基层群众自治制度 System of Community Level Self-Governance
A grassroots democratic system in which rural and urban citizens manage the public affairs in their organizations and communities. Composed of the villagers' committee in rural areas, neighborhood committee in urban areas and the conference of workers and staff in businesses, the system enables the members to carry out democratic elections, decision-making and supervision. An important part in the country's political democracy, it was stressed as a fundamental system to adhere to in improving the socialist political system by General Secretary Hu Jintao in his report to the 17th National Congress of the Communist Party of China in 2007.
多党合作和政治协商制度 System of Multi-party Cooperation and Political Consultation
A basic political system in China under which the Communist Party of China (CPC), as the party in power, consults all non-Communist parties and representatives of non-party personages to reach a common understanding before taking major decisions. Formally established in 1949 when New China was founded, the system is practiced through various forms. The two major forms are the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference, of which non-Communist party members and non-party personages are members, and the consultative conferences attended by non-Communist parties and unaffiliated democrats who are invited by the CPC bodies at different levels.
依法治国 Rule of Law
A fundamental principle of governance that stresses that the country should be administered in accordance with the law.
It was formally raised as a fundamental principle in 1997 when former general secretary of the Communist Party of China (CPC) Jiang Zemin delivered his report to the 15th National Congress of the CPC. He stressed the principle should be fully observed as "socialist democracy is gradually institutionalized and codified so that such institutions and laws will not change with changes in the leadership or changes in the views or focus of attention of any leader."
This principle was reiterated by General Secretary Hu Jintao during the 17th CPC National Congress in 2007.
民主集中制 Democratic Centralism
A principle of organization in the Communist Party of China (CPC) as well as in the country's political life, stressing both democracy and centralism. Enunciated originally by Vladimir Lenin, the principle stresses that the Party members have the freedom to discuss and debate matters of policy and direction, but must support the final decision once it is reached through a majority vote. Individuals must obey the Party or the organization, the minority must obey the majority, the lower levels of organizations must obey the ones at the upper level. It is one of the most important principles adopted by the CPC at its early stage and is upheld till now.
政企分开 Separate Government Functions from Enterprise Management
An effort to draw a clear line between the roles of the administration and of the businesses. Under the planned economy, the extensive involvement of the government in economic operations resulted in the government making commercial decisions for the businesses and the State-owned enterprises offering public services to their employees, ranging from medical care to education. Since the country introduced the economic reform, it became a major mission for the government to separate the functions of the administration from those of the enterprises in order to improve the efficiency of both.
农转非 Change From Rural Residents to Urban Residents
A change in the residential status of people under the household registration system.
Since the household registration system was established in the 1950s, residents were put into two categories, urban and rural, according to where they lived. While urban residents enjoyed relatively better social security as industrial workers, rural residents had to depend on farming for a living.
Rural people could obtain urban registration under special circumstances, like entering universities or becoming army officers. This was difficult to achieve, but viewed as a quick way to a better life, especially in the 1970s and 1980s.
As the country began to reform, so did the household registration system. The supply of commodities became more abundant on the market, and the difference in welfare of urban and rural residents was narrowed.
863计划 863 Program
A government program to stimulate the development of advanced technologies. The figure "863" comes from the fact that it was created in the third month of 1986.
Approved by former leader Deng Xiaoping, the program aims at lifting China's own efforts in scientific and technology research as well as in commercializing the benefits of the research. The program's specific plan gives preference to research in biology, information technology, astronautics, laser technology, automation, energy technology, and new materials.
A milestone in the history of scientific progress, the program has boosted China's independent research capability, laying a solid foundation for economic and social growth.
（整理自China Daily 英语点津 Helen 编辑）