科学发展观 Scientific Outlook on Development
A concept initiated by the 16th Central Committee of the Communist Party of China (CPC) in 2003. It stresses a comprehensive, balanced and sustainable development that is people-orientated. With priority on addressing the needs and protecting the rights of the people, the country will not only grow in economic terms, but also in political and cultural terms. The growth aims to bridge regional disparity, the urban-rural gap, protect resources, and the environment.
This concept is the core of policies by the CPC's current leaders headed by Hu Jintao. At the 17th CPC National Congress in October 2007, it was formally included in the Party Constitution.
双拥 Double Support
Shorthand for the administrative effort to enhance ties between the army and civilian communities. In essence, the expression means local governments and common people should support the army and give preferential treatment to the families of service people, particularly those killed while on the job, while soldiers should support the government and love the people.
In connection with this effort, schools offer training programs to soldiers, while common people provide technological consultations and donate books and the use of other facilities to the army. In return, the army helps deal with natural disasters, major construction projects and other difficulties.
保持党员先进性教育Campaign to Educate Party Members to Preserve Their Vanguard Nature
A campaign by the Communist Party of China to educate its members to stick firmly to the principles of the Party and serve the people so as to keep the Party's vigor and leading role in the country.
From January 2005 to June 2006, the country's 68 million Party members participated in the special education program. They refreshed their knowledge about the important theories of the Party at different periods, solidified their loyalty to the Party and improved the efficiency of the grass-root organizations of the Party in serving the people.
和平共处五项原则 Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence
A set of norms governing relations between nations first raised by China. Put forward by then Premier Zhou Enlai in 1953 during negotiations between China and India, the five principles were originally meant to maintain friendly ties. Under the principles, both sides agreed to respect the territorial integrity and sovereignty of each other, not to invade the soil of each other, do not interfere in each other's internal affairs, the ties should be equally based, and mutually beneficial for the two countries to coexist peacefully.
The five principles have been widely accepted in bilateral relations between China and many other countries. One of the corner stones of China's foreign policy, it has also become an important part in the law on international relationships.
社会主义荣辱观 Socialist Concept of Honor and Disgrace
An idea put forward to instill a value of moral standards among the public, especially youngsters, in line with Chinese traditional values and modern virtues.
The concept underscores the value of patriotism, consciousness of serving the people, belief in science, hard work, solidarity, honesty, observation of the law and plain living. It condemns the opposite of these virtues as disgraces.
It was raised by Hu Jintao, general secretary of the Communist Party of China, in March 2006. And the concept is also known as "eight honors and eight disgraces".