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2020年6月新闻热词汇总

中国日报网 2020-07-01 10:00

6月,我国南方多地进入汛期,强降雨导致的洪涝灾害导致26个省(区、市)1300多万人次受灾;武汉公布全面核酸检测结果;北京出现本土传播新疫情,对三类人群实行出行管控;民航局对入境航班实施航班奖励和熔断措施;中新“快捷通道”启动;抗疫特别国债上市发行;夏至当日巧遇“金边日环食”;北斗三号最后一颗全球组网卫星发射成功;商合杭高铁全线贯通。

 


未成年人司法保护 judicial protection work of minors

6月1日,最高人民检察院发布《未成年人检察工作白皮书(2014—2019)》。

The number of crimes committed by minors has rebounded in the last two years, and the number of crimes against minors is also increasing, according to a white paper released by the Supreme People's Procuratorate on Monday.
最高人民检察院发布的白皮书显示,近两年,未成年人犯罪数量有所回升、侵害未成年人犯罪数量呈上升态势。

The white book reviewed judicial protection work of minors from 2014 to 2019.
白皮书全面梳理总结了2014至2019年全国检察机关未成年人司法保护工作。

【单词讲解】

Minor这个词用法很多,可以用作动词、名词和形容词。在法律上,minor指未满18岁的人,即“未成年人”。在学校里,minor可以指“辅修(课程)”或者“辅修生”,与major(专业)相对,比如,I'm minoring in computer science./Computer science is my minor.(我辅修计算机科学。)用作形容词的时候,minor也是与major相对的,表示“次要的、轻微的、小的”,比如,She played a number of minor roles in films.(她在电影里扮演过一些小角色。)

英语中关于“青少年犯罪”有一个固定的说法juvenile delinquency/juvenile offending,juvenile指“未成年、青少年”,也可以形容某人“孩子气的、幼稚的”。Delinquency这个词指“违法行为”,尤指青少年的违法行为,实施违法行为的青少年就可以称为delinquent。


白皮书通过对近年来涉未成年人刑事案件情况进行分析指出,当前未成年人犯罪总体形势趋稳向好,未成年人涉嫌严重暴力犯罪(serious violent crimes)和毒品犯罪(drug crimes)、校园欺凌(school bullying)和暴力犯罪、14至16周岁未成年人犯罪( crimes committed by minors between the ages of 14 to 16 )数量逐步减少,未成年人重新犯罪率整体平稳。但未成年人犯罪数量有所回升,未成年人聚众斗殴(brawl)、寻衅滋事(affray)、强奸(rape)犯罪人数上升;同时,性侵害(sexual abuse)、暴力伤害未成年人(violence against minors),成年人拉拢、诱迫未成年人参与黑恶犯罪(adults inducing minors to participate in gang crimes)等问题相对突出。

From 2014 to 2019, procuratorial organs investigated and arrested 284,569 juvenile suspects, of which nearly 88,953 were dismissed after investigations.
2014年至2019年,全国检察机关共受理审查逮捕未成年犯罪嫌疑人284569人,经审查,不批准逮捕88953人。

据介绍,最高检工作规划已明确要探索建立包括临界预防、保护处分、家庭教育在内的罪错未成年人分级处遇制度(a hierarchical intervention system for delinquent minors)。

日前,最高检、公安部等9部门会签下发了《关于建立侵害未成年人案件强制报告制度的意见(试行)》。《意见》规定了性侵(sexual assault)、虐待(abuse)、欺凌(bullying)、遗弃(abandonment)、拐卖(trafficking)等九类应当报告的情形,报告责任主体向公安机关报案或举报的,应按照主管行政机关要求报告备案。


武汉集中核酸检测 mass nucleic acid testing

湖北省新冠肺炎疫情防控指挥部6月2日下午召开新闻发布会,介绍武汉市集中核酸检测排查工作情况。

 

Lu Zuxun, a public health professor at Huazhong University of Science and Technology, said from May 14 to June 1, the city conducted nucleic acid tests on 9,899,828 residents and reported 300 asymptomatic cases who show no clear symptoms despite carrying the virus. No confirmed COVID-19 cases were found in the process, and all the 1,174 people in close contact have tested negative for the infection, according to Lu.
华中科技大学同济医学院公共卫生学院教授卢祖洵介绍,5月14日0时至6月1日24时,武汉市集中核酸检测9899828人,没有发现确诊病例,检出无症状感染者300名,追踪密切接触者1174名,其核酸检测结果均为阴性。

武汉市委常委、常务副市长胡亚波说,本次集中核酸检测费用由政府承担,通过集中采购降低成本,总支出大约9亿元。

"The physical lockdown on the city was lifted on April 8, and after the testing campaign was finished, the psychological lockdown on Wuhan people, who have made great sacrifices fighting the epidemic, has also been lifted," he said.
4月8日,武汉实现了物理意义上的解封,集中核酸检测排查后,“封城”期间作出巨大牺牲的武汉人民实现了心理上的解封。

The mass testing has helped reassure people in Wuhan and other regions in the country and will accelerate the city's efforts to restore its social and economic development.
通过这次筛查,换来了全国人民的放心、武汉人民的安心,必将推动城市经济社会发展尽快步入正轨。


如何在十多天内完成近千万人核酸检测

武汉市卫生健康委员会副主任王卫华介绍说,武汉市通过3个途径,将日检测能力从30万人份快速突破100万人份。

一是挖掘内部潜力。

By adding 40 medical institutions and disease control centers to conduct the tests, the city had 63 institutions analyze the test samples, which significantly increased the city's testing capacity.
武汉动员了40家医疗机构和疾控中心共同参与,这样全市检测机构增加到63家,大大提升了核酸日检测能力。


二是调集全国资源。

These institutions also mobilized staff and equipment from around the country, with staff members increasing from 419 to 1,451 and testing equipment increasing from 215 pieces to 701.
武汉市各检测机构在全国范围内调集人员、增添设备,检测工作人员从419人增加到1451人,设备从215台套增加到701台套。


三是采用科学的方法。

Batch testing, which mixes no more than five samples in a single test, was employed to improve efficiency.
混检单次不超过5个样本合并检测,这样在短时间内提升了检测效率。


武汉市通过这三个途径,将日检测能力从30万人份快速突破100万人份(daily testing capability increased from 300,000 to more than 1 million)。


国家自主贡献 nationally determined contributions

生态环境部新闻发言人刘友宾6月2日指出,在常态化疫情防控前提下,生态环境部门将努力克服新冠肺炎疫情带来的不利影响,扎实推进生态环境治理各项工作。

China will fully implement its commitment to nationally determined contributions (NDCs) on climate change under the Paris climate agreement despite the coronavirus outbreak, according to the Ministry of Ecology and Environment.
生态环境部表示,我国将克服新冠肺炎疫情影响,坚决完成《巴黎气候协定》中承诺的气候变化国家自主贡献目标。

【知识点】

国家自主贡献(nationally determined contributions)指根据《联合国气候变化框架公约(the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change)》缔约方会议相关决定,提出的中国应对气候变化的强化行动和措施(enhanced actions and measures on climate change)。


中国在2009年提出的应对气候变化行动目标是:

By 2020 it will lower carbon dioxide emissions per unit of GDP by 40% to 45% from the 2005 level, increase the share of non-fossil fuels in primary energy consumption to about 15% and increase the forested area by 40 million hectares and the forest stock volume by 1.3 billion cubic meters compared to the 2005 levels.
到2020年单位国内生产总值二氧化碳排放比2005年下降40%-45%,非化石能源占一次能源消费比重达到15%左右,森林面积比2005年增加4000万公顷,森林蓄积量比2005年增加13亿立方米。


到2030年的自主行动目标:

To achieve the peaking of carbon dioxide emissions around 2030 and making best efforts to peak early;
二氧化碳排放2030年左右达到峰值并争取尽早达峰;

To lower carbon dioxide emissions per unit of GDP by 60% to 65% from the 2005 level;
单位国内生产总值二氧化碳排放比2005年下降60%-65%;

To increase the share of non-fossil fuels in primary energy consumption to around 20%;
非化石能源占一次能源消费比重达到20%左右;

To increase the forest stock volume by around 4.5 billion cubic meters on the 2005 level.
森林蓄积量比2005年增加45亿立方米左右。

 

生态环境部新闻发言人刘友宾表示:

China’s carbon emission reduction will not change with the occurrence of the epidemic and China would “100%” fulfil its NDC commitment.
中国的碳减排行动不会因为疫情而改变,会百分百履行国家自主贡献承诺。


生态环境部近日发布的报告显示,

Air quality in the country continued to improve, with 337 cities at and above the prefecture-level recording good air quality on an average of 82 percent days last year.
2019年,我国空气质量持续改善,全国337个地级及以上城市优良天数平均达到82%。

Carbon dioxide emissions per unit of GDP fell 4.1 percent in 2019 from the previous year, meeting the country's annual target.
2019年单位国内生产总值二氧化碳排放同比下降4.1%,完成年度预期目标。


航班熔断机制 "circuit breaker" mechanism for airlines

中国民用航空局6月4日发布关于调整国际客运航班的通知。自2020年6月8日起,实施航班奖励和熔断措施。

 

The Civil Aviation Administration of China, along with multiple departments including the National Health Commission and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, will introduce a "reward" and "circuit breaker" mechanism for airlines based on passenger nucleic acid test results upon arrival in order to contain the number of imported cases of COVID-19.
民航局与国家卫健委以及外交部等多部门将推出以落地后乘客核酸检测结果为依据的航班奖励和熔断机制,以控制新冠肺炎输入病例。

As an incentive, carriers will be allowed to increase the number of international flights to two per week on one route if the number of passengers who have a positive nucleic acid test on their flights stands at zero for three consecutive weeks, according to the administration.
奖励措施是指航空公司同一航线航班,入境后核酸检测结果为阳性的旅客人数连续3周为零的,可在航线经营许可规定的航班量范围内增加每周1班,达到每周2班。

The airline must suspend the operation of the route for one week if the number of passengers who test positive for the coronavirus reaches five. If the number exceeds 10, the airline will suspend the flights for four weeks, it said.
航空公司同一航线航班,入境后核酸检测结果为阳性的旅客人数达到5个的,暂停该公司该航线运行1周;达到10个的,暂停该公司该航线运行4周。

国际客运航班调整后,预计目前保持通航的23个国家44个航空公司每周最多增加航班44班。按照3月26日以来每周实际执行率75%测算,每周航班实际增加50班(add 50 international flights);预计每周航空口岸入境人数约33000人,平均每日入境人数(the average number of daily inbound passengers)约4700人。

根据通知,已列入民航局3月12日发布的“国际航班信息发布(第5期)”航班计划的中外航空公司将继续按照以下原则执行自/至中国的国际客运航班:

国内每家航空公司经营至任一国家的航线只能保留1条,每条航线每周运营班次不得超过1班(domestic carriers can fly just one flight a week on one route to any country);外国每家航空公司经营至我国的航线只能保留1条(operate only one inbound route),每周运营班次不得超过1班。

Overseas airlines that currently cannot operate flights to China will be permitted once-per-week flights into one of 37 port cities of their choosing starting on Monday.
自2020年6月8日起,此前不能经营至我国航线的外国航空公司可以从37个中国口岸城市中选择1个具备接收能力的城市,每周运营1班国际客运航线航班。


中新“快捷通道” China-Singapore fast lane

Starting Monday, people from Singapore and six Chinese municipalities and provinces can make essential business or official trips without having to go through the required 14-day quarantine period.
从6月8日起,新加坡和中国6个省市的人员可以进行必要的商务和公务往来,无需完成此前要求的14天隔离。

根据外交部发言人赵立坚介绍,

中新“快捷通道( China-Singapore fast lane)”是指:双方有需要的商务和公务人员(business and official travelers)可通过对方负责接待的企业和政府机构提出申请(applications submitted by the companies or government departments to receive them in the destination country),经主管部门审批同意后,有关人员可按规定申请签证,经离境前健康监测和入境后检疫检测合格,可以缩短入境后的隔离时间,其后按闭环原则全程接受有效管理(their whole stay in the destination country will be effectively managed, forming a closed loop to ensure safety)。

The first phase of the China-Singapore fast lane will be implemented between Singapore and six Chinese provinces (municipalities) including Shanghai, Tianjin, Chongqing, Jiangsu, Zhejiang and Guangdong. The two sides will gradually expand the implementation scope and discuss the gradual resumption of commercial flights between the two countries, depending on the circumstances.
中新“快捷通道”第一阶段在中国上海、天津、重庆、江苏、浙江、广东等6省(市)同新加坡之间实施,双方将视情逐步扩大通道适用范围,并探讨逐步恢复两国间商业航班。

新加坡是第二个与中国建立“快捷通道”的亚洲国家。中韩两国“快捷通道”已于5月1日正式开通。

The "fast track" arrangement between China and the ROK was applicable to ten Chinese provinces and cities at the beginning. ROK travelers can apply for visa after applications submitted by their companies are approved. After passing through health-screening and quarantine procedures, they will be quarantined for a shorter period of time in China, and their whole stay in China will be effectively managed, forming a closed loop to ensure safety.
中方首批有十个省市适用“快捷通道”办法,有需要的韩方企业需要提出申请并经审批同意。此后,相关韩方人员可以按规定申请来华签证,经过健康监测、检疫检测合格,可以缩短入境后的隔离时间,其后总体按闭环原则全程接受有效管理。

Chinese travelers to the ROK who wish to use the "fast track" need to apply for exemption from quarantine when applying for visa from the ROK embassy or consulates in China. If they meet the conditions for approval of the ROK side and test negative for the coronavirus before departing for and after arriving in the ROK, they will be exempted from quarantine and accept flexible epidemic prevention management of the ROK side.
希望适用“快捷通道”的中方人员须向韩国驻华使领馆申办签证同时申请免除隔离,如符合韩方审批条件且出境前、入境后检疫检测合格,可以免除隔离,接受韩方动态防疫管理。


外交部发言人表示:

At present, the fast lane between China and the ROK has been implemented smoothly and yielding good results. The implementation of the fast lane between China and Singapore is on the way, and I believe it will achieve the desired goals. We are also ready to continue to explore similar arrangements with other countries. While doing a good job in epidemic prevention and control, we are also committed to resuming necessary people-to-people exchanges, providing support for the resumption of work and production as well as deeper cooperation in both countries, and contributing to the economic and social recovery and development of the region and the world at large.
目前,中韩“快捷通道”顺利实施,效果良好。中新“快捷通道”实施在即,相信也会达到预期效果。我们也愿继续同各国探讨类似安排,在做好疫情防控的同时致力于恢复必要人员往来,为各自国家复工复产、深化彼此合作提供支持,为地区和世界经济社会的恢复和发展提供助力。

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