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2020年12月新闻热词汇总

中国日报网 2020-12-31 10:30

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食品浪费 food waste

12月22日,反食品浪费法草案提请十三届全国人大常委会第二十四次会议审议,为治理“舌尖上的浪费”建章立制。

Catering service providers may face a fine ranging from 1,000 yuan to 10,000 yuan if they encourage or mislead consumers into ordering excessive quantities of food which causes waste, and refuse to rectify the problem after being warned by market supervision departments, according to the draft law.
草案规定,餐饮服务提供者诱导、误导消费者超量点餐造成明显浪费的,由市场监督管理部门给予警告,拒不改正的,处一千元以上一万元以下罚款。

【知识点】

草案明确,食品浪费(food waste),是指对可安全食用或者饮用的食物未能按照其功能目的利用(failure to consume food that is safe to eat or drink in the way it is supposed to be consumed)。


The draft law requires catering service providers to guide consumers to order food in accordance with their actual needs. Their menus should include more information and offer different dish sizes, it said.
草案要求餐饮服务提供者引导消费者按需适量点餐,菜单应提供更多菜品信息及不同规格选择。


Catering service providers can ask consumers who waste too much food to pay a fee based on the amount of their leftovers, it said.
餐饮服务提供者可以根据剩菜量对消费者收取相应费用。

【单词讲解】

这里的leftover用作名词,表示“剩饭菜”,如果用形容词形式来表示就是leftover food。其实leftover这个词来源于动词短语leave over,表示“遗留,留下(以后再用)”,比如:leave this pie over for tomorrow(这个派留着明天吃),换成被动语态就是we can have the pie left over from yesterday(我们可以吃昨天剩下的派)。


The draft also clarifies the ban on making or broadcasting programs or videos related to excessive eating, noting that violators who refuse to correct the problem after being warned by cyberspace administrations will be fined from 10,000 yuan to 100,000 yuan.
草案还明确,禁止制作、传播宣扬量大多吃、暴饮暴食等浪费食品的节目或者音视频信息。违反规定的,由管理部门责令整改,给予警告;拒不改正,处一万元以上十万元以下罚款。

 

平均身高 average height

12月23日,国务院新闻办就《中国居民营养与慢性病状况报告(2020年)》有关情况举行发布会。

As the nation's economy and power continue to grow, Chinese people are getting taller, but they are also putting on weight at a worrisome rate, according to the report.
报告指出,随着我国经济和实力的增长,居民身高持续增长,但体重也以令人忧心的速度增加。

【单词讲解】

这里的put on weight就是“长胖、长肉”,我们也可以用gain weight表示。与之相反的“减肥”自然就是lose weight,或者更加激烈的shake off weight(甩肉)。这两者的名词表达分别是weight gain(长胖、增重)和weight loss(减肥、瘦身)。

 

According to the report, 34.3 percent of adult Chinese are overweight and 16.4 percent are obese.
报告指出,18岁及以上居民超重率和肥胖率分别为34.3%和16.4%。

【知识点】

世卫组织对成人做出的超重和肥胖定义如下:身体质量指数等于或大于25时为超重(overweight);身体质量指数等于或大于30时为肥胖(obesity)。身体质量指数(body mass index,BMI)是身高对体重的简便指数,其定义为按公斤计算的体重除以按米计算的身高的平方(kg/m2)。

 

The average height of Chinese people aged 18 to 44 has increased to 169.7 centimeters for males and 158 cm for females, thanks to an increased intake of high-quality protein, such as dairy products, seafood and poultry, according to the report.
报告显示,由于乳制品、海鲜和禽肉等高质量蛋白的摄入增加,我国18至44岁的男性和女性平均身高分别增加到169.7厘米和158厘米。

【单词讲解】

这里的intake来源于动词短语take in,表示“摄入,接收”等意思,比如:you should reduce your salt intake(你应该减少盐摄入量),The airline is to double the intake of its female pilots(这家航空公司计划将女性飞行员的招录人数增加一倍)。


According to the report, the daily per capita intake of salt and cooking oil of Chinese people is far higher than the recommended portion of five grams of salt and 43.2 grams of cooking oil.
报告指出,我国人均每日盐油摄入量均远远高于每日5克盐和43.2克油的健康推荐量。


Nearly 20 percent of middle and high school students regularly consume sugary drinks, it added.
近20%的中学生经常喝含糖饮料。


The report said that less than one in four adults work out at least once a week.
每周至少锻炼一次的成年人不到四分之一。

 

 

刑法修正案 amendment to the Constitution

12月26日,十三届全国人大常委会第二十四次会议表决通过刑法修正案(十一),共48条,针对低龄未成年人犯罪、知识产权侵权等问题,对刑法作出修改完善。

The amendment stipulates heavier criminal penalties for IPR infringements, raising the maximum prison term for trademark and copyright infringements from seven years to 10 years. The amendment also lowers the minimum age of criminal responsibility to 12 for severe crimes such as murder.
刑法修正案针对侵犯知识产权的犯罪行为规定了更加严格的处罚,将商标及知识产权侵权行为的最高刑期由7年提高至10年。同时,修正案将谋杀等严重犯罪行为的刑事责任年龄降低至12岁。

【单词讲解】

这里的IPR是intellectual property rights的缩写形式,即“知识产权”,最近几年很火的“IP”概念是intellectual property的缩写。IP可以是一个故事,一种形象,一件艺术品,一种流行文化,更多的是指适合二次或多次改编开发的影视文学、游戏动漫等作品。IP剧,是指在有一定粉丝数量基础上的国产原创网络小说、游戏、动漫为题材创作改编而成的影视剧。

 

刑法修正案规定,

If a juvenile who has reached the age of 12, but is under 14, commits intentional homicide or inflicts an injury that leads to death,or causes severe injury to the person, reducing the person to utter disability by resorting to cruel means, he or she shall bear criminal responsibility upon attestation and approval of the Supreme People's Procuratorate (SPP).
已满12周岁不满14周岁的人,犯故意杀人、故意伤害罪,致人死亡或者以特别残忍手段致人重伤造成严重残疾,情节恶劣,经最高人民检察院核准追诉的,应当负刑事责任。

【单词讲解】

英语中关于“青少年犯罪”有一个固定的说法juvenile delinquency/juvenile offending,juvenile读作[dʒuːvənaɪl],指“未成年、青少年”,也可以用作形容词表示某人“孩子气的、幼稚的”,与childish、silly意思相近,比如:Don't be so juvenile(别那么幼稚了)。Delinquency这个词读作[dɪlɪŋkwənsi],指“违法行为”,尤指青少年的违法行为,实施违法行为的青少年就可以称为delinquent。


Children aged 14-16 can be held criminally liable if they commit serious crimes such as murder, rape, and drug smuggling or trafficking.
已满十四周岁不满十六周岁的人,犯故意杀人、强奸、贩卖毒品等严重罪行的,应当负刑事责任。

 

增加与生物安全相关规定

To safeguard biosecurity, the law stipulates penalties for illegally implanting gene-edited or cloned human embryos into human bodies or animals. Convicted criminals could face up to seven years of imprisonment.
为了保障生物安全,刑法修正案规定了针对将基因编辑、克隆的人类胚胎植入人体或者动物体内等违法行为的处罚,相关违法人员最高刑期可达7年。


使用兴奋剂入刑

It stipulates that anyone who lures, instigates or cheats athletes into using banned substances in either domestic or international competitions faces up to three years' imprisonment and a fine. Heavier punishments will be given to those organizing or forcing athletes into using banned substances, while knowingly offering banned substances to athletes is also a criminal offence.
修正案规定,引诱、教唆、欺骗运动员使用兴奋剂参加国内、国际重大体育竞赛,或者明知运动员参加上述竞赛而向其提供兴奋剂,情节严重的,处三年以下有期徒刑或者拘役,并处罚金。组织、强迫运动员使用兴奋剂参加国内、国际重大体育竞赛的,依照前款的规定从重处罚。

 

加大对性侵未成年人犯罪的惩治力度

The amended law says people with special responsibilities, including those guarding, adopting, looking after, educating or offering medical care to juveniles, could be sentenced to up to 10 years in prison if they have sex with girls aged 14 to 16. Further, anyone found to have had sex with girls under the age of 14 will be convicted of rape and face harsher penalties.
修正案规定,对已满十四周岁不满十六周岁的未成年女性负有监护、收养、看护、教育、医疗等特殊职责的人员,与该未成年女性发生性关系的,最高可判处10年有期徒刑。奸淫不满十四周岁的幼女的,以强奸论,从重处罚。


Meanwhile, people who rape girls under the age of 10 will receive a sentence of at least 10 years in prison and could even face life imprisonment or the death penalty.
奸淫不满十周岁的幼女的,处十年以上有期徒刑、无期徒刑或者死刑。


The amended law also calls for harsher punishment-a sentence of five years or more-for people who have repeatedly committed child molestations, have acted indecently against multiple children, have committed such offenses in public or have molested juveniles in a cruel manner.
猥亵儿童多人或者多次的;聚众猥亵儿童的,或者在公共场所当众猥亵儿童,情节恶劣的,处五年以上有期徒刑。

 

京雄城际铁路 Beijing-Xiong'an intercity railway


The Beijing-Xiong'an intercity railway opened to traffic on Dec 27, connecting the Chinese capital with the Xiong'an New Area. The railway is 91 kilometers long and has a maximum design speed of 350 kilometers per hour. Passengers can take high-speed trains from Beijing West Railway Station directly to Xiong'an New Area with the shortest commuting time at 50 minutes. The journey between Beijing Daxing International Airport and Xiong'an will be about 19 minutes.
北京至雄安新区城际铁路(京雄城际铁路)12月27日全线开通运营。线路全长91公里,最高设计时速350公里。北京西站至雄安新区间最快旅行时间50分钟,大兴机场至雄安新区间最快19分钟可达。

 

教育惩戒 school discipline

教育部制定的《中小学教育惩戒规则(试行)》12月29日颁布,2021年3月1日起实施。

In its first official guideline on teachers' rights to discipline students, the Ministry of Education said primary and secondary school teachers have the authority to hand out punishment and clarified the kinds of punishment not allowed.
教育部第一次以部门规章的形式对教育惩戒做出规定,规定中小学教师和学校可以对学生实施的教育惩戒方式,同时明确了教师实施惩戒过程中被禁止的行为。

【知识点】

《规则》对教育惩戒(school discipline)的定义是“学校、教师基于教育目的,对违规违纪学生进行管理、训导或者以规定方式予以矫治(manage, discipline or correct the students who break rules and regulations),促使学生引以为戒、认识和改正错误的教育行为”,明确教育惩戒不是惩罚(discipline is not punishment),而是教育的一种方式。


根据程度轻重,《规则》将教育惩戒分为一般教育惩戒、较重教育惩戒和严重教育惩戒三类。

一般教育惩戒适用于违规违纪情节轻微的学生,包括点名批评(named and shamed)、做口头或者书面检讨(make oral or written apology)、增加额外教学或者班级公益服务任务(do extra homework or classroom chores)、一节课堂教学时间内的教室内站立(stand in the classroom for one class period)、课后教导(receive after-school discipline)等;


较重教育惩戒适用于违规违纪情节较重或者经当场教育惩戒拒不改正的学生,包括德育工作负责人训导(receive counseling)、承担校内公共服务(perform public service on campus)、接受专门的校规校纪和行为规则教育(isolated for discipline)、被暂停或者限制参加游览以及其他集体活动(extracurricular activities suspended)等;


严重教育惩戒适用于违规违纪情节严重或者影响恶劣,且必须是小学高年级、初中和高中阶段的学生,包括停课停学(suspended from school)、法治副校长或者法治辅导员训诫(see a school counselor)、专门人员辅导矫治(go through correction session)等。

《规则》细化了禁止实施的七类不当教育行为:

一是身体伤害,如击打、刺扎等(corporal punishment such as striking or poking students with sharp objects);

二是超限度惩罚(hand out excessive punishment),超过正常限度的罚站、反复抄写,强制做不适的动作或者姿势(make them assume physically uncomfortable positions),以及刻意孤立(intentional isolation)等间接伤害身体、心理的变相体罚;

三是言行侮辱贬损,辱骂或者以歧视性、侮辱性的言行侵犯学生人格尊严(verbally abuse students);

四是因个人或者少数人违规违纪行为而惩罚全体学生(punish all students for an individual offense);

五是因学生个人的学习成绩而惩罚学生(punish students for poor academic performance);

六是因个人情绪、好恶实施或者选择性实施教育惩戒(hand out punishments based on their personal preference);

七是指派学生代替自己对其他学生实施教育惩戒(ask students to punish their peers)。

 

(中国日报网英语点津 Helen)

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