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2020年12月新闻热词汇总

中国日报网 2020-12-31 10:30

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健康码互认 mutual recognition of health codes

国家卫健委、国家医保局、国家中医药管理局联合发布《关于深入推进“互联网+医疗健康”“五个一”服务行动的通知》。

 

All regional authorities should implement regulations and mechanism for mutual recognition of health codes in order to facilitate travel and cross-provincial mobility and achieve universal recognition of health codes nationwide, stressed the circular.
通知要求,各地要落实“健康码”信息互认机制和规则,切实方便人员出行和跨省流动,实现防疫“健康码”全国互认。

【单词讲解】

Recognition这个词我们并不陌生,它是动词recognize的名词形式,本意是“认识”,比如,When he returned to his home town after the war, he found it had changed out of all recognition.(战后他回到家乡,那里已经变得面目全非,他都认不出来了),这个例句中的out of all recognition也可以写作beyond all recognition,都表示“与之前的认知差别太大,认出不来”的意思。

本文的recognition强调的不只是“认识”这个层面,而是“接受、认可”,剑桥在线词典的解释是“agreement that something is true or legal”,即“认为某事可信”,用通知里的表述来说就是“跨地区流动人员“健康码”信息在各地区可信可用”。


通知还明确:

In low-risk areas, apart from key locations and personnel, the verification of health codes is not compulsory.
在低风险地区,除特殊场所和特殊人员外,一般不应查验“健康码”。

【单词讲解】

Compulsory这个词我们都很熟悉,表示“强制的,义务的,必须做的”意思,除了表示“义务教育(compulsory education)”以外,学校里设置的“必修课”是compulsory courses,再比如,It is compulsory for all motorcyclists to wear helmets.(所有骑摩托车的人都必须戴头盔。)


For the elderly and other groups who do not use or operate smart phones, the circular requires alternative measures such as reading ID cards, presenting paper certificates, having their health codes registered through friends or relatives, or registering multiple health codes under one account.
对于老年人等不使用、不会操作智能手机的群体,行动通知要求可采取识读身份证、出示纸质证明、亲友代办或一人绑定多人防疫“健康码”等替代措施。


The circular also underlined that the use of health code data must be strictly regulated to protect privacy.
行动通知强调要强化数据安全管理,切实保护个人隐私。

 

慕课 MOOCs


12月9-11日,世界慕课大会在清华大学召开。教育部部长陈宝生在会上作主旨报告,分享了中国慕课与在线教育的实践、创新与探索。

China is committed to further opening up its MOOC resources and sharing its quality education resources with other countries and regions, Education Minister Chen Baosheng said the conference. The country now ranks first globally in the number of MOOCs and viewers, he said.
教育部部长陈宝生表示,目前,中国慕课数量和应用规模已居世界第一。他指出,中国致力于进一步开放其慕课资源,并与其他国家和地区共享优质教育资源。

【知识点】

Massive Open Online Courses(MOOC,大规模在线开放课程)也被称为“慕课”,最初指教师传统授课过程的电子版,现在,世界各地已经有了专门的MOOC平台,不少世界名校都开设了免费在线课程(online courses),课程内容多为视频形式,从几分钟到十几分钟不等,学生看完一部分后需答对相应的问题才能继续学习,学生之间还可在线进行讨论。此外,MOOC也有作业,deadline和期末考试,并由机器来打分,有些课程通过考试还可获得一张证书。


中国慕课自2013年起步,已逐步建立独具特色的发展模式。

By October, the country had more than 30 MOOC platforms and 34,000 such courses. A total of 540 million people had participated in massive online open courses, and 150 million university students had received credits through them.
截至今年10月,我国已有30多个慕课平台,上线慕课数量超过3.4万门,学习人数达5.4亿人次,在校生获得慕课学分人数1.5亿人次。


新冠肺炎疫情期间“停课不停教、停课不停学”

To cope with the COVID-19 pandemic, all Chinese universities moved teaching online during the spring semester, with 1.08 million teachers producing 1.1 million online courses, he said, adding that this had laid a solid foundation for promoting the innovative development of online education and MOOCs.
陈宝生表示,为了应对新冠肺炎疫情,中国所有的大学将春季学期全部课程转移到网上,108万教师制作了110万个在线课程,此举也为推动在线教育和慕课的创新发展奠定了坚实的基础。


The unique advantages of MOOCs and online education have been leveraged to promote educational equity and sharing of quality educational resources so that everyone can learn whenever and wherever they want, Chen said.
慕课和在线教育的独特优势得以充分利用来推动教育公平及优质教育资源共享,实现人人皆学、处处能学、时时可学。

【单词讲解】

这里的leverage来源于lever(杠杆,读作/'li:və(r)/),可以用作动词或名词,表示“杠杆作用,优势;发挥杠杆作用,充分利用”等意思,比如:The union's size gave it leverage in the labor contract negotiations.(工会的规模使其在劳动合同谈判中具有优势)。He is shamelessly leveraging the system to his advantage.(他在无耻地利用系统的优势为他自己谋利。)

 


中国媒体十大流行语 Top 10 media buzzwords

2020年12月11日,国家语言资源监测与研究中心发布“2020年度中国媒体十大流行语”。本次发布的十大流行语依次为:

一、新冠肺炎 COVID-19

二、抗疫 the battle against COVID-19

三、复工复产 resumption of work and production

四、民法典 the Civil Code

五、网课 online classes

六、双循环 dual circulation

七、人类卫生健康共同体 a global community of health for all

八、抗美援朝70周年 the 70th anniversary of the Chinese People's Volunteers entering the Democratic People's Republic of Korea to fight in the War to Resist US Aggression and Aid Korea

九、六稳六保 ensure stability in 6 key areas and effectively meet 6 priorities

“六稳”是指稳就业、稳金融、稳外贸、稳外资、稳投资、稳预期(keep employment, the financial sector, foreign trade, foreign and domestic investments, and expectations stable)工作;

“六保”是指保居民就业、保基本民生、保市场主体、保粮食能源安全、保产业链供应链稳定、保基层运转(ensure security in job, basic living needs, operations of market entities, food and energy security, stable industrial and supply chains, and the normal functioning of primary-level governments)。

十、嫦娥五号 Chang'e 5 lunar probe

 

唯论文 overemphasizing the role of theses

教育部印发《关于破除高校哲学社会科学研究评价中“唯论文”不良导向的若干意见》,提出10个“不得”的底线要求。

Chinese education authority has required universities and colleges to rectify the problem of overemphasizing the role of theses in academic appraisals.
教育管理部门要求高校纠正在学术评价中过度强调论文的问题。

【单词讲解】

这里的theses是thesis一词的复数形式。学位论文的用词在英式英语和美式英语中截然不同:英式英语里,本科和硕士论文都叫dissertation,博士论文叫thesis;而美式英语则完全反过来,本科和硕士论文叫thesis,博士论文叫dissertation。

Appraisal是动词appraise的名词形式,表示“评估,估价”等意思,比如:real estate appraisals(房地产估价);damage appraisal(估损); I made a quick appraisal of the situation and decided to leave right away(我快速评估了一下形势,然后决定马上离开)。


意见明确“十不得”:

不得简单以刊物、头衔、荣誉、资历等判断论文质量(the quality of a thesis should not be judged simply by the journal on which it is published or the author's title, honor and credentials),防止“以刊评文”“以刊代评”“以人评文”。


不得过分依赖国际数据和期刊(avoid over-reliance on international data and journals),防止国际期刊论文至上。


不得为追求国际发表而刻意矮化丑化中国、损害国家主权安全发展利益(anyone should not deliberately dwarf and vilify China or damage national sovereignty security and development interests in order to get international publication)。


不得将SSCI、CSSCI等论文收录数(number of theses included in the SSCI and CSSCI)、引用率和影响因子(citation rate and impact factor)等指标与资源分配、物质奖励、绩效工资(resource allocation, material incentives and performance-based salary)等简单挂钩,防止高额奖励论文。

【知识点】

SSCI(Social Sciences Citation Index)即“社会科学引文索引”,由美国科学信息研究所创建,是目前世界上可以用来对不同国家和地区的社会科学论文的数量进行统计分析的大型检索工具。

CSSCI(Chinese Social Sciences Citation Index)即“中文社会科学引文索引” 由南京大学研制,是国家、教育部重点研究项目,用来检索中文社会科学领域的论文收录和文献被引用情况。

 

不得将SSCI、CSSCI等论文收录数作为导师岗位选聘、人才计划申报评审的唯一指标(the only or compulsory criterion for selection of supervisors and appraisal of professors and researchers)。


不得把SSCI、CSSCI等论文收录数作为教师招聘、职务(职称)评聘、人才引进的前置条件和直接依据(the precondition and criterion for the recruitment, promotion and introduction of talents)。


不得将在学术期刊上发表论文作为学位授予的唯一标准(the publishing of theses in academic journals should not be taken as the only criterion for awarding academic degrees)。


不得将学历、职称等作为在教育系统学术期刊发表论文的限制性条件(diploma and academic titles should not serve as restrictive conditions for theses publishing in educational journals)。


不得多头评价、重复评价(one thesis should not be submitted in multiple appraisal events),严格控制涉及论文的评价活动数量和频次。


不得盲目采信、引用和宣传各类机构发布的排行榜(universities should not blindly adopt, quote and promote rankings issued by institutions),不过度依赖以论文发表情况为主要衡量指标的排行性评价。

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