials and tribulations. An important reason for this is that it has had the courage to carry out self-reform. On the way ahead, the Party will still face dangers – loss of drive, incompetence, disengagement from the people, inaction, or corruption. And it will still be confronted with tests of its capacity to exercise governance of the country, carry out reform and opening up, develop the market economy, and respond to external volatility.However, after a hundred years of hard struggle, the CPC has the courage and ability to carry out self-reform and is able to meet any challenge and withstand any test. It will never change or betray its nature. It will always remain dynamic and grow stronger.

 

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