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词典网站Dictionary.com年度词汇:misinformation Dictionary.com chooses 'misinformation' as its word of the year

中国日报网 2018-11-28 08:56

2018年接近尾声,各大词典纷纷发布年度词汇。日前词典网站Dictionary.com宣布2018年度词汇是misinformation(虚假信息)。该网站的语言学专家还解释了为什么选择misinformation,而不是disinformation,以及这两个词之间的区别。

 

Dictionary.com announced 'misinformation' as its word of the year for 2018 on Monday.

本周一,词典网站Dictionary.com宣布,2018年度词汇是misinformation(虚假信息)。

The word is defined as, 'false information that is spread, regardless of whether there is intent to mislead.'

这个词的定义是:“散播出来的虚假信息,不论散播者有没有误导的动机”。

 

每日邮报网站截图

'Our #WordOfTheYear2018 isn't just any word. It's a call to action,' the Twitter account for the site posted on Monday.

该网站的推特账号周一发推称:“我们的2018年度词汇不只是一个词,还是唤起行动的号召。”

 

本月早些时候,牛津辞典将toxic(有毒)选为年度词汇

 

Dictionary.com总部位于美国奥克兰,该网站常驻语言学家简·所罗门说,他们有意选择了misinformation而不是disinformation,这两者之间的区别在于意图。

Disinformation is 'deliberately misleading' others but misinformation is often when people believe what they are sharing is true.

Disinformation是“故意误导”他人,而misinformation通常指人们相信自己分享的信息是真的。

 

'The rampant spread of misinformation is really providing new challenges for navigating life in 2018,' Solomon told The Associated Press ahead of the word of the year announcement.

在宣布年度词汇之前,所罗门告诉美联社说:“Misinformation(虚假信息)的肆意传播事实上为2018年指引人生航向提供了新挑战。”

'Misinformation has been around for a long time, but over the last decade or so the rise of social media has really, really changed how information is shared.

“Misinformation这个词很久以前就存在了,但过去十年间社交媒体的兴起真正改变了信息分享的方式。”

'We believe that understanding the concept of misinformation is vital to identifying misinformation as we encounter it in the wild, and that could ultimately help curb its impact.'

“我们认为理解misinformation的概念对于在繁杂的信息中识别虚假信息至关重要,最终有助于抑制虚假信息的影响力。”

'Disinformation would have also been a really, really interesting word of the year this year, but our choice of misinformation was very intentional,' Solomon said. 'You can still be a good person with no nefarious agenda and still spread misinformation.

所罗门说:“Disinformation本来也是一个非常有趣的年度词汇候选词,但我们选择misinformation是有深意的。你可能是一个没有邪恶动机的好人,但依然会散播虚假信息。”

The word was chosen in part to help answer the question of whether disinformation or misinformation have been at play when it comes to the year's most prominent conspiracy theories.

这个词被选中,一部分原因是为了回答一个问题:在今年最著名的阴谋论中,发挥作用的是disinformation还是misinformation。

Solomon cited claims that the students in the Parkland school shooting were crisis actors and that Caravan migrants were funded by 'rich liberals' as two popular cases of misinformation by some, this year.

所罗门表示,曾有人声称美国帕克兰校园枪击案的学生是危机演员,大篷车移民是受自由党富人资助的,这是misinformation在今年的两个最受关注的例子。

In studying searches on the site that trended this year, Dictionary noticed 'our relationship with truth is something that came up again and again,' she said.

所罗门说,在研究今年流行的网站搜索词时,Dictionary.com注意到“我们和真相的关系在这些搜索词中反复出现。”

For example, the word 'mainstream' popped up a lot, spiking in January as the term 'mainstream media,' or MSM, grew to gargantuan proportions, wielded as an insult by some on the political right.

例如,mainstream(主流)一词出现多次,mainstream media(主流媒体,缩写MSM)的搜索量在一月份大增,当时该词被某些政界右翼人士用于侮辱。

Other words swirling around the same problem included a lookup surge in February for 'white lie' after Hope Hicks, then White House communications director, admitted to telling a few for President Donald Trump.

其他相关词汇还包括二月份搜索量大增的white lie(善意的谎言),在那之前白宫通讯主管霍普·希克斯承认曾为特朗普总统说过几个善意的谎言。

每日邮报网站截图

Misinformation, Solomon said, 'frames what we've all been through in the last 12 months.'

所罗门说,misinformation“构造了过去一年来我们都经历过的事情”。

In that vein, the site with 90 million monthly users has busied itself adding new word entries for 'filter bubble,' 'fake news,' 'post-fact,' 'post-truth' and 'homophily,' among others.

该网站的9000万每月活跃用户一直在添加类似的新词条,比如filter bubble(过滤气泡)、fake news(假新闻)、post-fact(后事实)、post-truth(后真相)和homophily(同质性)。

The company's runners-up for the prize include 'representation,' driven by the popularity of the movies 'Black Panther' and 'Crazy Rich Asians,' along with wins during the US midterm elections for Muslim women, Native Americans and LGBTQ candidates.

竞争该网站年度词汇的词还包括representation(代表),该词被提名是因为电影《黑豹》和《摘金奇缘》大热,也因为美国中期选举中穆斯林女性、美国原住民和性少数群体候选人的胜利。

Another was 'self-made' after a Forbes cover story calling Kylie Jenner a "self-made" billionaire'.

另一个被提名的词是self-made(白手起家),因为《福布斯》杂志的封面故事将凯莉·詹娜称为“白手起家的亿万富翁”。

Dictionary.com chose 'complicit' as last year's word of the year. In 2016, it was 'xenophobia.'

Dictionary.com去年的年度词汇是complicit(同谋)。前年的年度词汇是xenophobia(仇外)。

 

英文来源:每日邮报

编译:丹妮

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