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2021年4月新闻热词汇总

中国日报网 2021-04-30 16:00

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作业管理 homework management

教育部近日印发《关于加强义务教育学校作业管理的通知》,提出“十条要求”。

Primary schools should ensure that students in the first and second grades do not have written homework. Those in higher grades should complete their homework within one hour, the circular said.
通知要求,小学一二年级不布置书面家庭作业,小学其他年级每天书面作业完成时间平均不超过60分钟。

【单词讲解】

Grade在学校的语境中除了表示“年级”以外,还可以表示“成绩、分数”(名词)或者“评判、批改”(动词)等意思,比如:What was your grade on the math test?(你数学考试考了多少分);Mrs. Smith would be the one grading their spelling tests and their reading tests.(他们拼写测验和阅读测验的阅卷老师是史密斯夫人)。


The average amount of time junior high school students spend on written homework every day should be less than 90 minutes, according to the circular.
初中每天书面作业完成时间平均不超过90分钟。


通知提出的其他要求包括:

Schools are required to adjust the form and content of homework in accordance with the traits of different schooling stages and subjects, as well as the needs and abilities of students.
学校要根据学段、学科特点及学生实际需要和完成能力,合理布置不同类型的作业。


Teachers should not give homework to parents, directly or indirectly, or ask parents to grade homework.
严禁给家长布置或变相布置作业,严禁要求家长批改作业。


After-school training institutions are prohibited from giving any homework to primary and secondary school students, the circular said.
严禁校外培训机构给中小学生留作业。

【单词讲解】

这里用primary and secondary school表示“中小学”,具体来说,primary school通常指代“小学”,也可以用elementary school来替换,而secondary school指“介于小学和大学之间的教育机构”,即“中学”,是各类中等教育学校的统称,既包括普通的初高中,也包括职高、技校等教育机构。我们更加熟悉的middle school在英语国家通常指“五年级(或六年级)到八年级的学校”,即“初中”。

 

Teachers should make full use of classroom time and after-school services to make sure primary school students can basically finish all work at school and that junior high school students can complete most of it, it said.
教师要充分利用课堂教学时间和课后服务时间加强学生作业指导,指导小学生基本在校内完成书面作业,初中学生在校内完成大部分书面作业。

【词汇讲解】

这里出现了“初中”的另一种说法junior high school,这个表达多见于美国,一般指七年级到九年级这个学段,也就相当于咱们所说的“初中”,后续的“高中”用senior high school表达。


The difficulty of the homework should not exceed national curriculum standards, and there should be no repetitive or punitive homework.
作业难度不得超过国家课程标准要求。严禁布置重复性、惩罚性作业。

 

加强中小学生体质健康管理


此外,教育部近日还印发了《关于进一步加强中小学生体质健康管理工作的通知》,对加强中小学生体质健康管理工作提出了有关要求。

Schools should open a sufficient number of physical education courses based on requirements of related authorities - four for first and second graders and three for third, fourth, fifth and sixth graders and middle school students - the notice said, adding that the ministry encourages schools to conduct one PE course every day.
中小学校要严格落实国家规定的体育与健康课程刚性要求,小学一至二年级每周4课时,小学三至六年级和初中每周3课时,有条件的学校每天开设1节体育课。

 


钓鱼岛及其附属岛屿 the Diaoyu Island and its affiliated islands

4月26日,自然资源部在官方网站和钓鱼岛专题网站发布其组织编写的《钓鱼岛及其附属岛屿地形地貌调查报告》(a landform survey report on the Diaoyu Island and its affiliated islands)。

 

Based on historical data, the survey obtained new terrain data of the Diaoyu Island and its affiliated islands, as well as the terrain data of waters 30 meters or less in depth, using technology such as satellite remote sensing.
该调查报告基于长期的历史调查数据,并采用最新高分辨率卫星遥感等调查方式,获取了钓鱼岛及其附属岛屿的海岛和30米以浅区域最新地形数据。

【单词讲解】

英语中表示“岛”的词常见的有island,islet以及isle,注意哦,这三个单词里面的字母s都不发音,分别读作['a?l?nd],['a?l?t]以及[a?l]。其中,isle跟island意思相同,均表示四周都被水包围的一片陆地,只不过isle多用于诗歌以及岛屿的名称,比如,the British Isles(不列颠群岛);islet指比较小的岛(a small island)。


The report also made large-scale topographical thematic maps of the Diaoyu Island and its affiliated islands, improving basic geographic data of the area.
报告编制了最新大比例尺海岛地形地貌专题图,进一步完善了钓鱼岛及其附属岛屿的基础地理数据体系。

【单词讲解】

“附属岛屿”affiliated islands中的affiliated这个词来自于动词和名词一体的affiliate,表示“使...隶属,与...有关”或者“分支机构、附属机构”等,常用的搭配是affiliate(ed) to,比如:Our college is an affiliate to the university(我们学院是隶属于那所大学的),Huashan Hospital Affiliated to Fudan University(复旦大学附属华山医院)。


The survey is of great significance to the resource management and ecological environment protection of the Diaoyu Island and its affiliated islands, according to the report.
该调查对开展钓鱼岛及其附属岛屿的资源管理与生态环境保护具有重要意义。

 

钓鱼岛及其附属岛屿是中国固有领土


近日,日本防卫大臣岸信夫在自民党议员会议上谈及中方在钓鱼岛周边活动时称,中国正以不起眼的方式一步步进行侵略。

对此,外交部发言人赵立坚回应称:

These remarks are completely reckless and highly irresponsible. With such person misleading the public opinion, how can the Japanese people view China's development in an objective and rational way and build up confidence in China-Japan relations? I want to stress some points as follows.
这种言论完全是信口开河,极其不负责任。有这种人当道,误导舆论,日本老百姓怎么能客观理性地看待中国发展,怎么能对中日关系树立信心?在此,我愿强调以下几点:


First, China always adheres to the path of peaceful development and firmly pursues a national defense policy that is defensive in nature. In his speech at the opening ceremony of the Boao Forum for Asia Annual Conference 2021, President Xi reiterated that China will continue to be a builder of world peace, a contributor to global development and a defender of the international order. However strong it may grow, China will never seek hegemony, expansion, or a sphere of influence. Nor will China ever engage in an arms race. And I tell the Japanese side now, stop talking nonsense about China's development and misleading the public.
第一,中国始终坚持走和平发展道路,坚定奉行防御性国防政策。习近平主席在博鳌亚洲论坛2021年年会开幕式演讲中再次重申,中国将继续做世界和平的建设者,全球发展的贡献者,国际秩序的维护者。中国无论发展到什么程度,永远不称霸、不扩张、不谋求势力范围、不搞军备竞赛。日方应该好好听清楚,不要再就中国发展胡言乱语、误导公众。


Second, the Diaoyu Island and its affiliated islands are China's inherent territory. China's patrol and law enforcement in waters off the Diaoyu Island is an exercise of its inherent rights. The Taiwan question is purely China's internal affair. China will never allow any country to interfere in any way. Some Japanese people's erroneous words related to Taiwan fully expose their sinister thinking that they do not want to see China's peaceful reunification and will do everything possible to obstruct that great cause. China must and will be reunified. The Japanese side should never harbor any illusion with ulterior motives.  
第二,钓鱼岛及其附属岛屿是中国固有领土。中方在钓鱼岛海域巡航执法是行使本国固有权利。台湾问题纯属中国内部事务,中方绝不容许任何国家以任何方式插手干预。日方一些人发表涉台错误言论,充分暴露他们不愿看到并千方百计企图阻挠中国和平统一大业的阴暗心理。中国必须统一,也必然统一。对此日方不要有非分之想。


Third, in more recent history, Japan's act of aggression and expansion in Asia has brought untold suffering to the people of the victimized countries, including China. To this day, however, Japan is still reluctant to honestly face up to and repent its history of aggression, but has staged political farces, one after another, to deny and whitewash this part of history. Certain Japanese politicians wantonly smear China while turning a blind eye to its deplorable records of aggression. The world should be on high alert as to their real intention. We urge Japan to reflect on itself, immediately stop slinging mud at China and refrain from going further down the wrong path.  
第三,日本近代在亚洲四处侵略扩张,给包括中国在内的广大受害国人民带来深重灾难。但直到今天日方仍不愿诚实正视、反省侵略历史,不时上演一幕幕否认、美化侵略历史的政治闹剧。日方个别政客无视自身斑斑劣迹,却大肆污蔑中国。他们究竟意欲何为,值得世人高度警惕。奉劝日方反躬自省,立即停止对中国造谣中伤,不要在错误的道路上越走越远。

 


直播带货 livstreaming marketing

国家网信办、公安部、商务部、文化和旅游部、国家税务总局、国家市场监督管理总局、国家广播电视总局等七部门近日联合发布《网络直播营销管理办法(试行)》,将网络直播营销“台前幕后”各类主体、“线上线下”各项要素纳入监管范围。

It makes clear that individuals engaged in livestreaming marketing or operations should be aged 16 or above, and a blacklist system should be established to block anyone, including account holders and live streamers, who seriously violate the regulations.
办法明确,直播营销人员或者直播间运营者为自然人的,应当年满十六周岁;直播营销平台应当建立黑名单制度,将严重违法违规的直播营销人员列入黑名单。

【单词讲解】

Livestreaming是live(读作 /la?v/)和streaming两个词的合成形式,这里的live是形容词,表示“现场的”,比如我们看春节晚会的时候,主持人就会说,这里是春晚直播现场,We are here at the live broadcast of the Spring Festival Gala;streaming最初被翻译成“流媒体”,其实就是在网络上播放音频或者视频文件,比如在线平台网飞(Netflix)就是一个TV and movie streaming platform(影视剧在线播放平台),而stream用作动词的时候,也可以用来表达“在线播放”,比如:Millions of videos are streamed every day on Youtube.(油管上每天播放的视频有数百万个)。那么把live和streaming结合在一起,就是在线播放现场的音频或视频,简而言之就是“直播”。Marketing在商业领域一般表示“市场营销”,比如很多公司都有的职位:marketing consultant(市场营销顾问),marketing manager(市场营销经理)等。由此,livestreaming marketing就是通过livestreaming(直播)的形式来进行某种商品的marketing(市场营销),也就是我们所说的“直播带货”了。

 

办法明确,直播营销平台(livestreaming marketing platforms),是指在网络直播营销中提供直播服务的各类平台,包括互联网直播服务平台、互联网音视频服务平台、电子商务平台等。


Platforms will need to hire professional moderators to “maintain the safety of livestreaming content”, according to the regulation.
直播营销平台应当配备直播内容管理专业人员,维护互联网直播内容安全。


Livestreamers are required to provide their real names and social credit codes to service providers. Platforms, in turn, must verify the information, submit them to local authorities, and deny services to any livestreamers whose data does not match their real identity or who is blacklisted in the industry.
直播人员应提供真实姓名及社会信用代码。直播营销平台应当对这些真实身份信息认证,并依法依规向有关部门报送;对与真实身份信息不符或按照国家有关规定不得从事网络直播发布的,不得为其提供直播发布服务。


The regulation stipulates that people engaged in livestreaming marketing must provide true, accurate and all necessary information about the products. No content that could mislead or defraud consumers is allowed.
从事网络直播营销活动的人员,应当真实、准确、全面地发布商品或服务信息,不得发布虚假或者引人误解的信息,欺骗、误导用户。


It also prohibits activities such as selling counterfeit goods, infringing upon intellectual property rights, falsifying online views and tampering with transaction figures.
不得营销假冒伪劣、侵犯知识产权的商品,不得虚构数据流量、篡改交易数据。


Account holders and livestreamers should respond to reasonable requests from consumers in a timely manner.
直播间运营者、直播营销人员应该及时对消费者提出的合法合理要求做出回应。

 

核心舱 core module

4月29日11时23分,搭载着“天和”核心舱的长征五号B遥二火箭在海南文昌航天发射场点火升空。

 

The core module, Tianhe, has a total length of 16.6 meters, a maximum diameter of 4.2 meters and a takeoff mass of 22.5 tonnes, and is the largest spacecraft developed by China.
天和核心舱长度16.6米,最大直径4.2米,发射质量22.5吨,是中国研发的最大的飞行器。


The module is equipped with three docking hatches reserved for visiting manned or cargo spacecraft and two berthing locations used to connect with space laboratories. There is also a hatch for astronauts' extravehicular activities.
核心舱有3个对接口和2个停泊口。对接口用于载人飞船、货运飞船等飞行器访问空间站,停泊口用于两个实验舱与核心舱连接,另有一个出舱口供航天员出舱活动。


核心舱主要用于空间站的统一控制和管理(control and management of the space station),以及航天员生活,具备长期自主飞行能力(capability of long-term autonomous flight),能够支持航天员长期驻留,支持开展航天医学和空间科学实验(hosting space medical and scientific experiments)。


The space station will be a T shape with the core module at the center and a lab capsule on each side. Each module will be over 20 tonnes. When the station docks with both manned and cargo spacecraft, its weight could reach nearly 100 tonnes.
中国空间站整体呈T字构型,核心舱在中间,两边各有一个实验舱,每个舱段规模20吨级。空间站同时与载人飞船和货运飞船对接时,重量可达到近100吨。


The station will operate in the low-Earth orbit at an altitude from 340 km to 450 km. It has a designed lifespan of 10 years, but experts believe it could last more than 15 years with appropriate maintenance and repairs.
空间站将在高度340至450公里的近地轨道运行,设计在轨飞行时间可达10年以上。专家表示,如果妥善维护,空间站的在轨飞行时间有可能超过15年。

 

中国载人航天“三步走”战略

1992年9月,中国实施载人航天工程并确定中国载人航天“三步走”的发展战略(three-step manned space program):

第一步,发射载人飞船(manned spaceship),建成初步配套的试验性载人飞船工程,开展空间应用实验。2013年神舟5号载人飞船任务顺利完成。

第二步,突破航天员出舱活动技术(extra-vehicular activity)、空间飞行器的交会对接技术(rendezvous and docking),发射空间实验室(space lab),解决有一定规模的、短期有人照料的空间应用问题。

第三步,建造空间站,解决有较大规模的、长期有人照料的空间应用问题(operate a permanent manned space station)。

2017年4月20日19时41分,天舟一号货运飞船(cargo spacecraft Tianzhou-1)成功发射。此次任务是中国载人航天工程空间实验室阶段(space laboratory stage of China manned space engineering)的收官之战,标志着中国载人航天工程胜利完成“三步走”战略中的“第二步”任务,为空间站建设任务奠定坚实技术基础。

2020年4月29日,我国用长征五号乙运载火箭(Long March 5B heavy-lift rocket)将核心舱发射进入轨道。

今明两年总体的发射任务将达到11次,其中包括3次空间站舱段发射、4次天舟货运飞船(cargo spaceship)发射、4次神舟载人飞船(manned spaceship)发射。

2022年前后,我国空间站有望完成组装,开始全面运行(fully operational)。

 

反食品浪费法 anti-food waste law

4月29日,十三届全国人大常委会第二十八次会议表决通过了反食品浪费法,自公布之日起施行。

 

Under the newly enacted law, catering service providers could face a fine ranging from 1,000 yuan to 10,000 yuan if they encourage or mislead consumers into ordering excessive quantities of food which causes waste, and refuse to rectify the problem after being warned by market supervision departments.
该法规定,餐饮服务提供者诱导、误导消费者超量点餐造成明显浪费的,由市场监督管理部门给予警告,拒不改正的,处一千元以上一万元以下罚款。


【知识点】

该法所称食品浪费(food waste),是指对可安全食用或者饮用的食品未能按照其功能目的合理利用(failure to consume food that is safe to eat or drink in the way it is supposed to be consumed),包括废弃、因不合理利用导致食品数量减少或者质量下降等。


反食品浪费法的其他规定还包括:

Catering arrangements for work-related events should be based on the actual circumstances and all the details such as amount of dishes and way of dining should follow the principle of frugality and not go beyond the standard thereof.
公务活动需要安排用餐的,应当根据实际情况,节俭安排用餐数量、形式,不得超过规定的标准。


Catering service providers can reward customers who eat everything they order.
餐饮服务经营者可以对参与“光盘行动”的消费者给予奖励。


Catering service providers could charge customers who leave excessive amount of leftovers a disposal fee, but rates for the charge must be clearly advertised.
餐饮服务经营者可以对造成明显浪费的消费者收取处理厨余垃圾的相应费用,收费标准应当明示。

【单词讲解】

这里的leftover用作名词,表示“剩饭菜”,如果用形容词形式来表示就是leftover food。其实leftover这个词来源于动词短语leave over,表示“遗留,留下(以后再用)”,比如:leave this pie over for tomorrow(这个派留着明天吃),换成被动语态就是we can have the pie left over from yesterday(我们可以吃昨天剩下的派)。


The law also clarifies the ban on making or broadcasting programs or videos related to excessive eating, noting that violators who refuse to rectify the problem after being warned by regulatory agencies will be fined from 10,000 yuan to 100,000 yuan.
该法还明确,禁止制作、传播宣扬量大多吃、暴饮暴食等浪费食品的节目或者音视频信息。违反规定的,由管理部门责令整改,给予警告;拒不改正,处一万元以上十万元以下罚款。

 

粮食安全问题不容忽视

China's annual grain output remained above 650 million tonnes for five consecutive years during the 13th Five-Year Plan (2016-2020) period, but food waste has been a lingering problem that poses a potential threat to the country's food security.
十三五时期,我国粮食产量连续五年保持在6.5亿吨以上,然而,一直存在的食品浪费问题,威胁到我国的粮食安全。

【单词讲解】

Food security强调的是确保人们都能得到维持健康生活所需要的粮食,主要跟粮食的供应和人们获取的渠道有关,我们称为“粮食安全”;而food safety强调的是确保人们吃进嘴里的食物在生产、存储和销售等环节都符合卫生健康标准,即“食品安全”。

 

Approximately 18 billion kg of food is wasted every year in China's urban catering industry, according to a report based on nationwide field research carried out by NPC deputies.
人大代表在全国范围内进行的实地调查显示,我国城市餐饮行业每年大约浪费180亿公斤食物。


The country also sees over 35 billion kg of grain loss at pre-consumption stages including storage, transportation and processing, the report added.
调查报告指出,我国每年在粮食储存、运输及加工等餐桌外环节的粮食损失高达350亿公斤以上。


(中国日报网英语点津 Helen)

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