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April 11
1951: MacArthur fired - Ridgway takes over
[ 2007-04-11 08:00 ]

April 11
Paratrooper general Matthew Ridgway is renowned for wearing a hand-grenade
1951: MacArthur fired - Ridgway takes over

England have

US President Harry S Truman has dismissed General Douglas MacArthur as commander of United Nations and US forces in the Far East after disagreements over foreign policy in Korea.

General MacArthur will be replaced by Lieutenant-General Matthew Ridgway, appointed as head of the 8th Army in Korea by General MacArthur himself last December.

At 0100 local time, Washington issued the official announcement of the general's dismissal along with several documents showing he had ignored orders to refrain from making political statements.

The move has shocked the American public and angered Republican politicians who revere General MacArthur as a distinguished soldier and leader.

In a broadcast to the nation tonight, the president acknowledged the general was one of America's greatest military commanders. But he added: "The cause of world peace is more important than any individual."

Last month, General MacArthur called for an attack on China itself unless Communist forces laid down their arms in Korea.

Tonight President Truman re-affirmed his belief that extending the battle beyond Korea could lead to a third world war if the Soviet Union decided to enter the fray.

"A number of events have made it evident that General MacArthur did not agree with that policy," he said. "I have therefore considered it essential to relieve General MacArthur so that there would be no doubt or confusion as to the real purpose and aim of our policy."

He also made it clear he was ready to negotiate with the North Koreans on a peace settlement as long as fighting stopped.

Republican leaders in Congress and the Senate expressed their anger saying the dismissal had endangered national unity and they called for Congress to investigate foreign policy in Korea.

General MacArthur's successor, Lt-General Ridgway, is a highly respected paratrooper commander who jumped with his men in World War II during the invasion of Sicily and on D-Day.

He earned many awards for bravery along with the nickname "the fighting and jumping general".

Since his arrival in Korea last year, Lt-Gen Ridgway has regrouped retreating allied forces, boosted army morale and hit back at the enemy in what he calls a "limited offensive" pushing the Communists back north across the 38th parallel.

British troops have compared him to General Montgomery in the way he inspires his men on the battlefield.

His habit of wearing a hand grenade at his shoulder is as familiar to the troops as Montgomery's beret.

April 11
Adolf Eichmann was captured in Argentina

1961: Nazi war crimes trial begins

Artificially 1969:
The trial has begun in Israel of the man accused of helping Hitler in his plan toexterminatethe Jews.

Adolf Eichmann faces 15 charges, including crimes against humanity, crimes against the Jewish people and war crimes.

He sat in a bullet-proof glass dock flanked by two guards specially chosen because their families had not suffered directly at the hands of the Nazis.

The three judges hearing the case in Jerusalem were all refugees from the Nazi regime in Germany.

The charges were read out in Hebrew by chief judge Mr. Justice Moshe Landau and translated into German for the prisoner.

It took one hour and 15 minutes to list all the details of the charges against Adolf Eichmann during which time the 55-year-old stoodstifflyin the dock.

'No jurisdiction'

The first issue the court dealt with was its competence to hear the Eichmann case at all.

His lawyer, Dr Robert Servatius, argued that as the state of Israel did not exist at the time of the alleged offences it had no jurisdiction.

Dr Servatius said that his client was "free of guilt" and was being prosecuted for things he was drawn into by the Nazi state.

Whatever the judgement, many say it is remarkable the case against Adolf Eichmann has even been brought.

After the end of the Second World War he escaped from a prison camp and avoided facing the Nuremberg War Crimes Tribunal.

In 1950 he arrived in Argentina which was a safe haven for many Nazi war criminals.

However, last year a team of Israeli secret agents abducted him and smuggled him to Israel.


exterminate:to get rid of by destroying completely; extirpate(消除,根除,灭绝)

stiffly:rigidly, inflexibly(呆板的,僵硬的)

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